Nyi Ageng Serang

Nyi Ageng Serang

Indonesian From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia

Nyi Ageng Serang

Nyi Ageng Serang original name Raden Ajeng Kustiyah Wulaningsih Retno Edi ( Serang , Purwodadi, Central Java, 1752Yogyakarta, 1828) Is an National Heroes Indonesia. She was the daughter  of Prince Natapraja that controls the remote areas of the Mataram kingdom which is now exactly in the border regions  GroboganSragen. After her father died Nyi Ageng Serang replace her father. Nyi Ageng Serang is one of the offspring Sunan KalijagaHe also has a national heroine is a descendant of Soewardi Soerjaningrat or Ki Hajar Dewantara. She was buried in Kalibawang , Kulon Progo. She was a national heroine who was almost forgotten, maybe because her name was not as popular as R.A. Kartini or Cut Nyak Dhien but she is a boon to the country .Warga Kulon Progo monument immortalize her in the town center of sculptures Wates she is a gallant horse carrying a spear.

Nyi Ageng Serang had the original name Raden Edi Ajeng Kustiyah Retna . She is the youngest daughter of the regent of Serang , Panembahan Natapraja .

Though a nobleman ‘s Daughter , but since little is known Nyi Ageng Serang close to the peoples. As an adult she has also appeared as one warlord against invaders . Her enthusiasm for the rise not only to defend the people, also triggered the death of her brother Prince Mangkubumi when defending against Paku Buwana I assisted the Dutch .

After Giyanti Agreement , Nyi Ageng Serang moved to Jogja with Prince Mangkubumi . But the struggle against imperialist forces kept her continue . At that time Nyi Ageng Serang led troops called Force stealth fast attack with the expertise to make enemy troops often topsy- turvy . These forces also became one of the very be included Dutch troops at the time.

When the Diponegoro War broke out in 1825 , Nyi Ageng Serang also become one of the commander of the army . Troops assisted by the greater because the lower ranks , especially a lot of farmers who joined the army. Nyi Ageng Serang also known as a tactician and . negotiations . Nyi Ageng Serang died because of advanced age and was buried in Orchard Frozen , Pagerarjo , Kalibawang , Kulonprogo . This tomb is situated on a hill, approximately 6 km of road – Muntilan Dekso . Distance from Yogyakarta ± 32 km, from the town Wates ± 30 km.

This tomb restored in 1983 with joglo shaped building . At the time restored, the tomb of her husband , mother , grandchild and who have been buried in the village Nglorong , Sragen regency on the move in this place .

Besides the tomb of Nyi Ageng Serang , in Kulonprogo , also built a monument Nyi Ageng Serang. The monument depicts the figure of Nyi Ageng Serang was leading his troops while riding a horse .

Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (1631 – 1695)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ageng (1631–1695), also known as Tirtayasa and Abulfatah Agung[1], was the sultan of Banten (on Java in modern Indonesia) during the kingdom’s golden age. He built a strong fleet on European models, which did considerable trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and, with help from the English, Danes, and Chinese, were able to trade with Persia, India, Siam, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Japan in the Javanese tradition of long-distance traders. This trade gave considerable wealth to Banten.

The greatest period in Banten is arguably under Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa. In 1661 he extended Banten rule to Landak in western Borneo. In 1670s he also acquired Cirebon area following civil war in Mataram. Ageng established trade with Spanish Manila for silver and built canal for coconut palm and sugar plantations, among other developments. [2]

Ageng was a strong opponent of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and inevitably came into conflict with their headquarters at Batavia (modern Jakarta), 75 km to the east. In this sentiment Ageng also came into conflict with his son, the crown prince and later sultan Haji. Haji held considerable power in Banten, and was in favor of gaining support from the VOC. The court split into two factions, supporting the father and the son, and the more militant Muslim elite supported the father.

In 1656, the fragile 1645 treaty between the Dutch and Banten broke, and war erupted, as Bantenese raided Batavian districts and VOC ships, and the VOC blockaded the Bantenese port. A peace settlement was reached in 1659, but the VOC sought a stronger settlement, and was able to take advantage of the internal division in Bantenese politics to achieve it.

Ageng withdrew to a residence outside Banten proper sometime before 1671, in order to forestall a palace coup he anticipated from his son. He supported Trunajaya‘s rebellion in the Mataram Sultanate, and was highly critical of Amangkurat II and his relationship with the VOC. He was able to gain control of Cirebon and the Priangan highlands when Mataram fell into disarray, thus surrounding Batavia with his troops. However, he did not declare war on the Dutch until 1680, on the pretext of some mistreatment of Bantenese merchants on the part of the VOC. The Dutch were now stronger after their victory at Kediri over the Mataram rebels. In May 1680, though, before hostilities began, Haji led a coup and confined Ageng to his residence. His supporters gained the upper hand in 1682, but when a VOC force came to support the compromises of Haji, they drove Ageng from his residence into the highlands, where he surrendered in March 1683. He was kept in Banten for a while, and later moved to Batavia, where he died in 1695.

Iskandar Muda of Aceh 1593 – 1636

Iskandar Muda of Aceh

Indonesian From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia



Painting pictures of Sultan Iskandar Muda

Sultan Iskandar Muda (Aceh, Banda Aceh, 1593 or 1590 – Banda Aceh, Aceh, 27 September 1636) Is sultan the greatest in the period Aceh Sultanate, who ruled from 1607 until 1636. Aceh reached its glory during the leadership of Iskandar Muda , where an increasingly large territory and an international reputation as a center of trade and learning about Islam.

 Family and childhood


From the ancestral mother , Iskandar Muda is a descendant of King Dar al – Kamal , and from the ancestral father is a descendant of the royal family crown of Nature . Darul Kamal and crown – Alam said the settlement formerly the two neighboring ( separated by rivers) and the joint is the origin of Aceh Darussalam. Iskandar Muda alone represents the second branch, which is fully entitled to claim the throne .

His mother , named Princess Raja Indra Nation, which also named His Majesty the Shah Alam, is the son of Sultan Alauddin Shah Riayat, Sultan 10th ; where This sultan was the son of Sultan Shah ‘s Word , and Word Sultan Shah is the son or grandson (according Djajadiningrat ) Sultan of Inayat Shah , King of Darul – Kamal .

Raja Indra ‘s daughter is married to the Nation a massive ceremony with Sultan Mansur Shah , the son of Sultan Abdul – Jalil , where Abdul – Jalil is the son of Sultan Alauddin Shah al – Kahhar Riayat, Sultan


Sultan Iskandar Muda later married a princess from Sultanate of Pahang. Princess is known by the name Putroe Phang. It is said , because too love the emperor with his wife , the Sultan ordered the construction of fictional structure’s history in the middle field ( Castle Park ) as a sign of his love . Reportedly, the princess is always sad because it harbored a profound longing for home which is hilly . Therefore Sultan build Structure’s history mengubati longing for the princess . Until now, this structure’s history can still be seen and visited.


Sultan Iskandar Muda ‘s reign which began in 1607 until 1636, is the most glorious period for Aceh Sultanate, although on the other side of the tight control by Iskandar Muda , caused many rebellions in the future after the death of the Emperor.

Aceh is a very rich country and prosperous in its heyday . According to an explorer of origin France who arrived in Aceh in the heyday era Sultan Iskandar Muda Perkasa Alam Meukuta, The power reaching the west coast of Aceh Minangkabau. Aceh powers also include up to Silver .

When Iskandar Muda came to power in 1607, he soon made a naval expedition that caused him to gain effective control in the area northwest Indonesia. Full royal accomplished smoothly at all important ports on the west coast of Sumatra and on the east coast , to the Shavings in the south. Sailing conquest waged far into Penang, on the east coast Malays Peninsula, and foreign merchants were forced to submit to him . His kingdom wealthy , and became the center of science.

Controls on domestic

According to the tradition of Aceh , Iskandar Muda Aceh region divided into administrative regions called uleebalangs and habitation; This was reinforced by reports of a French explorer named Beauliu , that “Iskandar Muda clearing out almost all of the old nobility and created a new aristocracy. Habitation1 initially is the set of several villages to support an mosque headed by a Priest (Aceh: Imeum) . Uleebalangs (Wither: Commander) Initially perhaps the major subordinate Sultan , who was awarded the Sultan of several mukims , to manage as a feudal owners . This pattern in djumpai Aceh Besar and in lands conquered Aceh important .

Relationship with a foreign nation


On 16th century, Queen English, Elizabeth I, Sent his envoy named Sir James Lancester to the Kingdom of Aceh and send a letter addressed : “To Civil Servant , King of Aceh Darussalam.” and a set of high- value jewelry . Sultanate of Aceh at that time did receive good intentions ” sister ” in the UK and allow UK to anchor and to trade on the territory of Aceh . Even the Sultan also sent valuable gifts , including a pair of bracelets of rubies and a letter written on fine paper with gold ink . Sir James was awarded the title ” Rich White People . “

Sultan also reply to a letter from Queen Elizabeth I. Here are excerpts of the letter the Sultan of Aceh , which is still kept by the government of the British Empire , dated 1585 year :

I am the mighty Ruler of the Regions below the wind , the WHO holds sway over the land of Aceh and over-the land of Sumatra and over all the lands tributary to Aceh , Which stretch from the sunrise to the sunset.

( present yourselves mighty ruler Countries under the wind , which accumulated on the ground in Aceh and on land Sumatra and over the whole area is subject to the Aceh region , which stretches from horizon sunrise to sunset) .

intimate relationship between Aceh and the King of England continued in James I of England and Scotland . King James sent a cannon as a gift to the Sultan of Aceh . The cannon is still preserved and known by the name of King James Cannon .


In addition to the United Kingdom, Prince Maurits – founder Oranje dynasty– also had sent a letter with the intention of asking the help of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam. Sultan welcomed their good intentions by sending emissaries to party Netherlands. The delegation was led by Tuanku Abdul Hamid.



File:Aceh Sultanate en.svg

The conquest of Iskandar Muda, 1608-1637.

The successes of Iskandar Muda were based on his military strength. His armed forces consisted of a navy of heavy galleys each with 600-800 men, a cavalry using Persian horses, an elephant corps, conscripted infantry forces  and more than 2000 cannons and guns (of both Sumatran and European origin).  Upongaining power, he began consolidating control over northern Sumatra. In 1612 he conquered Deli, and in 1613 Aruand Johor. Upon the conquest of Johor, its sultan, Alauddin Riayat Syah II, and other members of the royal family were brought to Aceh, along with a group of traders from theDutch East India Company. However, Johor was able to expel the Acehnese garrison later that year, and Iskandar Muda was never able to assert permanent control over the area. Johor further built an alliance with PahangPalembangJambiInderagiriKampar andSiak against Aceh.

Iskandar Muda’s campaigns continued, however, and he was able to defeat a Portuguesefleet at Bintan in 1614. In 1617 he conquered Pahang and carried its sultan Ahmad Syahto Aceh, and thus achieved a foothold on the Malayan peninsula.This conquest was followed by Kedah in 1619, in which the capital was laid waste and the surviving inhabitants were brought to Aceh. A similar capture of Perak occurred in 1620, when 5,000 people were captured and left to die in Aceh. He again sacked Johor in 1623 and took Nias in 1624/5. At this point Aceh’s strength seriously thretened the Portuguese holding of Melaka. In 1629, he sent several hundred ships to attack Melaka, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all of his ships were destroyed along with 19,000 men. After this loss, Iskandar Muda launched only two more sea expeditions, in 1630/1 and 1634, both to suppress revolts in Pahang. His sultanate maintained control over northern Sumatra, but was never able to gain supremacy in the strait or expand the empire to the rich pepper-producing region of Lampung on the southern part of the island, which was under the control of the sultanate of Banten.

Economy and administration

File:Jirat Soleutan Eseukanda Muda.JPG

Sultan Iskandar Muda’s tomb in Banda Aceh

The economic foundations of the sultanate was the spice trade, especially in pepper. The conflicts between Aceh and Johor and Portuguese Melacca, as well as the numerous pepper-producing ports in the sultanate’s domain, were the main causes of the military conflict. Other major exports included cloves and nutmegs, as well as betel nuts, whose narcotic properties bypassed the Muslim prohibition of alcohol. Exports, encouraged by the Ottoman Sultans as an alternative to the “infidel” (i.e. Portuguese)-controlled route around Africa, added to the wealth of the sultanate. Iskandar Muda also made shrewd economic decisions that supported growth, such as low interest rates and the widespread use of small gold coins (mas).However, like other sultanates in the area it had trouble compelling the farms in the hinterland to produce sufficient excess food for the military and commercial activities of the capital. Indeed, one of the aims of Iskandar Muda’s campaigns was to bring prisoners-of-war who could act as slaves for agricultural production.

One reason for Iskandar Muda’s success, in contrast to the weaker sultans who preceded and succeeded him, was his ability to suppress the Acehnese elite, known as the orang kaya (“powerful men”). Through the royal monopoly on trade, he was able to keep them dependent on his favor. The orang kaya were forced to attend court where they could be supervised, and were prohibited from building independent houses, which could be used for military purposes or hold cannons. He sought to create a new nobility of “war leaders” (Malay languagehulubalangAcehneseuleëbalang), whom he gave districts (mukim) in feudal tenure. After his reign, however, the elite often supported weaker sultans, in order to maintain their own autonomy. He also sought to replace the Acehnese princes with royal officials called panglima, who had to report annually and were subject to periodic appraisal. An elite palace guard was created, consisting of 3,000 women. He passed legal reforms which created a network of courts using Islamic jurisprudence. His system of law and administration became a model for other Islamic states in Indonesia.

Iskandar Muda’s reign was also marked by considerable brutality, directed at disobedient subjects. He also did not hesitate to execute wealthy subjects and confiscate their wealth. Punishments for offenses were gruesome; a French visitor in the 1620s reported “every day the King would have people’s noses cut off, eyes dug out, castrations, feet cut off, or hands, ears, and other parts mutilated, very often for some very small matter.” He had his own son killed, and named his son-in-law, the son of the captured sultan of Pahang, as his successor, Iskandar Thani.


During Iskandar Muda’s reign, eminent Islamic scholars were attracted to Aceh and made it a center of Islamic scholarship. Iskandar Muda favored the tradition of the Sufi mystics Hamzah Pansuri and Syamsuddin of Pasai, both of whom resided at the court of Aceh. These writers’ works were translated into other Indonesian languages, and had considerable influence across the peninsula. Both were later denounced for their heretical ideas by Nuruddin ar-Raniri, who arrived in the Aceh court during the reign of Iskandar Thani, and their books were ordered to be burnt.

The chronicle Hikayat Aceh (“The Story of Aceh”) was probably written during the reign of Iskandar Muda, although some date it later.It describes the history of the sultanate and praises Iskandar Muda in his youth. It was apparently inspired by the Persian Akbarnama for the Mogul Emperor Akbar.


Among the Acehnese, Iskandar Muda is revered as a hero and symbol of Aceh’s past greatness. Posthumously he was given the titlePo Teuh Meureuhom, which means “Our Beloved Late Lord,or “Marhum Mahkota Alam”.

He has several buildings and structures in and near Banda Aceh named after him, including the Sultan Iskandarmuda Airport and Sultan Iskandar Muda Air Force Base. Kodam Iskandar Muda is the name of the military area commands overseeing Aceh Province.


The Sultanate of Aceh was established by Sultan Ali Mughayatsyah in 1511. Then, During itsgolden era) in the 15th century, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern ThailandJohor in Malay Peninsula, and Siak in what is today the province of Riau. As was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca. It was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production.

After the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing theMalacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh and increased Acehnese rulers’ wealth. During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 17th century, Aceh’s influence extended to most ofSumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Acehnese military power waned gradually thereafter, and Aceh ceded its territory of Pariamanin Sumatra to the Dutch in 18th century.

By the early nineteenth century, however, Aceh had become an increasingly influential power due to its strategic location for controlling regional trade. In the 1820s it was the producer of over half the world’s supply of black pepper. The pepper trade produced new wealth for the Sultanate and for the rulers of many smaller nearby ports that had been under Aceh’s control, but were now able to assert more independence. These changes initially threatened Aceh’s integrity, but a new sultan Tuanku Ibrahim, who controlled the kingdom from 1838 to 1870, reasserted power over nearby ports.

Under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 the British ceded their colonial possessions on Sumatra to the Dutch. In the treaty, the British described Aceh as one of their possessions, although they had no actual control over the Sultanate. Initially, under the agreement the Dutch agreed to respect Aceh’s independence. In 1871, however, the British dropped previous opposition to a Dutch invasion of Aceh, possibly to prevent France or the United States from gaining a foothold in the region. Although neither the Dutch nor the British knew the specifics, there had been rumors since the 1850s that Aceh had been in communication with rulers of France and of the Ottoman Empire.

Aceh War

Main article: Aceh War
File:Generaal Kohler sneuvelt in de Mesigit.jpg

General Kohler, commandant of Dutch troops, died after shot by Acehnese sniper during first aggression to Aceh

Pirates operating out of Aceh threatened commerce in the Strait of Malacca; the sultan was unable to control them. Britain was a protector of Aceh and gave the Netherlands permission to eradicate the pirates. The campaign quickly drove out the sultan but the local leaders mobilized and fought the Dutch in four decades of guerrilla war, with high levels of atrocities. The Dutch colonial government declared war on Aceh on 26 March 1873. Aceh sought American help but was rejected by Washington.

The Dutch tried one strategy after another over the course of four decades. An expedition under Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler in 1873 occupied most of the coastal areas. It was his strategy to attack and take the Sultan’s palace. It failed. They then tried a naval blockade, reconciliation, concentration within a line of forts, then passive containment. They had scant success. Reaching 15 to 20 million guilders a year, the heavy spending for failed strategies nearly bankrupted the colonial government.

The Aceh army was rapidly modernized, and Aceh soldiers managed to kill Köhler (a monument to this achievement has been built inside Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh). Köhler made some grave tactical errors and the reputation of the Dutch was severely harmed. In addition, in recent years in line with expanding international attention to human rights issues and atrocities in war zones, there has been increasing discussion about the some of the recorded acts of cruelty and slaughter committed by Dutch troops during the period of warfare in Aceh.

Hasan Mustafa (1852–1930) was a chief ‘penghulu,’ or judge, for the colonial government and was stationed in Aceh. He had to balance traditional Muslim justice with Dutch law. To stop the Aceh rebellion, Hasan Mustafa issued a fatwa, telling the Muslims there in 1894, “It is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to be loyal to the Dutch East Indies Government”.

Later years and conquest by the Dutch

File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van de Sultan van Atjeh TMnr 10001853.jpg

Tuanku Muhammad Daudsyah Johan Berdaulat, the last Sultan of Aceh.

In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, Koh Lay Huan – the firstKapitan Cina of Penang, had good contacts with the English-and-French-speaking Sultan of Aceh, Jauhar al-Alam. The Sultan allowed Koh to gather pepper plants in Aceh to begin pepper cultivation in Penang. Later, about 1819, Koh helped Sultan Jauhar al-Alam put down a rebellion by Acehnese territorial chiefs.

In the 1820s, as Aceh produced over half the world’s supply of pepper, a new leader, Tuanku Ibrahim, was able to restore some authority to the Sultanate and gain control over the “pepper rajas” who were nominal vassals of the Sultan by playing them off against each other. He rose to power during the Sultanate of his brother, Muhammad Syah, and was able to dominate the reign of his successor Sulaiman Syah (r. 1838–1857), before taking the Sultanate himself, under the title Sultan Ali Alauddin Mansur Syah (1857–1870). He extended Aceh’s effective control southward at just the time when the Dutch were consolidating their holdings northward.

Britain, heretofore guarding the independence of Aceh in order to keep it out of Dutch hands, re-evaluated its policy and concluded the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra, which allowed for Dutch control throughout Sumatra in exchange for concessions in the Gold Coast and equal trading rights in northern Aceh. The treaty was tantamount to a declaration of war on Aceh, and the Aceh War followed soon after in 1873. As the Dutch prepared for war, Mahmud Syah (1870–1874) appealed for international help, but no one was willing or able to assist.

In 1874 the Sultan abandoned the capital, withdrawing to the hills, while the Dutch announced the annexation of Aceh. He eventually died of cholera, as did many combatants on both sides, but the Acehnese proclaimed a grandson of Tuanku Ibrahim Sultan. The local rulers of Acehnese ports nominally submitted to Dutch authority in order to avoid a blockade, but they used their income to support the resistance.

However, eventually many of them compromised with the Dutch, and the Dutch were able establish a fairly stable government in Aceh with their cooperation, and get the Sultan to surrender in 1903. After his death in 1907, no successor was named, but the resistance continued to fight for some time.


Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah’s tomb inBanda Aceh

Sultan tomb complex from era before Iskandar Muda in Banda Aceh

Sultan Iskandar Muda’s tomb in Banda Aceh

A complex of tomb of Acehnese sultan from Bugis descendant in Banda Aceh

Sultan of Aceh Reign
Ali Mughayat Syah 1496–1528
Salahuddin 1528–1537
Alauddin al Qahhar 1537–1568
Husain Ali I Riayat Syah 1568–1575
Muda 1575
Sri Alam 1575–1576
Zainal Abidin 1576–1577
Alauddin II Mansur I Syah 1577–1589
Buyong 1589–1596
Alauddin III Riayat Syah Sayyid al-Mukammil 1596–1604
Ali II Riayat Syah 1604–1607
Iskandar Muda 1607–1636
Iskandar Thani 1636–1641
Ratu Safiatuddin Tajul Alam 1641–1675
Ratu Naqiatuddin Nurul Alam 1675–1678
Ratu Zaqiatuddin Inayat Syah 1678–1688
Ratu Kamalat Syah Zinatuddin 1688–1699
Badrul Alam Syarif Hashim Jamaluddin 1699–1702
Perkasa Alam Syarif Lamtui Syah Johan Berdaulat 1702–1703
Jamal ul Alam Badrul Munir 1703–1726
Jauhar ul Alam Aminuddin 1726
Syamsul Alam 1726–1727
Alauddin IV Ahmad Syah 1727–1735
Alauddin V Johan Syah 1735–1760
Mahmud I Syah 1760–1781
Badruddin Syah 1764–1785
Sulaiman I Syah 1775–1781
Alauddin VI Muhammad I Daud Syah 1781–1795
Alauddin VII Jauhar ul Alam 1795–1815
Syarif Saif ul Alam 1815–1818
Alauddin VII Jauhar ul Alam (second time) 1818–1824
Muhammad II Syah 1824–1838
Sulaiman II Syah 1838–1857
Mansur II Syah 1857–1870
Mahmud II Syah 1870–1874
Muhammad III Daud Syah Johan Berdaulat 1874–1903




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Portrait of Prince Diponegoro, 1835
Spouse Kedhaton
17 sons and 5 daughters
Full name
House Hamengkubuwana
Father Hamengkubuwana III
Mother Mangkarawati
Born 11 November 1785(1785-11-11)
Yogyakarta Sultanate
Died 8 January 1855 (aged 69)
Makassar, Dutch East Indies
Burial Makassar, Dutch East Indies

Diponegoro (Mustahar; Antawirya; 11 November 1785 – 8 January 1855),[1] also known as Dipanegara, was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. He played an important role in the Java War (1825-1830). In 1830, the Dutch exiled him to Makassar.

[edit] Early life

Diponegoro was born on 11 November 1785 in Yogyakarta, and was the eldest son of Sultan Hamengkubuwono III of Yogyakarta. When the sultan died in 1814, Diponegoro was passed over for the succession to the throne in favor of his younger half brother who was supported by the Dutch. Being a devout Muslim, Diponegoro was alarmed by the relaxing of religious observance at his half brother’s court, as well as by the court’s pro-Dutch policy. When his half brother died, leaving only an infant son as heir, Diponegoro was again passed over, though he believed he had been promised the right to succeed his half brother.[2]

[edit] Rebellion against the Dutch

Dutch colonial rule was becoming unpopular by the local farmers because of tax rises, crop failures and by Javanese nobles because the Dutch colonial authorities deprived them of their right to lease land. Because the local farmers and many nobles were ready to support Diponegoro and because he believed that he had been chosen by divine powers to lead a rebellion against the Christian colonials, he started a holy war against the Dutch. Dipenogoro was widely believed to be the Ratu Adil, the Just Ruler predicted in the Pralembang Joyoboyo.[citation needed]

The beginning of the war saw large losses on the side of the Dutch, due to their lack of coherent strategy and commitment in fighting Diponegoro’s guerrilla warfare. Ambushes were set up, and food supplies were denied to the Dutch troops. The Dutch finally committed themselves to controlling the spreading rebellion by increasing the number of troops and sending General De Kock to stop the insurgencies. De Kock developed a strategy of fortified camps (benteng) and mobile forces. Heavily-fortified and well-defended soldiers occupied key landmarks to limit the movement of Diponegoro’s troops while mobile forces tried to find and fight the rebels. From 1829, Diponegoro definitely lost the initiative and he was put in a defensive position. Many troops and leaders were defeated or deserted.

[edit] Defeat and exile

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock in 1830, painting by Nicolaas Pieneman

In 1830 Diponegoro’s military was as good as beaten and negotiations were started. Diponegoro demanded to have a free state under a sultan and he wanted to become the Muslim leader (kalief) for the whole of Java. In march 1830 he was invited to negotiate under a flag of truce. He accepted but was taken prisoner on 28 March despite the flag of truce. De Kock claims that he had warned several Javanese nobles to tell Diponegoro he had to lessen his previous demands or that he would be forced to take other measures.[3]. The Dutch exiled him to Makassar (South Sulawesi)



 Saturday, 24 April 2010 at 07:58

Sisingamangaraja XII

When Sisingamangaraja XII was crowned the King Batak, this time he was only 19 years old. Until the year 1886, almost entire Sumatra already mastered the Netherlands except in Aceh and the Batak lands which are still in the situation of freedom and peace under the leadership of King Sisingamangaraja XII is still young. People’s farming and livestock breeding, hunting and a little trade. If King Sisingamangaraja XII visiting a country all the “terbeang” or captured, should be released. Sisingamangaraja XII’s famous anti-slavery, anti-oppression and would appreciate independence. Netherlands at that time still admit the Batak land as “De Onafhankelijke Bataklandan” (Batak Region that do not depend on the Dutch.

Year 1837, the Dutch colonialists extinguish “Padri War” and paved the way for colonial rule in Minangkabau and South Tapanuli. Minangkabau fall into the hands of the Netherlands, following the Christmas area, Mandailing, Barumun, Kildare Alternating, Angkola, Sipirok, Beach Barus and Sibolga area.

Therefore, since 1837, the Batak land was split into two parts, namely regions that have been seized by the Dutch into the country’s Gubernemen called “Residentie Tapanuli and Onderhoorigheden”, with a resident domiciled in Sibolga is administratively subordinate to the Governor of the Netherlands at the Padang. While other parts of the Batak land, ie areas Silindung, Pahae, Habinsaran, Dairi, Humbang, Toba Samosir, yet managed to remain dominated by the Dutch and the Dutch recognized as an independent Batak land, or ‘De Onafhankelijke Bataklandan’.

In 1873, the Dutch declared war on Aceh, and troops landed on the shores of Aceh. At that time the Batak land where King Sisingamangaraja XII in power, still has not been colonized by the Dutch.
But when three years later, in 1876, the Netherlands announced a “Regerings” Besluit Year 1876 “which states the Silindung / Tarutung and surrounding submitted to Dutch rule, and must submit to the Resident of the Netherlands in Sibolga, the atmosphere in the northern part of the Batak land into heat.
King Sisingamangaraja XII that despite the clan, not from Silindung, but as King of kings who protect others around the Batak land, rose kegeramannya saw the Dutch began to annex the lands of the Batak.

King Sisingamangaraja XII witted ploy Dutch strategy. When the Dutch began to annex Silindung, surely they will catch up with the annexed Humbang, Toba Samosir, Dairi and others.
King Sisingamangaraja XII quick to act, he immediately took steps consolidation. Other Batak kings and community leaders in a meeting dihimpunnya giant Balige Market, June 1876. In an important and historic meeting had taken three decisions as follows:
1. Declaring war on the Netherlands
2. Protestant Religion was not disrupted
3. Cooperate Batak and Acehnese to equally against the Dutch.

Seen from this event, who Sisingamangaraja XII with ferocious zeal, declared war against the Dutch who wanted to colonize. It was found, Sisingamangaraja XII was not anti-religion. And look also, Sisingamangaraja XII in his day, was able to establish the principles and spirit of unity and other tribes.

Year 1877, start of the famous Batak war, which lasted 30 years.
Started in Stone Bahal, Humbang, a fierce battle raged for three decades, 30 years old.
Dutch mobilize troops from Aceh Singkil, attacking people’s army led by King of the universe Sisingamangaraja XII.

Dutch troops who had come to attack toward the Bakara, where the palace and the headquarters of the Stairs Stone Sisingamangaraja XII, Balige resistance and managed to get dihempang.
Dutch change tactics, he invaded the region in the next round Balige to seize the bag in the area of logistics Sisingamangaraja XII Toba, henceforth entered blockade of Bakara.
In 1882, almost the entire area has been dominated Balige Netherlands, while Laguboti still maintained by commanders such as Commander of the XII Sisingamangaraja Ompu Partahan Translated Hutapea. New year later Laguboti fell after the Dutch deployed a battalion of troops along the line fusiliers cannon.

Year 1883, as he had feared much earlier by Sisingamangaraja XII, now turn to the Dutch annexed Toba. The next domino to be a large Dutch troops from Batavia (now Jakarta), landed on the beach Sibolga. Also deployed troops from the District Court.
Sisingamangaraja XII King of the Netherlands in reply to attacks from the direction of Huta Balige Pardede. Both the naval forces of the Lake Toba, troops deployed Sisingamangaraja XII. Forty-Solu Bolon or ships, each 20 meters in length to transport troops and as many as 20 x 40 people 800 people rode so Balige. A great battle going on.

In 1883, the Dutch really exert all his power and his generals Sisingamangaraja XII and also fought vigorously. That year, in almost all Batak land the Dutch troops had to endure from the advancing troops loyal to the struggle of King Sisingamangaraja XII.
However, on August 12, 1883, Bakara, where the Palace and the Headquarters Sisingamangaraja XII successfully captured by Dutch troops. Sisingamangaraja XII resigned to the Dairi with his family and loyal troops, also joined the Commander-Commander of Acehnese and others.

At that time, Mount Krakatoa erupted. Black cloud covering the Batak land. A bad address as if it came. Before this event, in critical situations, Sisingamangaraja XII tried to consolidate to expand the front of resistance. He visited the shavings, Tanah Karo, Simalungun for coordinating the struggle and resistance against the Dutch.
In motion the struggle that so many stories about the supernatural powers of King Sisingamangaraja XII.
Sisingamangaraja XII Resistance forces had widened and cried, but the Netherlands is also willing to take big risks, by continuing to bring in reinforcements from Batavia, Fort De Kok, Sibolga and Aceh. Barisan Marsuse also brought in the prisoners even trafficked from Java to become the bait ball and shield the Dutch troops.

Tracker teams from Africa, also brought in to search for hiding Sisingamangaraja XII. Barisan tracker consists of the people of Senegal. By enemy forces Sisingamangaraja XII was nicknamed “The Ulu Gurbak Birong Na.” But the army continued to fight Sisingamangaraja XII. Commander Sarbut Tampubolon Butar attacked barracks in the Netherlands, the Netherlands was invaded Lintong and dealing with the King Ompu Babiat Situmorang. But the attack also Sisingamangaraja XII to Lintong Nihuta, Hutaraja, Simangarongsang, Huta Paung, Parsingguran and Pollung. Commander of the famous Sisingamangaraja XII Amandopang Manullang caught. And the character who became Special Advisor Parmalim King Sisingamangaraja XII, Teachers Somaling Pardede also captured the Dutch. This happened in 1889.

In 1890, the Dutch formed special forces to attack Marechaussee Sisingamangaraja XII. In the early 20th century, the Dutch began to work in Aceh.

In 1903, Commander Polim stop the resistance. But in Gayo, where King Sisingamangaraja XII never visited, the resistance was fierce. Come in from the Gayo Alas Dutch troops attacked Sisingamangaraja XII.

In 1907, the Dutch army colonel named Tiger or Devil’s Brigade surrounded the Sisingamangaraja XII. Sisingamangaraja XII but not willing to surrender. He fight to the death. Boru Sagala, Wife Sisingamangaraja XII, Dutch troops captured. Participate caught Sisingamangaraja XII sons and daughters are still small. King Pufferfishes and Pangkilim. Following Boru’s mother Situmorang Sisingamangaraja XII was also arrested, following the Edit Mariam, daughter Sisingamangaraja XII and others.

In 1907, on the edge of time Aek Sibulbulon, in a village whose name Si Onom Hudon, on the border of North Tapanuli and Dairi Regency is now, servants Sisingamangaraja XII by bullets Marsuse Netherlands led by Captain Christoffel. Sisingamangaraja XII died along with two sons and Patuan Patuan Nagari Lopian Anggi and his daughter. King allegedly bulletproof Sisingamangaraja XII died after a bullet hit his daughter’s blood spattered Lopian, who died in her lap.
His followers split up and try to continue to fight, while the family who still live Sisingamangaraja XII imprisoned, humiliated and dinista, they too become victims of the struggle involved.

Thus, without a known surrender, without wanting to negotiate with the occupiers, without ever being held, persistent, tenacious, militant, Raja Sisingamangaraja XII during 30 years, for three decades, has been struggling with a selfless spirit and love of the homeland and to its independence is not bertara .
That is what is called “Spirit Juang Sisingamangaraja XII,” which need to inherited all the Indonesian people, especially the younger generation.
Sisingamangaraja XII really a true patriot. He is not willing to sell the ground water for personal enjoyment.

Before he died, was once the Dutch colonizers to offer peace to the King Sisingamangaraja XII in return for lucrative enough. Patriotism heavy ribbing. He was offered and promised to be appointed as the Sultan. If only the Dutch are willing to submit to authority. He will become King of the Batak land which would like to make peace. Van Daalen Dutch Governor who gave the offer even promised, will welcome the arrival of the King himself Sisingamangaraja XII with cannon fire 21 times, if willing to enter into the lap of the Netherlands, and will be given a position with great pleasure, so long as willing to compromise, but the King Sisingamangaraja XII firmly rejected. He is opinionated, it’s better than living on land berkalang clash colonizers.

King Sisingamangaraja XII died on June 17, 1907, but his sacrifice was not in vain.
And just 38 years later, the invaders really lift the foot from Indonesia. On August 17, 1945, the Indonesian independence was proclaimed Sukarno-Hatta.


Tuanku Imam Bonjol

Tuanku Imam Bonjol

Indonesian From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia

Tuanku Imam Bonjol 

Padri leader 
k.1821– k.1837
Ruling monarchy Pagaruyung

Born 1772
Died 6 November 1864
Nationality Minangkabau
Religion Islam

Tuanku Imam Bonjol (Born Knurl, Pasaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia 1772 – died in exile and was buried in Lotak, Pineleng , Minahasa, 6 November 1864) , is one cleric, Leaders and warriors who fought against Netherlands in the wars known as Padri War in the years 1803-1837 . Tuanku Imam Bonjol appointed Indonesia National Heroes based on Presidential Decree No. 1973 087/TK/Tahun , dated 6 November 1973[ 1 ].

Table of contents


       1 Name and title

       2 History of struggle

       3 Arrest and exile

       4 Appreciation

       5 External links

[edit] Name and title

The original name of Tuanku Imam Bonjol is Muhammad Shahab, who was born in Knurl in 1772. As scholars and local community leaders , he obtained several degrees , ie Peto Sharif, Malin Bases, and Tuanku Imam. Lord nan Renceh from Kamang as one of the leaders of Tiger nan Salapan is appointed Priest ( leader ) for the Padri in Bonjol . He finally better known as the Tuanku Imam Bonjol .

[edit] History of struggle

The main article for this section are: Padri War

can not be denied , Padri War leave at once heroic traumatic memories in the memory of the nation. For about 18 years old the first war ( 1803-1821 ) who fought a practical fellow Minang and Mandailing or Hobo general.

At first occurrence of this war based on a desire among leaders in the clergy Pagaruyung Kingdom to implement and run the Shari’a Islam in accordance with Wahabi sect which time it developed in Arab lands (Saudi Arabia now) . Then the leader of the clergy who are members of Tiger nan Salapan request Tuanku Lintau to invite the King Pagaruyung Sultan Muning Alamsyah along Indigenous people to leave some habits that are not compatible with Islam .

In some negotiations no agreement between The Padri ( naming for the clergy ) with Indigenous people. As it was in some Nagari Pagaruyung turmoil in the kingdom , and finally The Padri under the leadership of Tuanku Pasaman attack Pagaruyung in 1815 , and fighting broke out in SMART INVESTOR close Stone Cage. Sultan Muning Alamsyah forced to flee from the capital of the kingdom .

On February 21 1821, the Indigenous formally cooperate with the government Dutch East Indies fight against the Padri in the agreement that was signed in Padang , as compensation Netherlands obtained rights to access and control over territory darek ( inland Minangkabau )[ 2 ]. Agreement was also attended by the rest of the family dynasty Pagaruyung Kingdom under the command of Nature talisman Sultan Bagagar who have been in Field that time.

Intervention Netherlands in that war marked by attack Simawang and Difficult Water by army Captain Captain Dienema Goffinet and early April 1821 on the orders of the Resident James du Puy in Padang . In this case VOC engage in war because of ” invited “by the indigenous .

Resistance carried out by forces strong enough so that the priest is very difficult for them subject Netherlands . Therefore the Netherlands through the Governor -General Johannes van den Bosch invites leaders The Padri which time it has been led by the Tuanku Imam Bonjol to make peace with the intimation ” Agreements install a “ in 1824. This is understandable because while simultaneously Batavia also run out of funds in the face of another war in Europe and Java as Diponegoro War. But then this agreement is violated by the Dutch themselves by attacking Nagari Clever Sikek.

However , since the beginning 1833 the war turned into a war between the Indigenous and the Padri against the Dutch , the two sides shoulder to shoulder against the Dutch , the original parties to the conflict finally unite against the Dutch . Tip of remorse appears consciousness, inviting the Dutch society in the conflict just miserable Minangkabau itself [ 3 ]. Merging of the indigenous and the Padri was started with compromise known as The peak plaque Pato in Broken Tabek which embodies the consensus Indigenous basandi Syarak , Syarak basandi Kitabullah ( Indigenous based on Religion , Religious based Kitabullah (Al – Quran) ) .

Tuanku Imam Bonjol remorse for the actions of the Padri on fellow Minang , Batak Mandailing and , reflected in his words ” Adopun Kitabullah law is malampau deck caused many Kito juo . Baä your deck ? “ ( As many of the laws that already terlangkahi Kitabullah by us. How do you mind ? )[ 3 ]

Assault and siege of the fort by the Padri in Bonjol Netherlands from all directions for about six months (March 16 – August 17, 1837 )[ 4 ] led by the generals and the officers of the Netherlands , but the army is largely composed of indigenous peoples from various tribes , such as Java, Madura, Bugis, and Ambon. In the list of names of the Dutch army officer , Maj. Gen. Cochius there , Lt. Col. Bauer , sous Major , Captain Maclean , Lieutenant Van der Tak, Assistant First Lieutenant Steinmetz . and so on , but also terda [at the names Inlandsche (indigenous) as Captain Noto Prawiro Inlandsche Luitenant Prawiro in Logo , Karto Wongso Redjo Wiro , Prawiro Sentiko , Prawiro Brotto , and Merto Poero .

There are 148 European officers , 36 native officers , 1103 soldiers of Europe , 4130 native troops , Sumenapsche hulptroepen hieronder begrepen ( auxiliary troops Sumenep , Madura ) . The attack on the fort began Bonjol Bugis people who are in the front of the defense attack Padri .

From Batavia brought in extra forces kept the Dutch army , which on the date July 20 1837 The ship arrived with Perle in Padang , Captain Sinninghe , a number of people Europe and Africa, 1 Sergeant, 4 korporaals and 112 flankeurs. The latter refers to the African soldiers recruited by the Netherlands in the continent , the present state Ghana and Mali. They also called Sepoys and served in the Dutch army .

[edit] Arrest and exile

After aid comes from Batavia , the Dutch began to resume the siege , and in subsequent periods , the position of Tuanku Imam Bonjol get more difficult , but she is still unwilling to surrender to the Dutch . So up to three times the Dutch to change his war commander to seize Bonjol , which is a small country with a fort from the surrounding clay surrounded by moats . Later on, August 16 1837, Fort Bonjol can be mastered after long siege .

In the month of October 1837 , Tuanku Imam Bonjol invited to Palupuh to negotiate. Arriving at the place was immediately arrested and thrown into Cianjur, West Java. Then transferred to Ambon , and finally to Lotak , Minahasa, Near Manado. In the last place that he died on 8 November 1864. Tuanku Imam Bonjol buried at the exile .

[edit] Appreciation

The struggle that has been done by the Tuanku Imam Bonjol can be appreciation will heroism in opposing colonialism[ 5 ], as an award from the Indonesian government that represents the people of Indonesia in general , was appointed Tuanku Imam Bonjol Indonesia National Heroes date 6 November 1973.

Besides his name is also present in the public spaces of the nation as a street name , the name of the stadium , a university , even at USD 5000 output sheets Bank Indonesia 6 November 2001[ 6 ].

Tuanku Imam Bonjol hero story ” Chief of the Padri War “

March 30, 2009 at 8:18 pm | Written in Imam Bonjol, Indigenous people, Denomination | 5 Comments

By: Suryadi

Tuanku Imam Bonjol ( TIB ) ( 1722-1864 ) , who was appointed as a national hero berdasarkam Presidential Decree No. 1973 087/TK/Tahun , 6 November 1973, was the main leader Padri War in West Sumatra ( 1803-1837 ), a persistent fight against the Dutch .

During 62 years of independent Indonesia , the name of Tuanku Imam Bonjol present in the public space of the nation: as a street name , the name of the stadium , a university , even in sheet USD 5000 output of Bank Indonesia 6 November 2001.

However , recently appeared petition , sued his heroism . TIB accused of violating human rights because it forces invaded Padri Batak Land (1816-1833) which killed ” millions ” of people in that region ( http://www.petitiononline . com / knurl / petition.html ) .

Padri cruelty highlighted by the publication of books MO Parlindungan , Pongkinangolngolan Sinamabela degree Tuanku Rao : Hambali school of Islamic Terror in the Batak land , 1816-1833 ( 2006 ) ( first edition published in 1964 , which has been criticized Hamka , 1974 ) , later followed by Basyral Hamidy Harahap , Greget Tuanku Rao ( 2007 ) .

Both authors , incidentally from the Batak land , describing the suffering of his ancestors and the Batak generally during the assault troops in the region 1816-1833 Padri Mandailing , Bakkara , and surrounding areas ( Tempo , October 2007 ) .

heroic myths

The emergence of a correction in the recent history of Indonesia discourse raises criticism against the concept of a national hero . Intellectuals and academics , especially historians , is the most responsible party if the evaluation of the historical discourse that only resulted in the emergence of friction at the basic level has the potential to divide this nation .

the academic end of the pen must be sharp , but the texts torehannya results should not contain ” hot air ” . That is why in the academic tradition , subjective nuanced words in texts to be removed to the writer .

Each generation is entitled to interpret history ( nation ) of his own . However , a new generation of this nation , who live in the imagination – globalism should be aware of , any nation-state in the world requires confirmation myths . Myth inauguration was not bad . He is an important element in the -there ‘s the ” glue ” of the nation. national hero , such as Prince Diponegoro , Sultan Hasanuddin , Sisingamangaraja XII , also TIB , and others are part of the inauguration of the Indonesian nation myth .

Jeffrey Hadler in ” An History of Violence and Secular State in Indonesia : Tuanku Imam Bondjol and Uses of History ” (forthcoming in the Journal of Asian Studies , 2008 ) indicates , heroism TIB has been established since the early days of independence until the New Order era , related at least three interests .

First, created the myth of the indomitable hero against the Dutch as part of the historical discourse of unifying the nation .

Second, eliminating the discourse of Islamic radicalism in the nation-state efforts to create tolerant of religious and cultural diversity .

Third, ” embrace ” ethnic Minang back to haribaan Indonesia , which has been a negative stigma in the eyes due to the events center PRRI.

We’re not sure , been there a seed particle at the time of the struggle keindonesiaan TIB and other local figures who lived with her contemporaries , now known as a national hero .

We also know that era of slavery is part of the social system and some of the traditional royal Nusantara territorial expansion by attacking a neighboring kingdom . Local leaders fought against the Dutch because it encouraged the spirit of regionalism , possibly backed by the desire to maintain hegemony as a ruler who gets rival due to the arrival of the West . However , they eventually became a national hero because the nation needs a unifying myth .

Not a perfect man

It can not be denied , leaving the Padri War traumatic memories in the memory at once heroic nation. For about 20 years old the first war ( 1803-1821 ) that killing is a practical fellow Minangkabau and Batak Mandailing or general.

Dutch intervention in the war marked by attack Simawang and Hard Water by army Captain Captain Dienema Goffinet and early April 1821 on the orders of the Resident James du Puy in Padang . Company involved in the war because ” invited ” the Customary .

On February 21, 1821 they were officially handed over the territory darek ( inland Minangkabau ) to the Company in an agreement signed in Padang , as compensation to the Dutch who are willing to help fight the Padri . Part of the ” invite ” the rest of the family dynasty under the leadership of Sultan Pagaruyung Muningsyah who survived the killings by troops led by lord Pasaman Padri on SMART INVESTOR , near Stone Cage , in 1815 (not 1803 as mentioned Parlindungan , 2007:136-41 ) .

However , since the beginning of 1833 the war turned into a war between the indigenous and the religious against the Dutch . Memorie Tuanku Imam Bonjol ( MTIB ) – transliterasinya by Sjafnir Aboe Nain ( Padang : PPIM , 2004 ) , an important indigenous source of the Padri War historians tend to ignore this long – note , how the two sides shoulder to shoulder against the Dutch .

The parties initially opposed finally unite against the Dutch . At the end of remorse appears consciousness, inviting the Dutch in the Minangkabau people miserable instead of conflict itself .

In MTIB , reflected a sense of remorse for the actions of the Padri TIB over fellow Minang and Mandailing . TIB aware , the struggle has deviated from the teachings of religion. ” The law is too Kitabullah Vast deck by us. How our minds ? ” ( As for many of the laws that already terlangkahi Kitabullah by us. How do you mind ? ) , write the TIB in MTIB ( p. 39 ) .

TIB remorse and heroic struggle against the Dutch with their followers who surrounded Bonjol from all directions for about six months (March 16 – August 17, 1837 )- such as details of De Salis was reported in Het einde Padri Oorlog : Het beleg en van de vermeestering Bondjol 1834-1837 : Een bronnenpublicatie [End Padri War : Siege and Deprivation Bonjol 1834-1837 ; A Publication Source ] ( 2004 ) : 59-183 , may be taken into consideration for forgiveness for the errors and mistakes that have been done TIB .

Now this nation that must determine if the TIB will be issued or derived from the ” litter of national heroism ” that had been ” paraded “by previous generations of this nation in their collective memory . ( Kompas 10/11/2007 By Suryadi , Lecturer and Researcher at the Opleiding Talen en van Zuidoost – Azië Culturen en Oceanië , Universiteit Leiden , The Netherlands ) .

Rencong – Heritage Arms of the Acehnese

Rencong – Heritage Arms of the Acehnese

Rencong or Rincong or Rintjoeng is a weapon for the people of Aceh heritage and a symbol of bravery, courage, self defense and heroism of Aceh over the centuries.

According to one source Rencong been known at the beginning of the Islamic Empire in the 13th century.

Rencong age of the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam is never out of nearly every waist (always tucked front dipinggang) of Aceh’s people on average have extraordinary courage of both men and women because it is for the people of Aceh rencong like soldiers with “bedil” symbol of courage, greatness, height of dignity and courage of people of Aceh so people must think portugal portuguese or length to approach this period Rencong Aceh.di people have levels that characterized the strata of society, to a Kings / sultan and queen / saltanat to sheath made of ivory and to dagger made of gold to get to the strata of society down to gloves made from buffalo horn or wood, and for dagger made of brass or white metal depending on their economic ability.


Aceh as an important military power in the world Malays, with the weaponry that is very important. Because international relations with the western world, also began to follow the shape rencong development, particularly Turkey and the subcontinent India.Rencong also has similarities with the blade that is used by Turkish soldiers during the Turkish Ottoman sultan Mahmud empire and Mughal also scimitar than a few people with rapiers and style daggers (Caucasian language) that depend hanging from his belt in the hanging wall of Madras, India in 1610-1620.

The Dutch sources refer to the weapons in Aceh in the 14th century. Examples of these weapons can be seen in the illustration of books in both Dutch colonial wars produced by the Center for Data Documentation and in Aceh in 1977.


A popular magazine article stating that it invented the form rencong in Aceh in the 16th century at the time of Sultan Al Kahar, Sultan, who has close ties with the Ottoman Caliphate, when asking for help to attack the Portuguese.

According to one source, too, In the 18th century literary hero People Pocut ordered Muhammad to make as much as much as rencong steel inventories are piling up, rencong can be seen at the Museum of Prague, the most valuable Ceko.Rencong from the 19th century with carved Arabic alphabet Jakarta is in the museum.

In the past, the Islamic symbolis of rencong have been associated with holy war or weapons in the hands of jihad.dengan strength and belief in the power of God. Rencong ghaib.sehingga like having the power of the people of Aceh is very famous proverb:

“Ngon Tatob reuncong jeuet PEU-ubat ion, which tapansie saket nyang Haba.”

In the Aceh expel the Portuguese from the whole soil and soil sumatra Malacca as well as the Dutch colonial period rencong a deadly weapon in addition to swords and muskets used in the battlefield, not only by the sultan, Admiral, Pang, Pang Sagoe, uleebalangs, Teuku Teungku Agam , Sayed, HabibCut Ampon, Cut Abang (the men) but also by Teungku Inong, Syarifah, Kak Cut, Cut Adoe, Putroe Cut, Cut Nyak (women). This weapon tucked in his waist before every man and woman of Aceh as a powerful marker of Might and height of dignity, and a symbol of self-defense, courage, greatness, and heroism as against the Dutch colonialists.

In the struggle and the battle against the Portuguese and the Dutch, history records the names of the heroes and heroine Aceh, like Tgk Umar, Commander of Polem, Teungku Chik Ditiro, Admiral Malahayati, Pocut Meurah Intan, Baren Pocut, Cut Nyak Dhien, Cut Meutia, and Teungku Fakinah which does not release rencong from his waist.

 Rencong have meaning and Islamic religious philosophy, which berbetuk handle Arabic characters taken from the equivalent word Bismillah. Equivalent word can be viewed on a curved handle and then thicken at the elbow. Handle-shaped rencong BA, grasp the handle where a script SIN, which taper downward in the base metal near the handle is a script MIM, an iron base taper near the handle of a lane-lane erupai iron from the base of the handle until near the end symbolizes the character LAM, Section under the glove has the form of letters of HA, so that overall the letters “BA, SIN, MIM, LAM, HA”, reads the letters that form the structure of sentences Bismillah.Ini is a symbol that shows the characteristics of the Acehnese people who really cling to the glory of Islamic teachings.

Generally rencong or Rincong which became the mainstay weapon in the history of the people of Aceh is known, there are 5 types:

Rincong Meucugek: Why is it called rincong rencong meucugek because of the handle there is an cugek or meucugek (in terms of Aceh) as forms of archery and adhesives.

Rincong Pudoi: In Aceh community means not perfect pudoi term alias is still no shortage. The downside can be seen in the form of the hilt rencong.

Rincong Meupucok: The uniqueness of this Rincong shoots above the handle is made of carved ivory or gold. The base of the handle decorated with bamboo shoots pucok patterned gold / jewel ditampuk tumpal given handle, total length of these rencong approximately 30 cm. blades are made of white metal. Sheath is made from ivory and given a bond with gold.

Rincong Puntong: The uniqueness of Rincong Puntong ng Punt on Hulu, with a dagger to be forged with metal, Rencong head of buffalo horn and scabbard made from wood.

Rincong Meukure: This Rincong have differences with others on a given subject rincong specific decorations such as flowers, snakes, centipedes and the like.

With the passage of time since the weapons Rencong Aceh joined with Indonesia until now slowly-slowly changing functions of this heritage becomes only suvernir goods or souvenirs and clothing complements traditional Acehnese groom.

Hopefully, local government can save and preserve the assets of Aceh’s history over the centuries this precious, if it is not valuable heritage of Aceh will not be held with ACEH Tanoh RINCONG.

Cut Nyak Dhien the Real Super Woman Heroine From Aceh

Cut Nyak Dhien the Real Super Woman Hero From Aceh

Tjoet Njak Dien did not die in her own land or amongst her own people. She died as “Ibu Perbu,” which means “The Queen”, a name given to her by the local people in Sumedang, West Java. The local people never knew that this gracious and religious prisoner, bought to them by Dutch Soldiers on December 11th 1906, was, in fact, the famous Jihad Heroine of Acheh Province. Dien had fought the Dutch from the jungle for 25 years.

We know from other modern studies, such as “The Rope of God” by Siegel (1969), how strong the spirit of Jihad is amongst the Achehnese. However, what that book does not reveal, is how the women are ready to join and lead in Jihad also. These are other heroine’s names that we are familiar with and our apologies for any others who have not been mentioned.

1. Tjoet Meutiah
2. Tjoet Gambang (Kambang)
3. Keumala Malahajati

(Keumala was an Achehnese admiral who Achehnese fleet to fight the Portuguese in Malacca).

Dien, who was active in writing and delivering speeches on the beauty of Jihad, was born in 1848 into Achehnese nobility. Her father, Teuku Nanta Setia was an Uleebalang (commander, or literally, Sultan’s military officer) of VI Mukim of the Sagi XXV Military District. Nanta Setia’s ancestor was Panglima Nanta (Chief Commander), a descendant from Sultanah Tajjul Alam, an Achehnese ambassador (also a woman) for Pagaruyung Sultanate in West Sumatra. Dien’s mother was also from an Uleebalang family, the Uleebalang of Lampagar.

Having married young (in 1862), to Teuku Ibrahim Lamnga, a son of Uleebalang of Lam Nga XIII, Dien soon realised, as the daughter and the wife of commanders of Army divisions, that she would have to farewell them when war broke out against the Dutch.

Her two most beloved left her on March 22nd 1873, to fight Jihad and succeeded expelling the Dutch from Acheh. Even the Achehnese army succeeded in killing the Dutch Army commander, General Kohler, in the battle to defend Kutaraja, the Achehnese capital. She was happy to see them both back safe.

On December 11th 1873, the Dutch invaded Acheh again, lead by General Van Switten. They had returned with a vengeance and 7,000 well-equipped infantrymen who managed to break the Achehnese line, on December 22nd 1873. Dien was parted from her husband and father for a longer period, this time.

This second invasion was better prepared and better planned than the first invasion. The Dutch advanced carefully and in an orderly manner, until succeeding in capturing the capital. The Sultan was forced to leave the capital and began the guerilla war against the Dutch. Dien, this time, followed her father and her husband into the jungle. She sacrificed everything, her jewelry, her comfortable life and her health.

Tragically, during the guerilla war, Nanta Setia, (her father) and Ibrahim Lamnga (her husband), were attacked heavily, surrounded and after fierce fighting, both were killed. This battle is known as the “Battle of Sela Glee Tarun.” Most of the troops were killed also and it was thought to be due to a betrayal by Habib Abdurrahman.

Participating directly, as she was, in Jihad, Tjoet Nyak Dien took over both her late husband’s and father’s army commands and led them in guerilla warfare from the jungle. She re-built these units and led them successfully. A far cry, from living like a princess, in VI Mukim. This is significant in the history of Muslimahs and which led to her eventual recognition as a National Heroine of Indonesia and indeed the entire Ummah.

While leading these guerilla army units, she met another army commander from Meulaboh, West Acheh, by the name of Teuku Umar, who was one of Dien’s relatives. He was fascinated with her refusal to mourn her husband and father, because she said she should be happy that her two most beloved had reached the most noble status and died as a Shaheed in Jihad.

They soon married and together led the two armies into a series of successful assault missions. Dien had one daughter with him whose name was Tjoet Gambang. Tjoet Gambang was to follow her Mother’s example. Some years later, after the destruction of Dien’s army, Tjoet Gambang married Teungku Di Buket, son of the most famous Ulama and guerilla leader, Teungku Cik Di Tiro. It is commonly thought that Tjoet Gambang died a martyr in 1910, two years after her Mother’s death in exile.

Around 1875 Teuku Umar (her husband) made a strategic move, seen as a betrayal by those unaware at the time. Both of them came out of the jungle and surrendered to the Dutch.

Their clever ploy was to lie to the Dutch, so when they came out of the jungle they said. Quote: “they realized they had done wrong so they wanted to re-pay the Dutch by helping them destroy the Achehnese resistance.” Un-quote.

The Dutch were very pleased that such dangerous enemies were willing to help them. In gratitude, they decorated her husband with a Medal of Honor and called him “Teuku Johan Pahlawan”, which means the greatest hero. They also made her husband commander in chief of a Dutch army unit with full authority.

They kept their plan a secret, even though they were continuously accused of being traitors by their own people. Their intention was to study Dutch strategy ,while slowly replacing as many as they could of the Dutchmen in the unit with Achehnese men. These Achehnese men were from their guerilla army units. When the numbers of Achehnese in this army were sufficient, Dien’s husband proposed a false plan to the Dutch, claiming that he wanted to attack an Achehnese base.

Dien and her husband left with all of the troops and the Dutch heavy equipment, weapons and ammunition, never to return.

This raised the ire of the Dutch and huge operations were launched to capture both Dien and her husband Umar. The guerilla army, however, were now armed with the best equipment stolen from the Dutch and returned its identity to the strategic guerilla army. They began to heavily attack the Dutch while General Van Switten was replaced, humiliated and disgraced. His replacement, General Pel, was quickly killed and the Dutch army was in chaos for the first time.

Dien and Umar applied repeated pressure on occupied Banda Acheh (Kutaraja) and Meulaboh (her husband’s former base) and the Dutch had to continuously replace its Generals. The mighty guerilla army that was created, trained and led by this formidable pair, was successful.

A gruesome history was to follow, however, when General Van Der Heyden was installed and never to be forgotten by the Achehnese.

Brutal and bloody massacres of men, women and children in innocent villages took place, when the inhumane General Van Der Heyden engaged the “De Marsose” units. They were so savage that they were almost impossible to defeat. Most of the troops of “De Marsose” were Christian Ambonese. They destroyed everything in their path, including property and villages, as well as the people. These units caused even the Dutch soldiers to feel sympathy for the Achehnese, and eventually, Van Der Heyden dissolved the “De Marsose” units. These events may, however have paved the way for the following General’s success, as many people who were not involved in Jihad had lost their lives or their loved ones lives, their property or indeed all of their loved ones and property. Fear and grief may have then weakened the remaining broader population.

General van Heutz exploited that fear and began to bribe local Achehnese to spy on the rebel army and act as informants. It wasn’t long before the Dutch soldiers found Dien’s husband and he was killed on Umar’s attack mission to Meulaboh on February 11th 1899. It was known as a betrayal by the informant named Teuku Leubeh.

When Tjoet Gamgang (her daughter) heard of her father’s death she began to cry and was slapped by her Mother (Dien) who then hugged her and Dien is quoted as having said:

Quote: As Achehnese women, we must not shed tears for anyone who becomes a Shaheed” Unquote. (A Shaheed is one who dies in Jihad)

Tjoet Njak Dien’s husband, Teuku Umar’s death, left Dien alone again to lead the rebel army. Weakened then by advancing age, Dien, with her army, retreated further into the jungle. Trying not to mourn over her late husband, Dien continued to lead this rebel army, assisted by her army officers, such as Pang Laot Ali and Pang Karim. This army fought until its final destruction in 1901 and it consisted of men and women. Pang Laot Ali who felt sorry for Dien’s condition, hoped that the Dutch might give medical treatment for her.

He deserted to the Dutch and bought the Dutch army into Dien’s camp in Beutong Le Sageu. They were completely caught by surprise and fought to the last man and woman except for Gambang and Dien. Pang Karim was said to be the last man to defend Dien with his sword until his death. Only due to her blindness was Dien captured and even then she held a rencong (a traditional Achehnese dagger) in her hand trying to fight the enemy. Her daughter Gambang, however escaped deep into the jungle, where it is known that she continued the resistance in the spirit of Jihad as her Mother and Father had done. There is little information to be found about Tjoet Gambang. Our humble apologies for being unable to provide more information than this at this time.

Exiled by the Dutch, Dien’s arrival in Sumedang in her worn out clothes and accompanied by other Achehnese political prisoners, naturally drew the attention of the Regent Suriaatmaja as a faithful Muslimah. The male prisoners demonstrated obvious respect to this small, old lady, but the Dutch soldiers were forbidden to reveal the identities of the captives. See insert photograph, page 1.

Due to their obvious deep religious nature, especially Tjoet Njak Dien, they were placed with the local Ulama, named Ilyas. Ulama Ilyas quickly realised that his guest, who could not speak their language nor them hers, was indeed a scholar in Islam and became known as “Ibu Perbu”(The Queen). Her sound Islamic knowledge and her ability to recite Al-Quran beautifully earned her the invitation to instruct on Islam.

“Ibu Perbu “or Tjoet Njak Dien taught Al-Quran in Sumedang, West Java, until her death on November 8th 1908. She was buried as “Ibu Perbu” in the cemetary of Sumedang’s nobility in Gunung Puyuh, in the outskirts of Sumedang.

By 1960, those Sumedang locals who could have recollected who “Ibu Perbu”was, had passed away. However, information came from the Dutch Government based on official letters in “Nederland Indische”, written by Kolonial Verslag, that Tjoet Njak Dien, rebel leader from Acheh Province, had been placed in exile in Sumedang, West Java. There had only ever been one Achehnese female political prisoner sent to Sumedang. It was realized then, that”Ibu Perbu”was in fact Tjoet Njak Dien, “The Queen of Jihad” and was then recognized by President Sukarno as a National Heroine.

A small Achehnese Mosque (meunasah) was built near the cemetery in her memory.


Posted by : smileMan di 02:54

Cut Nyak Dhien second from left in captivity.

  Cut Nya Dien House. Cut Nya Dien is an Indonesian’s woman revolutionist from Aceh – The house is a replica of the heroine Cut Nyak Dhien House, from the Aceh War. The colonial forces burned down the house but a replica was built later. This house in Lam Pisang, about 6 kilometers from Banda Aceh, now is a museum. The house is located in Lampisang Village, Lhok Nga subdistrict, Greater Aceh district. Although Lhok Nga was the area worst hit by tsunami, the Tjut Nyak Dhien House survived. The daughter of a chieftain, Tjut Nyak Dhien joined the fight against the Dutch invaders in 1875. Her first husband fell in battle, and she remarried. When her second husband also died fighting, she continued the struggle with her children. After six years in the jungle, she was captured by the Dutch and exiled to West Java where she passed away in 1906. Tjut Nyak Dhien is recognized as one of the National Warriors of Indonesia.  edit

TEUKU UMAR ( Husband of Cut Nyak Dhien)

Teuku Umar (born in 1854, Meulaboh; died February 11, 1899) is a Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia (National Hero of Indonesia). He led a guerrilla campaign in Aceh during the period of the Dutch occupation. He fell when Dutch troops launched a sudden attack in Meulaboh. His body was buried in the Mugo area. After Teuku Umar’s death, his wife Cut Nyak Dhien continued to led guerillas against the Dutch.


List of National Heroes of Indonesia

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I Gusti Ngurah Rai of Bali is a National Hero of Indonesia.

The title of National Hero of Indonesia (Indonesian: Gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia) is awarded by the government of Indonesia to people considered to have made a significant contribution to the fight for independence or the development of the nation.


[edit] Background

The tradition of officially naming people Indonesian National Heroes began in the time of President Sukarno. The first person awarded the title was Abdul Muis via Presidential Decision No. 218/1959 issued on 30 August 1959. As of the beginning of 2009, 143 people had been named as National Heroes.[1]

There are four types of National Hero:[2]

[edit] Criteria

The first set of criteria for a national hero was set out in Presidential Decision No. 241/1958. It defined a National Independence Hero as “a person who throughout his/her life, because of love for the nation did great service or led an organized activity to oppose colonialism in Indonesia, fighting enemies from overseas, or who did great service in the area of politics, statesmanship, socio-economics or culture by fighting for independence and the development of Indonesia”. This was refined in 1964 in Presidential Regulation No. 33/1964. This defined a Hero as somebody who died in action or as a result of heroic acts fighting to defend the nation or who although not killed at the time, was proved to have made sacrifices defending the nation and whose subsequent life was unmarred by any actions that detracted from his or hr heroic status. This definition has been used without any major changes since 1964.[3]

[edit] National Heroes

This is a list of people who have received the title as of the beginning of 2009:[3]

[edit] See also

Singawangsa (1775-1778) Fought against the Dutch in Java.

[edit] References

  • Mutiara Sumber Widya (publisher)(1999) Album Pahlawan Bangsa (Album of National Heroes), Jakarta (Indonesian)
  • Sudarmanto, Y.B. (1996) Jejak-Jejak Pahlawan dari Sultan Agung hingga Syekh Yusuf (The Footsteps of Heroes from Sultan Agung to Syekh Yusuf), Penerbit Grasindo, Jakarta ISBN 979-553-111-5 (Indonesian)
  • Winda, D.A (Ed) (2009) Profil 143 Pahlawan Indonesia (Profiles of 143 Indonesian Heroes), Pustaka Timur, Jakarta, ISBN 979-3837-31-4 (Indonesian)