7 Lost Burial Sites

Post 8786

Updated:Aug 31, 2018Original:Jul 22, 2015

7 Lost Burial Sites


From Genghis Khan to Alexander the Great, get the facts on seven historical titans whose final resting places are unaccounted for.

1. Genghis Khan

The Mongol leader conquered more territory than any person in history, yet very little is known about what he looked like, how he died or even where he is buried. Legend has it that upon his death in 1227, the Great Khan’s soldiers honored his request to keep his gravesite a secret by butchering anyone who saw his funeral procession. They then ensured their own silence by killing themselves. Another account has the men concealing the grave by trampling it with 10,000 horses, and still another claims they diverted a river over it to protect it from robbery and desecration. Genghis Khan’s final resting place has since become one of the most sought after prizes in archaeology. Researchers suspect it may be located in Mongolia’s Khentii Province, but despite looking for it with everything from ground penetrating radar to satellite images, no team has yet to strike pay dirt.

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2. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

wolfgang amadeus mozart

A portrait of Mozart shortly before his death. (Credit: Sean Gallup/Getty Images)

When the wunderkind composer died from a mysterious illness in 1791, his body was placed in a wooden coffin and interred in an unmarked common grave in Vienna’s St. Marx cemetery. There it lay for several years until the early 19th century, when—in accordance with the practices of the time—it was dug up and most likely dispersed or crushed to make room for new burials. Its location in the cemetery has since been lost. A potential piece of Mozart’s body later resurfaced courtesy of a St. Marx gravedigger, who claimed he recovered the composer’s skull in 1801 after marking it with metal wire when it was first buried. The skull was given to Salzburg’s International Mozarteum Foundation in 1902, but DNA analyses have thus far been unable to prove whether it actually belonged to Mozart.

3. Cleopatra

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Shortly after Augustus and his Roman legions invaded Egypt in 30 B.C., the enigmatic Queen of the Nile is said to have taken her own life by poisoning—possibly with a bite from an asp. Her suicide closely followed that of her paramour, Mark Antony, and the ancient chronicler Plutarch writes that the two star crossed lovers were then laid to rest “in splendid and regal fashion” in a tomb near Alexandria. The story trails off from there, however, leaving archeologists with a Sphinx-sized riddle. Some believe the mausoleum ended up at the bottom of the sea after fourth and eighth century earthquakes changed the topography of Alexandria, while others claim the couple may be buried near Taposiris Magna, an ancient temple that has yielded dozens of tombs and mummies.

4. Thomas Paine

thomas paine

Credit: DeAgostini/Getty Images
During the heady days of the 1770s, writer and pamphleteer Thomas Paine helped sound the call to arms for the American Revolution in such works as “Common Sense” and “The American Crisis.” Though once considered a hero, he was later denounced for attacking the church in his book “The Age of Reason,” and only a handful of people attended his burial when died in 1809. The indignities only mounted a decade later, when a man named William Cobbett exhumed Paine’s corpse and shipped it to his native England, where it was believed it would be honored with a memorial. Cobbett was unable to drum up interest in a Paine monument, however, and the remains supposedly spent the next several years gathering dust in his attic. Some accounts say the great thinker’s bones were later thrown in the garbage or even recycled into buttons, but they may have also been auctioned off piecemeal. Since the 19th century, different collectors have claimed to possess Paine’s skull, his hand and his jawbone.

5. Attila the Hun

attila the hun

Credit: Palais Bourbon/Wikimedia Commons

The Hunnic raider known as the “Scourge of God” suffered a famously anticlimactic death in 453 A.D., when he supposedly passed out drunk on his wedding night—one of many that he enjoyed—and choked from a nosebleed. Attila’s warriors honored their barbarian chief with a day of grief and funeral games before burying him in a trio of coffins—one of gold, one of silver and one of iron. As in the case of Genghis Khan, the ceremony was conducted in secret, and the unfortunate prisoners who dug the plot were killed to deter grave robbery. Whether the safety measures actually worked is a matter of debate. While the grave is widely believed to be located somewhere in Hungary, no trace of Attila or his priceless triple coffin has ever been found, suggesting the site may have been looted in the years after his death.

6. Sir Francis Drake

Plaque depicting Drake being buried at sea.

Plaque depicting Drake being buried at sea.
Queen Elizabeth I’s favorite privateer met his end in Panama in 1596, having spent the previous two decades harassing Spanish holdings in the New World and undertaking a circumnavigation of the globe. After his death, Drake was dressed in his armor, sealed inside a lead coffin and given a traditional burial at sea some 14 miles off the coast of Portobelo. His remains have since been lost in the Caribbean, but that hasn’t stopped scores of divers, archaeologists and treasure hunters from seeking them out. A rare breakthrough came in 2011, when a mission financed by American entrepreneur Pat Croce found what is believed to be the wreck of two of Drake’s scuttled ships. The team also searched in vain for the navigator’s coffin, but the precise location of his 400-year-old watery grave remains a mystery.

7. Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

Credit: DEA/G Nimattallah/De Agostini/Getty Images
Alexander died in Babylon in 323 B.C., having led his Macedonian armies on a decade-long campaign of conquest from Greece to India. In keeping with his famously immodest moniker, the deceased warrior-king was placed in a gold sarcophagus and coffin and eventually taken to a tomb in Alexandria. His body was moved to a mausoleum a few years later, where it became something of an ancient tourist attraction. Julius Caesar and Augustus both paid their respects, and Caligula supposedly looted Alexander’s armored breastplate during a visit in the 1st century A.D. The Roman Emperor Septimus Severus finally had the tomb sealed off for good sometime around the year 199. The trail goes cold from there, and some 150 search expeditions have failed to pick it up. Most researchers believe Alexander’s grave is still lurking somewhere in Alexandria, but others argue that it may have been moved to Venice, Greece or some other location in Egypt.

By Evan Andrews



Photos: Viking Warrior Is Actually a Woman

Post 8768

Photos: Viking Warrior Is Actually a Woman

By Laura Geggel February 20, 2019

Warrior woman


(Image credit: Drawing by Tancredi Valeri; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
In 2017, a group of researchers in Sweden did a genetic analysis on the bones of a warrior Viking, long assumed to be male. However, the results showed that the individual had XX chromosomes, revealing that the deceased was, in fact, a woman.
There were so many questions about this discovery, that the researchers just published a new study that delved deeper into the finding. Here is an illustration of what the female warrior may have looked like. The clothing details are based, in part, on material found within the burial chamber, the researchers said.

Birka settlement map

(Image credit: Figure prepared by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
The burial, known as Bj.581, was found in Birka, a Viking settlement that flourished from about A.D. 750 to 950 in what is now central Sweden.

Burial sketch

(Image credit: Drawn by Harald Olsson, redrawn from Hjalmar Stolpe’s field records; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
The burial was originally found by archaeologist Hjalmar Stolpe in 1878. Here is a drawing based on a sketch by Stolpe. Notice the body (center) surrounded by weapons and a bag of game pieces. The bodies of two horses, one mare and one stallion, are on the left of the image.

Viking burial


(Image credit: Drawing by Þórhallur Þráinsson; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
Here’s how the burial might have looked just before it was closed in Viking times.
A warrior’s weapons

(Image credit: Photographs courtesy of Christer Åhlin/Swedish History Museum; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
The deceased was buried with a number of weapons. Those shown here include a sword, ax, fighting knife, two lances, two shields and 25 armor-piercing arrows.
This warrior had game

(Image credit: Photograph by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
The woman had a bag on her lap. This bag contained three antler dice, a polyhedral weight. two spheroid weights and 28 gaming pieces, the researchers wrote in the study, published online yesterday (Feb. 19) in the journal Antiquity. Above are a few of the gaming pieces.
It’s possible that these gaming pieces indicate the warrior was a military commander, but this idea is still speculative.
Her silk cap

(Image credit: Photograph courtesy of Christer Åhlin/Swedish History Museum; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
The ancient woman wore a silver-trimmed cap of samite silk, that had an “unusual granulated silver tassel, from which hung four plum-shaped, granulated silver balls,” the researchers wrote in the study.
Viking cemeteries

(Image credit: Figure by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson incorporating material courtesy of Lena Holmquist, overlain on the 1888–1889 base survey by J.J. Nordstrand/Antiquarian Topographical Archives, Stockholm; Copyright Antiquity Publications Ltd.)
This map shows a number of excavated burials in Birka, including Bj.581 (circled in red). In fact, Bj.581 was located near other richly decorated graves and was a stone’s throw from the so-called garrison hall (the other red marked area), a 65-foot-long (20 meters) hall that contained a unique assemblage of weaponry. The fact that Bj.581 was buried near this hall denotes warrior status, but there are more questions about the status this unique individual had.

Battle-Scarred Viking Shield-Maiden Gets Facial Reconstruction for First Time

Post 8767

Battle-Scarred Viking Shield-Maiden Gets Facial Reconstruction for First Time

By Brandon Specktor – Senior Writer November 08, 2019
First unearthed in 1900, this 1,000-year-old Viking shield-maiden was apparently cut down in her prime.

This facial reconstruction of a Viking woman's skull shows a deep head wound, possibly sustained during battle.

This facial reconstruction of a Viking woman’s skull shows a deep head wound, possibly sustained during battle.
(Image: © National Geographic)

When the sword came down upon her head, the blade cut her to the bone. Scientists studying the Viking woman’s fractured skull 1,000 years later still aren’t sure whether the blow actually killed her — however, the trove of weapons buried with her make it clear that she died a warrior nonetheless.
That Viking, who lived and died around the year 900, was first excavated from a farm in Solør, Norway, in 1900. Her head rested on a shield, a bridled horse skeleton lay curled at her feet, and her body was boxed in by a sword, spear, battle-ax and arrows. When a quick analysis revealed the skeleton to be female, it was immediately interpreted as the first physical example of a shield-maiden — a mythical female warrior only referenced in medieval texts before then.

Now, for the first time, researchers at the University of Dundee in Scotland have used facial reconstruction technology to re-create that maiden’s appearance — including the wound that may have ended her career.

The results, which you can see above and in the new National Geographic documentary “Viking Warrior Women,” show a woman of about 18 or 19 years old with a strong jaw, swollen eye and a forehead that’s seen better days. According to the team’s analysis of the warrior’s skull, the maiden suffered a serious head injury consistent with a sword strike — however, the wound showed signs of healing and may not have been her ultimate cause of death.
Whether the wound was fatal or not, the new reconstruction suggests that this skeleton may be “the first evidence ever found of a Viking woman with a battle injury,” archaeologist Ella Al-Shamahi, who hosts the new documentary, told The Guardian.
That’s exciting news, especially for researchers trying to overturn the centuries-old assumption that Viking warriors were exclusively men. This stereotype took its own blow in 2017, when a Viking skeleton presumed for the past 70 years to be a man (because it had been buried with a trove of weapons) was proven to be a woman following a DNA analysis.
Like the shield-maiden of Solør, this woman was buried with an array of weapons and horses, plus a set of chess-like gaming pieces that suggested a tactical aptitude commensurate with a high-ranking military official, the researchers who made the discovery wrote in a study. Not only is it likely that she was a warrior, but she may also have been a general.
“Our results caution against sweeping interpretations based on … preconceptions,” the researchers wrote in their 2017 paper. “Our results … suggest that [Viking] women, indeed, were able to be full members of male dominated spheres.”
If you’d like to pay homage to the shield-maiden of Solør, you can find her dented skull and well-worn weapons on display at the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo, Norway, until Nov. 22.
“Viking Warrior Woman” first aired on Nov. 3 on the National Geographic channel.

History of the Knights Templar

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History of the Knights Templar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of the Order of the Knights Templar as a trans-national military-religious order spans two centuries of the High Middle Ages, from the Order’s founding in the early 12th century to its suppression early in the 14th century.

Al Aqsa Mosque

The Knights Templar trace their origin back to shortly after the First Crusade. Around 1119, an Italian nobleman Ugo de’ Pagani from Nocera de’ Pagani inCampania, southern Italy or Hugues de Payens as known in French, collected eight knights including Godfrey de Saint-Omer,

King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, assigning the captured Al Aqsa Mosqueto Hugues de Payens and Godfrey, to use as their headquarters. The Crusaders called the structure the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this location that the Order tooks its name, as Templars


and began the Order, their stated mission to protect pilgrims on their journey to visit the Holy Places. They approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, who allowed them to set up headquarters on the Temple Mount. The Dome of the Rock, at the centre of the Mount, was understood to occupy the site of the Jewish Temple. Known to Christians throughout the Muslim occupation of Jerusalem as the Holy of Holies, the Dome of the Rock became a Christian church, the Templum Domini, the Temple of the Lord. But the Templars were lodged in the Aqsa Mosque, which was assumed to stand on the site of Solomon’s Temple. Because the Aqsa mosque was known as the Templum Solomonis, it was not long before the knights had encompassed the association in their name. They became known as the Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici – the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, which was eventually shortened to “Knights Templar”.

The original order consisted of Hugues de Payens and eight knights, two of whom were brothers and all of whom were his relatives by either blood or marriage: Godfrey de Saint-Omer, Payne de Monteverdi, Archambaud de St. Agnan, Andre de Montbard, Geoffrey Bison, and two men recorded only by the names of Rossal and Gondamer. The ninth knight remains unknown, although some have speculated that it was Count Hugh of Champagne himself — despite the Count returning to France in 1116 and documentary evidence showing that he joined the Knights on his third visit to the Holy Land in 1125.

Little was heard of the Order for their first nine years. But in 1129, after they were officially sanctioned by the church at theCouncil of Troyes, they became well known in Europe. Their fundraising campaigns asked for donations of money, land, or noble-born sons to join the Order, with the implication that donations would help both to defend Jerusalem, and to ensure the charitable giver of a place in Heaven. The Order’s efforts were helped substantially by the patronage of Bernard of Clairvaux, the leading churchman of the time, and a nephew of one of the original nine knights. The Order at its outset had been subject to strong criticism, especially of the concept that religious men could also carry swords. In response to these critics, the influential Bernard of Clairvaux wrote a multi-page treatise entitled De Laude Novae Militae (“In Praise of the New Knighthood”), in which he championed their mission and defended the idea of a military religious order by appealing to the long-held Christian theory of just war, which legitimized “taking up the sword” to defend the innocent and the Church from violent attack. In doing so, Bernard legitimized the Templars, who became the first “warrior monks” of the Western world.[citation needed] Bernard wrote:

[A Templar Knight] is truly a fearless knight, and secure on every side, for his soul is protected by the armor of faith, just as his body is protected by the armor of steel. He is thus doubly-armed, and need fear neither demons nor men.

Saint Bernard de Clairvaux, the Order’s patron

Shortly after its foundation in Jerusalem and due to possible previous links of the founding knights with the crusader Count Henry of Burgundy and with the House of Burgundy, and perhaps because of the family ties that Henry and his son Afonso had with Bernard of Clairvaux, the Knights Templar were already in the western edge of Europe, in the County of Portugal, at least from May 1122.

Conde D. Henrique - Compendio de crónicas de reyes (Biblioteca Nacional de España).png

Henry in Compendio de crónicas de reyes
(c. 1312 – 1325)
Count of Portugal
Reign 1096 – 1112
Predecessor Raymond
Successor Afonso Henriques
Born c. 1066
Dijon, Burgundy
Died 12 May 1112
Astorga, León
Burial Braga Cathedral, Braga, Portugal
Spouse Teresa of León
Afonso I of Portugal
House Capetian House of Burgundy
Father Henry of Burgundy
Religion Roman Catholicism

The Templars settled there first, where the Order received donations and bought lands during the successive years of 1122, 1123, 1125, and 1126 (donated by D. Theresa), and 1127–28. Another possible reason for such exceptional early donations before the Council of Troyes, may be the alleged links of one or two founding knights of the Temple in Jerusalem, among the founding French knights of Champagne, Languedoc or other regions, Burgundy and possibly Flanders, with the County of Portugal – being of Portuguese origin, or Franco-Portuguese or Burgundian-Portuguese origin; claims sustained by chroniclers of the Templar Order in Portugal, written in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, supposedly basing themselves on original medieval source material of the Order of Christ.

Donations to the Order were considerable. The King of Aragon, in the Iberian Peninsula, left large tracts of land to the Order upon his death in the 1130s. New members to the Order were also required to swear religious vows of obedience, chastity, poverty and piety, and hand over all of their goods to the monastic brotherhood. This could include land, horses and any other items of material wealth, including labor from serfs, and interest in any businesses.

In 1139, even more power was conferred upon the Order by Pope Innocent II, who issued the papal bull, Omne Datum Optimum. It stated that the Knights Templar could pass freely through any border, owed no taxes, and were subject to no one’s authority except that of the Pope. It was a remarkable confirmation of the Templars and their mission, which may have been brought about by the Order’s patron, Bernard of Clairvaux, who had helped Pope Innocent in his own rise.

Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux - Gutenburg - 13206.jpg

St Bernard in “A Short History of Monks and Monasteries” by Alfred Wesley Wishart (1900)
Doctor of the Church
Doctor Mellifluus
Born 1090
Fontaine-lès-Dijon, France
Died 20 August, 1153 (aged 62–63)
Clairvaux, France
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, Lutheran Church
Canonized 18 January 1174, Rome by Pope Alexander III
Major shrine Troyes Cathedral
Ville-sous-la-Ferté, religious vocations, preachers.
Feast 20 August
Attributes White Cistercian habit, devil on a chain, white dog
Patronage Cistercians, Burgundy, beekeepers, candlemakers,Gibraltar, Algeciras, Queens’ College, Cambridge, Speyer Cathedral, Knights Templar

The Order grew rapidly throughout Western Europe, with chapters appearing in France, England, and Scotland, and then spreading to Spain and Portugal. They also made their way to the New World, Nova Scotia and Oak Island.

The Crusades and the Knights Templar[edit]

The Knights Templar were the elite fighting force of their day, highly trained, well-equipped and highly motivated; one of the tenets of their religious order was that they were forbidden from retreating in battle, unless outnumbered three to one, and even then only by order of their commander, or if the Templar flag went down. Not all Knights Templar were warriors. The mission of most of the members was one of support – to acquire resources which could be used to fund and equip the small percentage of members who were fighting on the front lines. There were actually 25 classes within the orders. The highest class was the knight. When a candidate was sworn into the order, the initiation made the knight a monk. They wore white robes. The knights could hold no property and receive no private letters. He could not be married or betrothed and cannot have any vow in any other Order. He could not have debt more than he could pay, and no infirmities. The Templar priest class was similar to the modern day military chaplain. Wearing green robes, they conducted religious services, led prayers, and were assigned record keeping and letter writing. They always wore gloves, unless they were giving Holy Communion. The mounted men-at-arms represented the most common class, and they were called “brothers”. They were usually assigned two horses each and held many positions, including guard, steward, squire or other support vocations. As the main support staff, they wore black or brown robes and were partially garbed in chain mail or plate mail. The armor was not as complete as the knights. Because of this infrastructure, the warriors were well-trained and very well armed. Even their horses were trained to fight in combat, fully armored.[5] The combination of soldier and monk was also a powerful one, as to the Templar knights, martyrdom in battle was one of the most glorious ways to die.

The Templars were also shrewd tacticians, following the dream of Saint Bernard who had declared that a small force, under the right conditions, could defeat a much larger enemy. One of the key battles in which this was demonstrated was in 1177, at the Battle of Montgisard. The famous Muslim military leader Saladin was attempting to push toward Jerusalem from the south, with a force of 26,000 soldiers.

Salah ad-Din Yusuf
Al-Malik an-Nasir
Portrait of Saladin (before A.D. 1185; short).jpg

A possible portrait of Saladin, found in a work byIsmail al-Jazari, circa 1185
Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Reign 1174 – 4 March 1193
Coronation 1174, Cairo
Predecessor New office
Born 1137
Tikrit, Upper Mesopotamia,Abbasid Caliphate
Died 4 March 1193 (aged 55–56)
Damascus, Syria, Ayyubid Sultanate
Burial Umayyad Mosque, Damascus
Spouse Ismat ad-Din Khatun
Full name
An-Nasir Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb
Dynasty Ayyubid
Father Najm ad-Dīn Ayyūb
Religion Sunni Islam (Shafi’i)

He had pinned the forces of Jerusalem’s King Baldwin IV, about 500 knights and their supporters, near the coast, at Ascalon. Eighty Templar knights and their own entourage attempted to reinforce. They met Saladin’s troops at Gaza, but were considered too small a force to be worth fighting, so Saladin turned his back on them and headed with his army towards Jerusalem.

Once Saladin and his army had moved on, the Templars were able to join King Baldwin’s forces, and together they proceeded north along the coast. Saladin had made a key mistake at that point – instead of keeping his forces together, he permitted his army to temporarily spread out and pillage various villages on their way to Jerusalem. The Templars took advantage of this low state of readiness to launch a surprise ambush directly against Saladin and his bodyguard, at Montgisard near Ramla. Saladin’s army was spread too thin to adequately defend themselves, and he and his forces were forced to fight a losing battle as they retreated back to the south, ending up with only a tenth of their original number. The battle was not the final one with Saladin, but it bought a year of peace for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the victory became a heroic legend.

Another key tactic of the Templars was that of the “squadron charge”. A small group of knights and their heavily armed warhorses would gather into a tight unit which would gallop full speed at the enemy lines, with a determination and force of will that made it clear that they would rather commit suicide than fall back. This terrifying onslaught would frequently have the desired result of breaking a hole in the enemy lines, thereby giving the other Crusader forces an advantage.

The Templars, though relatively small in number, routinely joined other armies in key battles. They would be the force that would ram through the enemy’s front lines at the beginning of a battle, or the fighters that would protect the army from the rear. They fought alongside King Louis VII of France, and King Richard I of England. In addition to battles in Palestine, members of the Order also fought in the Spanish and Portuguese Reconquista.


Though initially an Order of poor monks, the official papal sanction made the Knights Templar a charity across Europe. Further resources came in when members joined the Order, as they had to take oaths of poverty, and therefore often donated large amounts of their original cash or property to the Order. Additional revenue came from business dealings. Since the monks themselves were sworn to poverty, but had the strength of a large and trusted international infrastructure behind them, nobles would occasionally use them as a kind of bank or power of attorney. If a noble wished to join the Crusades, this might entail an absence of years from their home. So some nobles would place all of their wealth and businesses under the control of Templars, to safeguard it for them until their return. The Order’s financial power became substantial, and the majority of the Order’s infrastructure was devoted not to combat, but to economic pursuits.

By 1150, the Order’s original mission of guarding pilgrims had changed into a mission of guarding their valuables through an innovative way of issuing letters of credit, an early precursor of modern banking. Pilgrims would visit a Templar house in their home country, depositing their deeds and valuables. The Templars would then give them a letter which would describe their holdings. Modern scholars have stated that the letters were encrypted with a cipher alphabet based on a Maltese Cross; however there is some disagreement on this, and it is possible that the code system was introduced later, and not something used by the medieval Templars themselves. While traveling, the pilgrims could present the letter to other Templars along the way, to “withdraw” funds from their accounts. This kept the pilgrims safe since they were not carrying valuables, and further increased the power of the Templars.

Knights Templar playing chess, 1283

The Knights’ involvement in banking grew over time into a new basis for money, as Templars became increasingly involved in banking activities. One indication of their powerful political connections is that the Templars’ involvement in usury did not lead to more controversy within the Order and the church at large. Officially the idea of lending money in return for interest was forbidden by the church, but the Order sidestepped this with clever loopholes, such as a stipulation that the Templars retained the rights to the production of mortgaged property. Or as one Templar researcher put it, “Since they weren’t allowed to charge interest, they charged rent instead.”

Their holdings were necessary to support their campaigns; in 1180, a Burgundian noble required 3 square kilometres of estate to support himself as a knight, and by 1260 this had risen to 15.6 km². The Order potentially supported up to 4,000 horses and pack animals at any given time, if provisions of the rule were followed; these horses had extremely high maintenance costs due to the heat in Outremer (Crusader states at the Eastern Mediterranean), and had high mortality rates due to both disease and the Turkish bowmen strategy of aiming at a knight’s horse rather than the knight himself. In addition, the high mortality rates of the knights in the East (regularly ninety percent in battle, not including wounded) resulted in extremely high campaign costs due to the need to recruit and train more knights. In 1244, at the battle of La Forbie, where only thirty-three of 300 knights survived, it is estimated the financial loss was equivalent to one-ninth of the entire Capetian yearly revenue.

The Templars’ political connections and awareness of the essentially urban and commercial nature of the Outremercommunities led the Order to a position of significant power, both in Europe and the Holy Land. They owned large tracts of land both in Europe and the Middle East, built churches and castles, bought farms and vineyards, were involved in manufacturing and import/export, had their own fleet of ships, and for a time even “owned” the entire island ofCyprus.


Their success attracted the concern of many other orders, with the two most powerful rivals being the Knights Hospitallerand the Teutonic Knights. Various nobles also had concerns about the Templars as well, both for financial reasons, and nervousness about an independent army that was able to move freely through all borders.

The Battle of Hattin

The long-famed military acumen of the Templars began to stumble in the 1180s. On July 4, 1187, came the disastrous Battle of the Horns of Hattin, a turning point in the Crusades. It again involved Saladin, who had been beaten back by the Templars in 1177 in the legendary Battle of Montgisard near Tiberias, but this time Saladin was better prepared. Further, the Grand Master of the Templars was involved in this battle, Gerard de Ridefort, who had just achieved that lifetime position a few years earlier. He was not known as a good military strategist, and made some deadly errors, such as venturing out with his force of 80 knights without adequate supplies or water, across the arid hill country of Galilee. The Templars were overcome by the heat within a day, and then surrounded and massacred by Saladin’s army. Within months Saladin captured Jerusalem.

But in the early 1190s, in a remarkably short and powerfully effective campaign, Richard the Lionheart, King of England and leader of the Third Crusade, together with his allies the Templars, delivered a series of powerful blows against Saladin and recovered much of Christian territory. In name and number the revived Crusader states were as before, but their outlines were diminished. There was the Kingdom of Jerusalem, though its capital was at Acre, which the Templars made their new headquarters. To the north was the County of Tripoli. But the Muslims retained control of the Syrian coast around Latakia for some time, and so the Principality of Antioch further to the north was now no longer contiguous to the other Crusader states. Nevertheless, the Third Crusade, in which Richard relied heavily on the Templars, had saved the Holy Land for the Christians and went a long way towards restoring Frankish fortunes. In this he was abetted by the military orders, whose great castles stood like islands of Frankish power amid the Muslim torrent. More than ever the Crusader states were relying on the military orders in their castles and on the field of battle, and the power of the orders grew. In fact at no point in their history would the Templars be more powerful than in the century to come.

But after the Siege of Acre in 1291, the Templars were forced to relocate their headquarters to the island of Cyprus.

Jacques de Molay
Grand Master of the Knights Templar
In office
Monarch King Philip IV
Preceded by Thibaud Gaudin
Succeeded by Order disbanded
Personal details
Born c. 1243[1]
Molay, Haute-Saône, France
Died March 18, 1314 (aged 70–71)
Paris, France
Nationality French
Military service
Allegiance Cross of the Knights Templar.svg Knights Templar
Years of service 1265–1314
Rank Grand Master (1292–1314)
Battles/wars Siege of Ruad

Jacques de Molay, who was to be the last of the Order’s Grand Masters, took office around 1292. One of his first tasks was to tour across Europe, to raise support for the Order and try to organize another Crusade. He met the newly invested Pope Boniface VIII, who agreed to grant the Templars the same privileges at Cyprus as they had held in the Holy Land. Charles II of Naples and Edward I also pledged varying types of support, either continuing to exempt the Templars from taxes, or pledging future support towards building a new army.

Boniface VIII
Bonifatius viii papst.jpg
Papacy began 24 December 1294
Papacy ended 11 October 1303
Predecessor Celestine V
Successor Benedict XI
Consecration 23 January 1295
Created Cardinal 12 April 1281
by Martin IV
Personal details
Birth name Benedetto Caetani
Born c. 1230
Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died 11 October 1303
Rome, Papal States
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Coat of arms Boniface VIII's coat of arms
Other popes named Boniface
Charles II
Charles 2 of Naples.jpg

King Charles II from the Bible of Naples
King of Naples
Count of Provence and Forcalquier
Reign 1285–1309
Coronation 29 May 1289
Predecessor Charles I
Successor Robert
Count of Anjou and Maine
Reign 1285–1290
Predecessor Charles I
Successor Charles III
Prince of Achaea
Reign 1285–1289
Predecessor Charles I
Successor Isabella and Florent
Born 1254
Died 5 May 1309
Naples, Kingdom of Naples
Spouse Maria of Hungary
Charles Martel, Prince of Salerno
Louis, Bishop of Toulouse
Robert of Naples
Philip I of Taranto
John of Gravina
Margaret, Countess of Anjou
Blanche of Anjou
Eleanor of Anjou
Maria of Anjou
House Capetian House of Anjou
Father Charles I of Naples
Mother Beatrice of Provence

Final attempts to regain the Holy Land (1298–1300)

In 1298 or 1299, the military orders (the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller) and their leaders, including Jacques de Molay, Otton de Grandson and the Great Master of the Hospitallers, briefly campaigned in Armenia, in order to fight off an invasion by the Mamluks. They were not successful and soon the fortress of Roche-Guillaume in the Belen Pass, the last Templar stronghold in Antioch, was lost to the Muslims.

In 1300, the Templars, along with the Knights Hospitaller and forces from Cyprus attempted to retake the coastal city ofTortosa. They were able to take the island of Arwad, near Tortosa, but lost it soon after. With the loss of Arwad, the Crusaders had lost their last foothold in the Holy Land.

Though they still had a base of operations in Cyprus, and controlled considerable financial resources, the Order of the Templars became an Order without a clear purpose or support, but which still had enormous financial power. This unstable situation contributed to their downfall.


King Philip had other reasons to mistrust the Templars, as the organization had declared its desire to form its own state, similar to how the Teutonic Knights had founded Prussia. The Templars’ preferred location for this was in the Languedoc of southeastern France, but they had also made a plan for the island of Cyprus. In 1306, the Templars had supported a coup on that island, which had forced King Henry II of Cyprus to abdicate his throne in favor of his brother, Amalric of Tyre. This probably made Philip particularly uneasy, since just a few years earlier he had inherited land in the region of Champagne, France, which was the Templars’ headquarters. The Templars were already a “state within a state”, were institutionally wealthy, paid no taxes, and had a large standing army which by papal decree could move freely through all European borders. However, this army no longer had a presence in the Holy Land, leaving it with no battlefield. These factors, plus the fact that Philip had inherited an impoverished kingdom from his father and was already deeply in debt to the Templars, were probably what led to his actions. However, recent studies emphasize the political and religious motivations of the French king. It seems that, with the “discovery” and repression of the “Templars’ heresy,” the Capetian monarchy claimed for itself the mystic foundations of the papal theocracy. The Temple case was the last step of a process of appropriating these foundations, which had begun with the Franco-papal rift at the time of Boniface VIII. Being the ultimate defender of the Catholic faith, the Capetian king was invested with a Christlike function that put him above the pope : what was at stake in the Templars’ trial, then, was the establishment of a “royal theocracy”.

At dawn on Friday, October 13, 1307, scores of French Templars were simultaneously arrested by agents of King Philip, later to be tortured in locations such as the tower at Chinon, into admitting heresy and other sacrilegious offenses in the Order. Then they were put to death. There were five initial charges lodged against the Templars. The first was the renouncement and spitting on the cross during initiation into the Order. The second was the stripping of the man to be initiated and the thrice kissing of that man by the preceptor on the navel, posteriors and the mouth. The third was telling the neophyte (novice) that unnatural lust was lawful and indulged in commonly. The fourth was that the cord worn by the neophyte day and night was consecrated by wrapping it around an idol in the form of a human head with a great beard, and that this idol was adored in all chapters. The fifth was that the priests of the order did not consecrate the host in celebrating Mass. On August 12, 1308, the charges would be increased and would become more outrageous, one specifically stated that the Templars worshipped idols, specifically made of a cat and a head, the latter having three faces. The lists of articles 86 to 127[3] would add many other charges. The majority of these charges were identical to the charges that had been earlier issued against the inconvenient Pope Boniface VIII: accusations of denying Christ, spitting and urinating on the cross, and devil worship. Of the 138 Templars (many of them old men) questioned in Paris over the next few years, 105 of them “confessed” to denying Christ during the secret Templar initiations. 103 confessed to an “obscene kiss” being part of the ceremonies, and 123 said they spat on the cross. Throughout the trial there was never any physical evidence of wrongdoing, and no independent witnesses; the only “proof” was obtained through confessions induced by torture. The Templars reached out to the Pope for assistance, and Pope Clement did write letters to King Philip questioning the arrests, but took no further action.

Despite the fact that the confessions had been produced under duress, they caused a scandal in Paris, with mobs calling for action against the blaspheming Order. In response to this public pressure, along with more bullying from King Philip, Pope Clement issued the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae, which instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets. Most monarchs simply didn’t believe the charges, though proceedings were started in England,Iberia, Germany, Italy, and Cyprus,with the likelihood of a confession being dependent on whether or not torture was used to extract it.

The dominant view is that Philip, who seized the treasury and broke up the monastic banking system, was jealous of the Templars’ wealth and power, and frustrated by his enormous debt to them, sought to seize their financial resources for himself by bringing blatantly false charges against them at the Tours assembly in 1308. It is almost impossible to believe, that, under the influence of his carefully chosen advisors (the same that had persecuted Boniface), he actually believed the charges to be true. It is widely accepted that Philip had clearly made up the accusations, some nearly identical to those made against Boniface, and did not believe any of the Templars to have been party to such activities. It is a fact that he had invited Jacques de Molay to be a pall-bearer at the funeral of the King’s sister on the very day before the arrests.

The arrests caused some shifts in the European economy, from a system of military fiat back to European money, removing this power from Church orders. Seeing the fate of the Templars, the Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem and of Rhodeswere also convinced to give up banking at this time.


Pope Clement V

In 1312, after the Council of Vienne, and under extreme pressure from King Philip IV, Pope Clement V issued an edict officially dissolving the Order. Many kings and nobles who had been supporting the Knights up until that time, finally acquiesced and dissolved the orders in their fiefs in accordance with the Papal command. Most were not so brutal as the French. InEngland, many Knights were arrested and tried, but not found guilty.

Much of the Templar property outside France was transferred by the Pope to the Knights Hospitaller, and many surviving Templars were also accepted into the Hospitallers. In theIberian Peninsula, where the king of Aragon was against giving the heritage of the Templars to the Hospitallers (as commanded by Clement V), the Order of Montesa took Templar assets.

The order continued to exist in Portugal, simply changing its name to the Order of Christ. This group was believed to have contributed to the first naval discoveries of the Portuguese. Prince Henry the Navigator led the Portuguese order for 20 years until the time of his death.

Prince Henry the Navigator
Duke of Viseu
Henry the Navigator1.jpg

Infante Henrique; St. Vincent Panels[a]
Born 4 March 1394
Porto, Portugal
Died 13 November 1460 (aged 66)
Sagres, Portugal
Burial Batalha Monastery
House Aviz
Father John I of Portugal
Mother Philippa of Lancaster
Religion Roman Catholicism

Even with the absorption of Templars into other Orders, there are still questions as to what became of all of the tens of thousands of Templars across Europe. There had been 15,000 “Templar Houses”, and an entire fleet of ships. Even in France where hundreds of Templars had been rounded up and arrested, this was only a small percentage of the estimated 3,000 Templars in the entire country. Also, the extensive archive of the Templars, with detailed records of all of their business holdings and financial transactions, was never found. By papal bull it was to have been transferred to the Hospitallers.

A theory made popular with Holy Blood, Holy Grail has it that the Templars used a fleet of 18 ships at La Rochelle to escape arrest in France. The fleet allegedly left laden with knights and treasures just before the issue of the warrant for the arrest of the Order in October 1307. This, in turn, was based on a single item of testimony from serving brother Jean de Châlon, who says he had “heard people talking that [Gerard de Villiers had] put to sea with 18 galleys, and the brother Hugues de Chalon fled with the whole treasury of the brother Hugues de Pairaud.” However, aside from being the sole source for this statement, the transcript indicates that it is hearsay, and this serving brother seems to be prone to making some of the wildest and most damning of claims about the Order, which have led some to doubt his credibility.

In Holy Blood, Holy Grail, the knights that allegedly boarded these ships then escaped to Scotland, but in some versions the Templars are even claimed to have left for North America, burying a treasure in Oak Island, Nova Scotia, Canada (a story taken up in the 2004 movie National Treasure starring Nicolas Cage). However, many historians have questioned the plausibility of this scenario. For example, historian Helen Nicholson has argued that

The Templars did have ships to carry personnel, pilgrims and supplies across the Mediterranean between the West and East and back, but if the Hospital after 1312 is any guide they did not have more than four galleys (warships) and few other ships, and if they needed more they hired them. They certainly could not spare ships to indulge in world exploration … [T]he records of the port of La Rochelle show that the Templars were exporting wine by ship. This was not a fleet in any modern sense: again, those would have been transport vessels rather than warships, and the Templars probably hired them as they needed them, rather than buying their own. … The ships would have been very small by modern standards, too shallow in draught and sailing too low in the water to be able to withstand the heavy waves and winds of the open Atlantic, and suited for use only in the relatively shallow waters of the continental shelf. What was more, they could not carry enough water to be at sea for long periods.

Nicholson’s argument, however, is an assessment of the fleet in 1312 – according to the LaRochelle Theory, many ships would already have disappeared bound for many of the aforementioned destinations and stands to reason their fleet would seem depleted in the following years after the arrest of the Templars.

Heresy, blasphemy, and other charges

There were five initial charges lodged against the Templars. The first was the renouncement and spitting on the cross during initiation into the Order. The second was the stripping of the man to be initiated and the thrice kissing of that man by the preceptor on the navel, posteriors and the mouth. The third was telling the neophyte (novice) that unnatural lust was lawful and indulged in commonly. The fourth was that the cord worn by the neophyte day and night was consecrated by wrapping it around an idol in the form of a human head with a great beard, and that this idol was adored in all chapters. The fifth was that the priests of the order did not consecrate the host in celebrating Mass. Subsequently, the charges would be increased and would become, according to the procedures, lists of articles 86 to 127[3] in which will be added a few other charges, such as the prohibition to priests who do not belong to the order.

The incontrovertibility of the evidence that the Templar priests did not mutilate the words of consecration in the mass is furnished in the Cypriote proceedings by ecclesiastics who had long dwelt with them in the East.

The manuscript illustration (c. 1350) alludes to the accusation of “obscene kisses” at the base of the spine

Debate continues as to whether the accusation of religious heresy had merit by the standards of the time. Under torture, some Templars admitted to sodomy and to theworship of heads and an idol known as Baphomet. Their leaders later denied these admissions, and for that were executed. Some scholars, such as Malcolm Barber, Helen Nicholson and Peter Partner, discount these as forced admissions, typical during the Medieval Inquisition.

The majority of the charges were identical to other people being tortured by the Inquisitors, with one exception: head worship. The Templars were specifically charged with worshipping some type of severed head; a charge which was made only against Templars. The descriptions of the head allegedly venerated by the Templars were varied and contradictory in nature. Quoting Norman Cohn:

Some describe it as having three faces, others as having four feet, others as being simply a face with no feet. For some it was a human skull, embalmed and encrusted with jewels; for others it was carved out of wood. Some maintained that it came from the remains of a former grand master of the order, while others were equally convinced that it was Baphomet – which in turn was interpreted as ‘Mohammed’. Some saw it as having horns.

Barber has linked this charge to medieval folklore about magical heads, and the popular medieval belief that the Muslims worshipped idols. Some argue it referred to rituals involving the alleged relics of John the Baptist, Euphemia, one ofUrsula‘s eleven maidens, and/or Hugues de Payens rather than pagan idols.

The charges of heresy included spitting, trampling, or urinating on the cross; while naked, being kissed obscenely by the receptor on the lips, navel, and base of the spine; heresy and worship of idols; institutionalized sodomy; and also accusations of contempt of the Holy Mass and denial of the sacraments. Barbara Frale has suggested that these acts were intended to simulate the kind of humiliation and torture that a Crusader might be subjected to if captured by the Saracens. According to this line of reasoning, they were taught how to commit apostasy with the mind only and not with the heart.

The accusation of venerating Baphomet is more problematic. Karen Ralls has noted, “There is no mention of Baphomet either in the Templar Rule or in other medieval period Templar documents”. The late scholar Hugh J. Schonfieldspeculated that the chaplains of the Knights Templar created the term Baphomet through the Atbash cipher to encrypt theGnostic term Sophia (Greek for “wisdom“) due to the influence of hypothetical Qumran Essene scrolls, which they may have found during archaeological digs in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Roman Catholic Church’s position

The papal process started by Pope Clement V, to investigate both the Order as a whole and its members individually found virtually no knights guilty of heresy outside France. Fifty-four knights were executed in France by French authorities asrelapsed heretics after denying their original testimonies before the papal commission; these executions were motivated by Philip’s desire to prevent Templars from mounting an effective defence of the Order. It failed miserably, as many members testified against the charges of heresy in the ensuing papal investigation.

Jacques de Molay, nineteenth-century color lithograph by Chevauchet

Despite the poor defense of the Order, when the papal commission ended its proceedings on June 5, 1311, it found no evidence that the Order itself held heretical doctrines, or used a “secret rule” apart from the Latin and French rules. On October 16, 1311, at the General Council of Vienne held in Dauphiné, the council voted for the maintenance of the Order.

But on March 22, 1312, Clement V promulgated the bull Vox in excelsis in which he stated that although there was not sufficient reason to condemn the Order, for the common good, the hatred of the Order by Philip IV, the scandal brought about by their trial, and the likely dilapidation of the Order that would result from the trial, the Order was to be suppressed by the pope’s authority over it. But the order explicitly stated that dissolution was enacted, “with a sad heart, not by definitive sentence, but by apostolic provision.

This was followed by the papal bull Ad Providum on May 2, 1312, which granted all of the Order’s lands and wealth to the Hospitallers so that its original purpose could be met, despite Philip’s wishes that the lands in France pass to him. Philip held onto some lands until 1318, and in England the crown and nobility held a great deal until 1338; in many areas of Europe the land was never given over to the Hospitaller Order, instead taken over by nobility and monarchs in an attempt to lessen the influence of the Church and its Orders. Of the knights who had not admitted to the charges, against those whom nothing had been found, or those who had admitted but been reconciled to the Church, some joined the Hospitallers (even staying in the same Templar houses); others joined Augustinian or Cistercian houses; and still others returned to secular life with pension. In Portugal and Aragon, the Holy See granted the properties to two new Orders, the Order of Christ and the Order of Montesa respectively, made up largely of Templars in those kingdoms. In the same bull, he urged those who had pleaded guilty be treated “according to the rigours of justice.”[citation needed]

Two Templars burned at the stake, including Jacques de Molay, from a French 15th-century manuscript

In the end, the only three accused of heresy directly by the papal commission wereJacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, and his two immediate subordinates; they were to renounce their heresy publicly, when de Molay regained his courage and proclaimed the order’s and his innocence along with Geoffrey de Charney. The two were arrested by French authorities as relapsed heretics andburned at the stake in 1314. Their ashes were then ground up and dumped into theSeine, so as to leave no relics behind.

In England the Crown was also deeply in debt to the Templars, and probably on that basis, the Templars were also persecuted in England, their lands forfeited and taken by others, (the last private owner being the favorite of Edward II, Hugh le Despenser). Many of Templars in England were killed; some fled to Scotland and other places. In France, Philip IV, who was also coincidentally in terrible financial debt to the Templars was perhaps the more aggressive persecutor. So widely was the injustice of Philip’s rage against the Templars perceived that the “Curse of the Templars” became legend: Reputedly uttered by the Grand Master Jacques de Molay upon the stake whence he burned, he adjured: “Within one year, God will summon both Clement and Philip to His Judgment for these actions.” The fact that both rulers died within a year, as predicted, only heightened the scandal surrounding the suppression of the Order. The source of this legend does not date from the time of the execution of Jacques de Molay.

Chinon and Absolution

In September 2001, Barbara Frale discovered a copy of the Chinon Parchment dated 17–20 August 1308 in the Vatican Secret Archives, a document that indicated that Pope Clement V absolved the leaders of the Order in 1308. Frale published her findings in the Journal of Medieval History in 2004[37] In 2007, The Vatican published the Chinon Parchment as part of a limited edition of 799 copies of Processus Contra Templarios. Another Chinon parchment dated 20 August 1308 addressed to Philip IV of France, well known to historians, stated that absolution had been granted to all those Templars that had confessed to heresy “and restored them to the Sacraments and to the unity of the Church”.

Pioneers of the American West: The Harvey Girls (Photos)

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Pioneers of the American West: The Harvey Girls (Photos)

Moving across the land

Credit: Library of Congress

Serving the troops

Credit: Library of Congress

The Weird Tale of a Larger-Than-Life Wolf That Outran the Law, Almost

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The Weird Tale of a Larger-Than-Life Wolf That Outran the Law, Almost

Partner Series
The Weird Tale of a Larger-Than-Life Wolf That Outran the Law, Almost

A North American gray wolf (Canis lupus) strikes a pose in the snow, recalling the storied figure of the Custer Wolf, the so-called “gray devil of the desert” that haunted South Dakota during the early 20th century.

Credit: Shutterstock

For nearly a decade during the dawn of the 20th century, a lone — and furry — figure cut a criminal swath across South Dakota’s badlands, evading government officials as well as seasoned trackers and bounty hunters.

At the peak of his infamy, the price on his head totaled $500 — the equivalent of about $6,000 today. He was the Custer Wolf, a North American gray wolf (Canis lupus) so-named for the nearby town of Custer, South Dakota. The four-legged outlaw that preyed on livestock was widely reviled as a scourge of farmers and ranchers, but was also a source of fearful speculation, rumored to be an enormous monster possessing supernatural powers that prevented its capture.

On this day (Jan. 17) in 1921, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) distributed a statement announcing the death of the elusive Custer Wolf at the hands of a federally contracted hunter, naming the wolf “the master criminal of the animal world” and describing it as “the cruelest, the most sagacious, the most successful animal outlaw that the range country had ever known.” [Photos: Brand-New Baby Wolves]

The language in the statement — written by USDA press officer Dixon Lanier Merritt, also a poet and humorist — seems a little over-the-top, but so was the Custer Wolf’s story.

For nine years, the beast hunted and fed on horses and cattle across a range spanning about 300 square miles (780 square kilometers) in South Dakota, costing their owners an estimated $25,000 — an amount equal to about $311,000 in 2017.

But the wolf was also said to mutilate its kills “in atrocious ways for the mere sake of killing,” according to the statement. Over the years, attempts to catch the wolf with traps, guns, dogs and poison were unsuccessful. Fearful rumors circulated that he was no “mere wolf,” but a hybrid of wolf and mountain lion, “possessing the craftiness of both and the cruelty of hell,” and that he was accompanied by two coyotes that served as “bodyguards,” the USDA reported.

Historically, wolves in the Dakotas typically preyed on large ungulates such as bison, moose and elk. But as Europeans settled in the West, they killed off the wolves’ prey. And so the wolves, their ranges now greatly reduced by agriculture and ranching, began hunting livestock in order to survive.

This marked the beginning of federal bounty programs to exterminate wolves. These programs were so effective that North American gray wolves were largely eradicated in most of the lower 48 states before they were offered protection by the Endangered Species Act in 1978, with only a few hundred animals remaining in Minnesota, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) reported.

In the end, the Custer Wolf couldn’t outrun the law. The USDA sent one of its own hunters, H.P. Williams, on the trail of the renegade wolf in March 1920, with instructions to catch the animal “no matter how much time was required,” Dixon wrote in the statement.

Federal hunter H.P. Williams (left) and a local rancher stand over the slain Custer Wolf on Oct. 11, 1920.

Federal hunter H.P. Williams (left) and a local rancher stand over the slain Custer Wolf on Oct. 11, 1920.

Credit: Paul Fearn/Alamy


Williams trailed the wolf for months, first shooting the alleged coyote“bodyguards” and then laying a series of traps that the wolf managed to avoid or spring without getting caught. But the wolf’s storied luck ran out on Oct. 11, when he stepped into one of Williams’ steel traps, the hunter reported to the USDA.

Even then, the wolf managed to break the trap and run for 3 miles (4.8 km), with the trap’s teeth still gripping his front leg, before Williams ended his life with a bullet.

In death, the wolf was found to be no oversize monster. In fact, he was “an old wolf” with nearly white fur, and he was smaller than average, measuring about 6 feet (1.8 meters) in length and weighing 98 pounds (44 kilograms), Williams recounted.

Despite Merritt’s harsh words in the USDA statement about the Custer Wolf’s lengthy “reign of dread,” the writer clearly held some admiration for the animal that evaded human retribution for so long, and grew into a larger-than-life, four-legged legend of the Wild West.

“He loped through every kind of danger and spurned them all,” Merritt wrote.

Currently, there are no known populations of gray wolves in South Dakota, according to the FWS.

Original article on Live Science.

The History of Russia’s ‘Plague Fort,’ Where Scientists Battled Death (and Lost)

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The History of Russia’s ‘Plague Fort,’ Where Scientists Battled Death (and Lost)

 The History of Russia's 'Plague Fort,' Where Scientists Battled Death (and Lost)
The abandoned Fort Alexander, also called the Plague Fort, sits on an artificial island near St. Petersburg, Russia.

Credit: Shutterstock

With water lapping at its curved, worn stone walls and vegetation spreading on its roof, Fort Alexander looks like the kind of place with an eerie history.

And it is.

This water-bound, bean-shaped fort, built on an artificial island near St. Petersburg, Russia, was once the site of a research laboratory focused on the study of the plague. Two staff members were accidentally infected with the plague and died. The place is now often called “the Plague Fort” in dubious honor of this history.

The fort is now empty, but it occasionally makes forays into the public eye. It was most recently the subject of a Reddit thread in a forum dedicated to photographs of abandoned buildings. In 2016, drone footage of the fortshot around the internet.

The fort was constructed over a period of seven years, built on a platform of sand, concrete and granite that sat on the floor of the Gulf of Finland,according to Atlas Obscura. It was built to protect the strategically important gulf, though it never saw actual battle.

The real fight inside the walls of Fort Alexander was against the plague.Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes the plague, was discovered in 1894. Within a few years, Russia set up a plague lab at Fort Alexander to study the Black Death-causing pathogen and develop a vaccine.

An essay written in 1907 describes the lab animals inoculated with the plague in order to extract their blood serum to develop plague treatment and preventatives: rabbits, guinea pigs, monkeys, even horses. In 1904, the head doctor, VI Turchinovich-Vyzhnyevich, contracted the plague and died, according to the essay. In 1907, another doctor, Emanuel F. Schreiber, fell ill. He was sick for three days, diagnosing himself with the pneumatic, or respiratory, form of the plague. (According to the World Health Organization, the pneumatic plague is almost always fatal unless treated with modern medicine within 24 hours of symptoms appearing.) Schreiber was cremated on-site so that his remains wouldn’t spread the deadly bacteria.

As recounted in the 1907 essay, another doctor, Lev Vladimirovich Podlevsky, came down with the plague within days of Schreiber’s death. But Podlevsky was lucky (relatively). He contracted the bubonic form of the plague, so named because of the distinctive lumps, or buboes, that appear on lymph nodes during an infection. Today, bubonic plague kills between 30 and 60 percent of its victims when untreated, according to the World Health Organization.

Podlevsky was treated with an experimental plague serum developed by the lab. He eventually recovered.

The isolated lab was later used to study other infectious diseases, including cholera and tetanus, according to Atlas Obscura. The lab shut down in 1917, and the Russian navy used the fort as a storage facility until it was abandoned in the 1980s. According to Atlas Obscura, it then became a popular place for illegal, unpermitted raves.

The curious traveler no longer has to trespass to reach this abandoned outpost, though. Today, boat tours are available to take sightseers to the fort.

Original article on Live Science.