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Why China’s Nervous Over South Korea’s New Missile Defense System


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Why China’s Nervous Over South Korea’s New Missile Defense System

FILE – In this Tuesday, May 2, 2017 file photo, a U.S. missile defense system called Terminal High Altitude Area Defense, or THAAD, is installed at a golf course in Seongju, South Korea. Clashes between residents and police over the deployment of an advanced U.S. anti-missile system highlight a divisive issue ahead of South Korea’s presidential election on May 9. (Kim Jun-beom/Yonhap via AP, File)

Chinese officials have long protested the U.S. deployment of the Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) missile defense system to South Korea because they believe it can spy on its military activities deep inside its mainland. Well, on Tuesday, Beijing’s fears were pretty much confirmed when military officials in South Korea reported that they were in fact able to detect North Korea’s recent ballistic missile test Sunday with THAAD.

Reuters reports that South Korean officials were able to determine that the missile was an IRBM (intermediate range ballistic missile), which can travel between 1,860 to 2,485 miles. The country’s defense minister, Han Min-koo, added that the North’s missile program is developing faster than expected.

While we are not sure how, exactly, the South used THAAD to track the north’s missile test, the accompanying X-band AN/TPY-2 radar may have played a role. To recap, THAAD uses powerful radar systems to track short, medium, and intermediate-range ballistic missiles similar to the ones North Korea could use in a hypothetical a nuclear shooting match. THAAD then uses non-warhead equipped missiles to destroy the enemy projectile.

To be sure, China is not worried about THAAD’s missiles; again, they are not armed with warheads, so they are not offensive weapons. What’s really at issue here is the radar.

At the same time, as The Diplomat explained in March, there are some technical issues countering the argument that the system is as powerful of the Chinese claim it is. For example, this isn’t the first time the U.S. has deployed AN/TPY-2 radar. There are already two in Japan, specifically the Shariki, Aomori prefecture. Also, the surveillance range of the AN/TPY-2 may not be able to monitor the locations where the Chinese do more of their missile testing, as The Diplomat explains:

Second, while we have no watertight estimates on just how capable the AN/TPY-2 radar is and in what configurations, even the most generous estimates don’t leave the Gyeongsangbuk-do unit capable of any useful surveillance deep into the Gobi desert, where China has its most active and sensitive missile testing ranges. (AN/TPY-2 range estimates go from “several hundred miles” to 3,000 km.) I’ve mapped out the ranges below with the most generous range estimate of 3,000 km, using a Chinese ballistic missile impact range that Thomas Shugart at War on the Rocksrecently revealed as a test-bed for potential People’s Liberation Army Rocket Force preempetive warfare tactics (i.e., a site of surveillance interest for the United States).

Adding the westernmost AN/TPY-2 in Japan — the Kyogamisaki Communications Site unit — the map doesn’t change drastically, either. (Incidentally, North Korea’s latest missile test resulted in three missiles splashing down in Japan’s exclusive economic zone, between the two AN/TPY-2s in the country — a less-than-subtle show of confidence.)

There is an argument that THAAD could threaten China’s second-strike capabilities—its ability to respond in kind to a nuclear attack, and minimize its chances of being obliterated or crippled by an enemy’s first strike.

Li Bin, a nuclear weapons expert at Tsinghua University in Beijing, wrote in March that THAAD’s radar would “would undermine China’s nuclear deterrence by collecting important data on Chinese nuclear warheads.”

More specifically, as the New York Times explains, Beijing fears Washington can use the radar to get a jump start on its nuclear weapons strike response (China as a no first use nuclear weapons policy), weakening its capabilities to the point of uselessness:

He and other Chinese experts say the radar could identify which Chinese missiles are carrying decoy warheads intended to outfox foes. That would be like being able to see what cards China holds in a nuclear poker game, and that could weaken China’s deterrent, they say.

“For China this is a very important point, because its missiles are limited in number to begin with,” Wu Riqiang, a nuclear expert at Renmin University in Beijing. That meant, he said, “China could lose its nuclear retaliatory capacity.”

For China, it does not matter that the American and South Korean governments have said Thaad is meant only to foil North Korean missiles. Mr. Wu said.

“What we worry about is the ability. It doesn’t matter to us whether the United States says this is aimed at North Korea or China,” Mr. Wu said. “If there’s this ability, then China must worry.”

What this comes down to is trust. Beijing doesn’t believe that the U.S. will use THAAD solely as a defensive measure against a North Korean missile attack. If the Chinese truly believe THAAD can track which of its missiles is carrying a warhead, it is a moot conversation to argue that it will not be used for that.

The fact that THAAD can determine the success of North Korea’s latest ballistic missile test will not make China feel any more secure about it being deployed in South Korea. If it can be used to track Pyongyang’s actions, to what extent can it be used to do the same against Beijing?

That is what has China up at night.

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Trump May Have Just Derailed A Crucial Part Of America’s Future Aircraft Carrier Fleet


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Trump May Have Just Derailed A Crucial Part Of America’s Future Aircraft Carrier Fleet

Today 11:35am

Pre-commissioning Unit Gerald R. Ford. Photo credit: U.S. Navy

It looks like after almost a decade of development, the ultra-advanced Gerald R. Ford supercarrier will be commissioned this year. An important detail about this ship, the first of its class, is that it does not use steam catapults to launch planes as is traditional, but instead uses an electromagnetic system to fling them into the air. And then President Donald Trump opened his mouth.

From a Time interview with the president that went live this morning:

You know the catapult is quite important. So I said what is this? Sir, this is our digital catapult system. He said well, we’re going to this because we wanted to keep up with modern [technology]. I said you don’t use steam anymore for catapult? No sir. I said, “Ah, how is it working?” “Sir, not good. Not good. Doesn’t have the power.

You know the steam is just brutal. You see that sucker going and steam’s going all over the place, there’s planes thrown in the air.”

It sounded bad to me. Digital. They have digital. What is digital? And it’s very complicated, you have to be Albert Einstein to figure it out. And I said–and now they want to buy more aircraft carriers. I said what system are you going to be–”Sir, we’re staying with digital.”

I said no you’re not. You going to goddamned steam, the digital costs hundreds of millions of dollars more money and it’s no good.

Emphasis mine. What’s not immediately clear is whether or not this change is occurring because of the president’s suggestion; I called the office of the Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition, which oversees the program, to see if they knew anything about this massive new procurement change and its implications. I have yet to hear back.

I really am at a loss here. First, yes, there are “planes thrown in the air.” That’s the entire point. Modern aircraft are too heavy to fly off an aircraft carrier on their own, that’s why carriers have used steam catapults ever since the 1950s to help them get going. You need to throw them in the air.

They do indeed have, uh, “digital” now. To people afraid of computers, the digital might sound bad. But “digital”—or as it’s more properly known, the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System, also known as EMALS—is not Bad. The officer who said “sir, we’re staying with digital,” is, in fact, Good.

And that’s because there’s a reason why the latest and greatest aircraft carriers will use EMALS, and not steam catapults. It works just fine for a lot of the aircraft on ships now, but for the drones that will be flying in the skies more than 50 years from now, when the Ford-class is still expected to be in service, a new solution is needed.

And just in case you’ve never tried to examine the internals of your home heating system, steam systems in general are extremely complicated. Steam catapults on an aircraft carrier are even more so. The inner workings are huge and heavy, requiring enormous amounts of maintenance, and aren’t easy to control.

Here’s how steam catapults work, in an extremely simplified nutshell:

EMALS, on the other hand, works a lot like the magnetic levitation trains you may have seen testing. And no, you don’t need to be Albert Einstein to understand it.

The system uses electric currents to charge up a carriage-and-track system, and once full energized, the carriage (with a plane attached) is propelled at high speeds down the carrier’s deck. And since it’s all computer controlled – ahem, digital – it can be used for quite delicate operations. Or for launching trucks off the deck of the USS Gerald R. Ford, as it did in testing last year:

Maybe I’m crazy though. So to find out, I asked Dr. Robert Farley, a specialist in military diffusion, maritime affairs, and national security at the Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce at the University of Kentucky, and our resident carrier expert, if this was all nuts. And it turns out, maybe not.

“I can confirm that this is absolutely nuts,” he said. The whole idea of ripping out the launch system in the already-built Ford, and re-designing the following carriers (including the already-under construction USS Enterprise), would be “immensely expensive.”

As with any new system, its development hasn’t always been a smooth ride. It’s been beset by reliability issues over the years, and if anything, carriers need to be reliable. Without the ability to launch planes, the ship is a proverbial sitting duck.

But like most new things, the kinks will probably be worked out. The system is needed for the future, and if we turned our back on every system that was necessary but didn’t quite work out perfectly as a prototype, we’d still be living in the stone age.

We’ll update this post if we hear back from the Navy.

UPDATE 7:07 PM: The Navy declined to comment.

h/t to Ned Donovan!

US Military’s ‘Gremlin’ Program Lets Pilots Launch and Snag Drones in Midair


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US Military’s ‘Gremlin’ Program Lets Pilots Launch and Snag Drones in Midair

Israel’s Submarines Acquisition – Strategy or Greed?


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Israel’s Submarines Acquisition – Strategy or Greed?

INS Rahav undergoing sea trials in the Baltics, 2015. Photo via Israel Navy

Stretched along the eastern Mediterranean Sea and linked to the Indian Ocean through the Gulf of Eilat and the Red-Sea, Israel has always strived to maintain a naval force to protect its maritime border and sea lines of communications. Since the 1970s, following repeated terror attacks from the sea, the Israeli Navy assumed the responsibility to combat terror at sea and along the coast. Since the late 2000s, after major discoveries of natural gas reserves offshore, the Navy also added a new role – the security of the country’s Economic Exclusion Zone (EEZ) and protection of offshore marine infrastructures.

Since the induction of the Dolphin class submarines in the 2000s, the Israeli Navy also assumed a strategic Deterrent role. According to unconfirmed foreign reports, Israel’s Dolphinclass submarines are equipped with oversized tubes capable of launching nuclear-tipped cruise missiles that can provide the country a retaliatory second strike capability, in case Israel is attacked and its first line of strategic assets – ballistic missiles and attack aircraft – are destroyed by surprise, nuclear attack.

These added responsibilities come with a growing piece of Israel’s defense pie, a larger share of the acquisition budget and more attention at the highest levels in the Ministry of Defense and Prime Minister office. In recent years, senior naval officers were selected for prominent positions in the MOD R&D department (DR&DD), Defense Export Agency (SIBAT), Intelligence agencies (Mossad), the National Security Council (Malal) and major government operated defense companies, to name only a few.

Unlike the air and land forces, that rely heavily on US Foreign Military Sales (FMS), the Navy maintained independent procurement sources in Israel and Europe. Since the 1960s Israel’s Navy surface ships were all constructed in Israel by the Israel Shipyards and IAI. The exception were two Shimrit class hydrofoils built in the USA in the 1980s (and scrapped a few years later), and three Saar V corvettes, constructed in the 1990s in the USA and are in service today.

As for the submarine force, since the late 1960s Israel maintains a fleet of three submarines (which allows the Navy to keep at least two operational subs at any time). The loss of INS Dakar in 1968 left the Navy with only two subs for eight years, until the first Type 209 Gal class submarine 1976 was launched. Type 209 were the first subs designed and built specifically for the Israeli requirements by the German submarine designer Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW), although these boats were built in the UK.

The Israel Navy maintained close relations with HDW in the following years, with the design and construction of a larger class subs – the Dolphin. These submarines were built in Kiel in Germany and provided a significant boost strengthening the German shipyard.

The acquisition cycles of Israeli submarines accelerated over time. From 20 years between the Gal and Dolphin generation, the period reduced to 12-16 years between Dolphin I and Dolphin II (AIP). The reduced cycle means the Israel Navy can now operate several submarines simultaneously, while the other are undergoing heavy maintenance. The recent decision to buy three additional, yet unnamed submarines in the next ten years sets the next cycle at only 10-13 years, from the current buy, maintaining Israel’s capability to operate four submarines simultaneously through the 2030s.

What is the rush? Why does Israel require such increased capability?

The simple answer: increased operational tempo that evolved with the growing operations of naval forces in the area; however, this argument is weak. The ongoing peace with Egypt, the Syrian Civil War and crippled state of Libya all mean reduced threat to Israel’s security, at least from the symmetric, naval side.

However, the Iranian threat is growing. The reasonable need to maintain long-range deterrence patrols added new missions to Israel’s submarine force. According to foreign sources, Israel’s submarines carry cruise missiles that can attack targets at ranges beyond 1,000 miles. While such missiles could hit targets in western Iran, when launched from the Eastern Mediterranean, the Israeli subs could hold the entire territory of Iran at risk, from positions in the Indian Ocean or inside the Persian Gulf.

Israel would likely keep these patrols secret and avoid sailing in the Suez Canal, thus sending its subs on voyages that would take weeks, through the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Once one operational submarine is committed to such extended patrols, the Navy would likely require two boats for missions in the Mediterranean.

Such arguments would likely be part of the rhetoric used by Israel’s leadership, arguing for the increase of the nation’s submarine force to six, even nine boats. However, this recommendation faced stiff opposition from the Ministry of Defense, due to the high acquisition and operational cost (€500 – 650 million per boat) competing with other priorities. The resignation of Defense Minister Ya’alon from office paved the way for the submarine deal to continue.

But there is another side of the coin – the German side. As explained above, the Israeli Navy has been a loyal and regular client of the HDW shipyard in Kiel, which is now part of the ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) industrial conglomerate. These close relations are likely to continue – despite the revelations that Iranian and UAE corporations have minority holding in it. Notwithstanding these ties, Israel and Germany have signed a contract worth €430 million to build four Saar VI Magen stealth corvettes, based on the German Blohm & Voss designed Classe 130. Soon to be launched third Dolphin II class submarine – Dakar is also a major undertaking soon expected in Kiel.

But the workload at the shipyards has diminished dramatically in recent years. As Type 212 deliveries to the German and Italian Navies completed and construction of Type 214 designs moved overseas, the shipyard will be under pressure to lay off part of its workforce. These hands are critical to maintaining the skills and know-how for the two Type 218SG submarines on contract for the Singapore Navy (the first slated for delivery in three years). Earlier in 2016 TKMS management still hoped to win an A$36 Billion mega-deal in Australia, but after losing this opportunity, the submarine shipyards are striving for a sustainable business for the remaining of the next decade. The prospects for the near term are slim – a future submarine support program in Peru and shortlisting as one of two bidders in Norway. Hence, reaffirming Israel’s commitment to buy three submarines in the future would be a life saver for the crippled shipyard, even if it means a long term prospect.

The decision to proceed with a memorandum of agreement between the Governments of Israel and Germany at this stage is understandable and serves the interests of both sides. But the attempts on both sides to cover the deal are wrong.

Prime Minister Netanyahu claim that the decision is a matter of national security is true but, setting all strategic arguments aside, these moves should be managed by Government officials and diplomats, not by sales agents or private counselors. Furthermore, the investigation of the former deputy of Israel’s National Security Council, who was an active supporter of the submarine deal, adds an unpleasant odor of corruption to the top of Israel’s national security pyramid.

Israel readies for ‘super-tech’ stealth fighters


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Mike Smith,AFP Fri, Dec 9 6:27 PM PST

https://www.yahoo.com/news/israel-readies-super-tech-stealth-fighters-022723819.html

Jerusalem (AFP) – Israel will on Monday receive its first F-35 stealth fighter jets, hailed as technological marvels whose helmets alone cost more than most people’s homes but criticised for their price and initial flaws.

Built by US aerospace giant Lockheed Martin, the first two planes’ arrival in Israel is being welcomed as a major event for the country’s military as it seeks to maintain dominance in the turbulent Middle East.

US Defence Secretary Ashton Carter is to attend the arrival along with his Israeli counterpart Avigdor Lieberman at the Nevatim air base in the country’s south.

The delivery of the first two of 50 F-35s to be purchased by Israel comes as the years-long development of the most expensive plane in history reaches a critical stage.

While a list of countries have ordered the planes, Israel, which receives more than $3 billion a year in US defence aid, will be the first with an operational F-35 squadron outside the United States.

“I think we don’t fully understand the big advantage of the F-35,” an Israeli air force official said.

“I think it’s going to be learned in the next few months, maybe years. I think it’s a very super-tech airplane.”

Israel has given it the name “Adir” — which means “mighty” in Hebrew. Its first planes are expected to be operational within a year after delivery.

It will be receiving the F-35A model for standard takeoff and landings. The B and C models are for short takeoffs and aircraft carriers.

Among their main features are advanced stealth capabilities to help pilots evade sophisticated missile systems.

The single-pilot jets can carry an array of weapons and travel at a supersonic speed of Mach 1.6, or around 1,200 miles per hour (around 1,900 kilometres per hour).

It is unclear if Israel’s planes will be able to deliver nuclear bombs. Israel is believed to be the Middle East’s sole nuclear-armed power, though it has never acknowledged it.

– High-tech helmet –

The ultra-high-tech helmet, at a cost of some $400,000 each, sounds like something out of a science-fiction film.

It includes its own operating system, with data that appears on the helmet visor and is also shared elsewhere.

Thermal and night vision as well as 360-degree views are possible with cameras mounted on the plane.

Israeli firm Elbit Systems has been involved in the helmet’s production.

In Israel, the planes, designed for multiple combat situations, will initially replace a group of ageing F-16s.

They are seen as helping the country maintain its edge in the Middle East, particularly as its main enemy Iran seeks further influence in the region.

“The F-35 has been designed to deal with the most advanced threat systems now being fielded in the Middle East,” Lockheed Martin’s Steve Over told AFP by email.

Israel is especially concerned over whether Iran will seek to develop nuclear weapons by violating the international accord it has signed with world powers aimed at preventing it.

The country is also keeping an eye on Lebanon’s powerful Shiite militant group Hezbollah, with which Israel fought a devastating war in 2006.

Beyond that, in neighbouring Syria, Russia has deployed the sophisticated S-300 and S-400 anti-aircraft systems as it conducts an air campaign in support of President Bashar al-Assad.

– ‘Only game in town’ –

Israel is buying its first 33 jets at an average price of about $110 million (103.5 million euros) each.

The government last month approved the purchase of the remaining 17.

As a comparison, in 2001, Israel agreed to buy 52 additional F-16s from Lockheed Martin at a total cost of $1.3 billion.

While the technology can seem dazzling, there have been questions over whether the plane will be worth the cost.

A list of flaws have been uncovered, including one where pilots who weighed less than 136 pounds (62 kilos) risked being killed by its eject system.

There have also been software bugs and technical glitches, though Lockheed Martin assures such issues have been overcome.

Some in Israel have also said the price of the planes will limit the number that can ultimately be purchased, while losing any in combat will be particularly costly.

There have also been questions over whether upgrades to the air force’s existing fleet could have sufficed.

But the F-35 was “the only game in town” since Israel relies so heavily on US defence aid, said Yiftah Shapir of Israel’s Institute for National Security Studies.

“We couldn’t go and buy French or British or Russian,” he said. “When you have an ally like the United States, the United States would not have allowed that.”

In the United States, the air force declared an initial squadron of F-35As ready for combat in August, without giving a timeline for actual combat.

The US Marine Corps in 2015 announced that a first group of F-35Bs had attained initial operational capability, though these too have not yet been used in combat.

The F-35 and the US’s newest carrier are getting ready to dominate the seas


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The F-35 and the US’s newest carrier are getting ready to dominate the seas

image: https://static-ssl.businessinsider.com/image/58347471e02ba75d658b4c68-2400

f 35b uss america ordnance carrier.JPG

US Navy

Ordnance is prepared for an F-35B Lightning II short takeoff/vertical landing aircraft on the amphibious assault ship USS America.

The F-35B Marine variant just completed important developmental tests designed to push the joint strike fighter to it’s limits aboard the US’s newest aircraft carrier, the USS America.

The F-35B proved it can perform its short takeoffs with a variety of weapons loadouts, some of which can be asymmetrical. These tests had been done on land before, but carrier takeoffs are a different beast.

f35b on uss america

An F-35B taxis on the flight deck of USS America on October 31, 2016.
Read more at http://www.businessinsider.co.id/f35b-short-takeoff-uss-america-2016-11/#v3kS7yG64EcDjvp2.99

“There is no way to recreate the conditions that come with being out to sea,” than going out there and testing onboard a carrier, said Gabriella Spehn, a F-35 weapons engineer from the Pax River Integrated Test Force in a Navy statement.

But even at sea aboard the America, which can get up to 25 mph, the F-35B performed as expected.

“As we all know, we can’t choose the battle and the location of the battle, so sometimes we have to go into rough seas with heavy swells, heave, roll, pitch, and crosswinds,” said Royal Air Force squadron leader and F-35 test pilot Andy Edgell.

International partners, like Edgell, participated in the testing onboard. While other nations lack the large deck aircraft carriers that the US has, several other nations, like the UK and Japan, operate smaller carriers that await the F-35B.

“The last couple of days we went and purposely found those nasty conditions and put the jets through those places, and the jet handled fantastically well. So now the external weapons testing should be able to give the fleet a clearance to carry weapons with the rough seas and rough conditions,” Edgell said.

“We know the jet can handle it. A fleet clearance will come — then they can go forth and conduct battle in whatever environment.”

However, another first occurred on board. The America’s weapons department assembled over 100 bombs for the F-35B to carry.

For many of the sailors in the Weapon’s Department of the America, part of a new class of US carriers meant specifically to accommodate the F-35, this was their first chance at actually handling and assembling ordnance.

image: https://static-ssl.businessinsider.com/image/58347454e02ba72a008b5c90-2400

f 35b uss america ordnance carrier 1.JPG

US Navy

Sailors assigned to the amphibious assault ship USS America and F-35B Lightning II Marine Corps personnel prepare to equip the aircraft with inert 500-pound GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided test bombs during flight operations.

“Being able to do this feels like we are supporting the overall scope of what the ship is trying to achieve. Without ordnance, to us, this ship isn’t a warship. This is what we do,” said Petty Officer 1st Class Hung Lee.

According to sailors on board, the team went from building one bomb in four hours, to building 16 in three hours.

After a troubled road filled with cost overruns and setbacks, the F-35B finally appears to be nearing readiness.

Uss america

The amphibious assault ship USS America conducts flight operations while underway to Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2016.

Read more at http://www.businessinsider.co.id/f35-uss-america-aircraft-carrier-preparing-dominate-seas-2016-11/#5z8coQV0Ei6Q2ZGB.99

The battle to recapture Mosul


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The battle to recapture Mosul

https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/bigpicture/2016/10/19/the-battle-recapture-mosul/GXZKeIxTlCRBajrG0y0bKM/story.html?p1=BP_Headline

Iraqi and Kurdish forces have begun a military offensive to take back the ISIS-controlled city of Mosul. Leaders say liberating this city will be difficult and could take months. More than a million civilians are thought to be trapped in the city that was captured by ISIS two years ago.–By Leanne Burden Seidel
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Smoke rises from Islamic state positions after an airstrike by coalition forces in Mosul, Iraq, Oct. 18. The pace of operations slowed on Tuesday as Iraqi forces began pushing toward larger villages and encountering civilian populations on the second day of a massive operation to retake the northern Iraqi city of Mosul from the Islamic State group. (Associated Press)
2
A man stands in front of a fire from oil that has been set ablaze in the Qayyarah area, some 60 kilometres (35 miles) south of Mosul, on Oct. 19, during an operation by Iraqi forces against Islamic State (IS) group jihadists to retake the main hub city. (Yasi Akgul/AFP/Getty Images)
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Members of Iraqi forces drive their armoured vehicle, as they head to the frontline on Oct. 18 near the town of Qayyarah, south of Mosul, during the operation to recapture the city from the Islamic State group. Tens of thousands of Iraqi forces were making gains on the Islamic State group in Mosul in an offensive US President Barack Obama warned would be a “difficult fight”. (Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images)
4
A peshmerga fighter looks out of the entrance of an underground tunnel built by Islamic State fighters, Oct. 18. The Kurdish forces found the tunnel in the town of Badana that was liberated from the Islamic State group on Monday. The fighters built tunnels under residential areas so they could move without being seen from above to avoid airstrikes. (Bram Janssen/Associated Press)
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Kurdish peshmerga troops fire at Islamic State positions as they move toward the Iraqi town of Badana Pichwk on Oct. 17. (Bryan Denton/The New York Times)
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Iraqi soldiers walk on a road as smoke billows from the Qayyarah area, some 60 kilometres (35 miles) south of Mosul, on Oct. 19, during an operation against Islamic State (IS) group jihadists to retake the main hub city. (Yasi Akgul/AFP/Getty Images)
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Displaced Iraqis from the Bajwaniyah village, about 30 kms south of Mosul, who fled fighting in the Mosul area walk towards Iraqi security forces on Oct. 18, after they liberated the village from Islamic State (IS) group jihadists. (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)
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Members of Iraqi forces look at a MRAP armoured vehicle with an image of an American flag overlaid with a bald eagle, at the Qayyarah military base, about 60 kilometres (35 miles) south of Mosul, on Oct. 18, during the operation to recapture the city from the Islamic State group. (Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images)
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Members of the Iraqi forces inspect a tunnel on Oct. 18, inside a building in the Shaqouli village, about 35 kms east of Mosul, after they’ve recaptured it from the Islamic State (IS) group jihadists. With the crucial battle in its second day, Iraqi commanders said progress was being made as fighters pushed on two main fronts against the jihadists’ last stronghold in Iraq (Safin Hamed/AFP/Getty Images)
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Sunni Arab fighters, many of whom fled Mosul when the Islamic State group captured the city two years ago, wait at their base near the Mosul Dam near Karaj, Iraq, Oct. 18. Their unit is now slated to take part in the liberation of Mosul, which was once home to more than two million residents and is the biggest city captured by the Islamic State group. (Bryan Denton/The New York Times)
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Iraqi forces deploy in the Bajwaniyah village, about 30 kms south of Mosul, on Oct.18, after they liberated it from Islamic State (IS) group jihadists. Tens of thousands of Iraqi forces were making gains on the Islamic State group in Mosul in an offensive US President Barack Obama warned would be a “difficult fight.” (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)
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Iraqi soldiers look on as smoke rises from the Qayyarah area, as Iraqi forces take part in an operation against Islamic State (IS) group jihadists. (Yasi Akgul/AFP/Getty Images)
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A helicopter prowling the perimeter of the Qayyarah military base, about 60 kilometres (35 miles) south of Mosul. (Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images)
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Iraqis wait at a check point on Oct. 18, near the town of Qayyarah, south of Mosul, during Iraqi forces’ operation to recapture the city from the Islamic State group. (Bulent Kilic/AFP/Getty Images)
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Kurdish security forces take up a position as they fight overlooking the Islamic State-controlled in villages surrounding Mosul, in Khazer, about 30 kilometers (19 miles) east of Mosul, Iraq, Oct. 17. (Associated Press)
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Displaced Iraqis from the Bajwaniyah village, about 30 kms south of Mosul, who fled fighting in the Mosul area, walk towards Iraqi security forces on Oct. 18. (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)
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A peshmerga fighter walks through a tunnel made by Islamic State fighters, Oct. 18. The Kurdish forces found the tunnel in the town of Badana that was liberated from the Islamic State group on Monday. The fighters built tunnels under residential areas so they could move without being seen from above in order to avoid airstrikes. (Bram Janssen/Associated Press)
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Displaced Iraqis from the Bajwaniyah village, about 30 kms south of Mosul, who fled fighting in the Mosul area walk towards security forces on Oct. 18. (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)
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An Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga fighter stands inside of a building on Oct. 18, on the frontline in the Shaqouli village, about 35 kms east of Mosul, after they’ve recaptured it from the Islamic State (IS) group jihadists. With the crucial battle in its second day, Iraqi commanders said progress was being made as fighters pushed on two main fronts against the jihadists’ last stronghold in Iraq. (Safin Hamed/AFP/Getty Images)
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Displaced Iraqis from the Bajwaniyah village, about 30 kms south of Mosul, who fled fighting in the Mosul area are helped a security forces member on October 18. (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)
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Iraqi security forces gesture in Qayyarah, during an operation to attack Islamic State militants in Mosul, Iraq, Oct. 19. (Alaa Al-Marjani/Reuters)
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A woman poses at a refugee camp housing Iraqi families who fled fighting in the Mosul area on Oct. 17, in the northeastern town of al-Hol in Syria’s Hasakeh province. The battle to retake the Iraqi city of Mosul from jihadists could unleash a massive humanitarian crisis, potentially pushing hundreds of thousands to flee their homes as winter sets in. (Delil Souleiman/AFP/Getty Images)
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A peshmerga fighter walks through the kitchen of an underground tunnel made by Islamic State fighters, Oct. 18. The Kurdish forces found the tunnel in the town of Badana that was liberated from the Islamic State group on Monday. (Bram Janssen/Associated press)
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A Kurdish peshmerga soldier talks on his phone as he relaxes in a village recently recaptured from ISIS during the battle to retake Mosul, on Oct. 18, in Bartella, near Mosul in Iraq. (Carl Court/Getty Images)
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Kurdish peshmerga soldiers stand around a tunnel dug by ISIS in a house recently recaptured by the Kurds during the battle to retake Mosul, on Oct. 18, in Bartella, near Mosul in Iraq. (Carl Court/Getty Images)
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A Kurdish peshmerga soldier stands in a tunnel dug by ISIS in a village recently recaptured by the Kurds during the battle to retake Mosul, on Oct. 18, in Bartella, near Mosul in Iraq. (Carl Court/Getty Images)
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Displaced Iraqi children who fled Mosul play at a refugee camp in Duhok, Iraq, Oct. 16. (Ari Jalal/Reuters)
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Members of the Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga fighters inspect a building on Oct. 18, in the Shaqouli village, about 35 kms east of Mosul, after they’ve recaptured it from the Islamic State (IS) group jihadists. (Safin Hamed/AFP/Getty Images)
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A Kurdish peshmerga fighter leans out of his military vehicle which has taken several direct hits from ISIS snipers including on the windscreen on Oct. 18, in the small town of Bartella near Mosul, Iraq. (Carl Court/Getty Images)
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Kurdish Peshmerga soldiers inspect the body of an alleged Islamic State (IS) fighter in the recently recaptured city of Hamdaniyah, east of Mosul, Iraq, Oct. 18. (Ahmed Jalil/EPA)
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A French army Rafale fighter jet takes off from the deck of France’s aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle, in the Meditarranean Sea. Seven French Rafale jets, from the Air Force and the Navy, carried out airstrikes south of Mosul overnight on Oct. 15-16 with SCALP missiles that destroyed a factory making IEDs (improvised explosive devices.) (ECPAD/AFP/Getty Images)
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A child stands in front of makeshift tents at a refugee camp housing Iraqi families who fled fighting in the Mosul area on Oct. 17, in the northeastern town of al-Hol in Syria’s Hasakeh province. (Delil Souleiman/AFP/Getty Images)
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Peshmerga forces gather in the east of Mosul to attack Islamic State militants in Mosul, Iraq, Oct. 17. (Azad Lashkari/Reuters)
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An Iraqi policeman tries on a gasmask at the Qayyarah military base, about 60 kilometres (35 miles) south of Mosul, on Oct. 16, as they prepare for an offensive to retake Mosul, the last IS-held city in the country. (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)
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Iraqi forces deploy in the area of al-Shourah, some 45 kms south of Mosul, as they advance towards the city to retake it from the Islamic State (IS) group jihadists, on Oct. 17. (Ahmad Al-Rubaye/AFP/Getty Images)