Iskandar Muda of Aceh
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Painting pictures of Sultan Iskandar Muda
Sultan Iskandar Muda (Aceh, Banda Aceh, 1593 or 1590 – Banda Aceh, Aceh, 27 September 1636) Is sultan the greatest in the period Aceh Sultanate, who ruled from 1607 until 1636. Aceh reached its glory during the leadership of Iskandar Muda , where an increasingly large territory and an international reputation as a center of trade and learning about Islam.
Family and childhood
From the ancestral mother , Iskandar Muda is a descendant of King Dar al – Kamal , and from the ancestral father is a descendant of the royal family crown of Nature . Darul Kamal and crown – Alam said the settlement formerly the two neighboring ( separated by rivers) and the joint is the origin of Aceh Darussalam. Iskandar Muda alone represents the second branch, which is fully entitled to claim the throne .
His mother , named Princess Raja Indra Nation, which also named His Majesty the Shah Alam, is the son of Sultan Alauddin Shah Riayat, Sultan 10th ; where This sultan was the son of Sultan Shah ‘s Word , and Word Sultan Shah is the son or grandson (according Djajadiningrat ) Sultan of Inayat Shah , King of Darul – Kamal .
Raja Indra ‘s daughter is married to the Nation a massive ceremony with Sultan Mansur Shah , the son of Sultan Abdul – Jalil , where Abdul – Jalil is the son of Sultan Alauddin Shah al – Kahhar Riayat, Sultan
Sultan Iskandar Muda later married a princess from Sultanate of Pahang. Princess is known by the name Putroe Phang. It is said , because too love the emperor with his wife , the Sultan ordered the construction of fictional structure’s history in the middle field ( Castle Park ) as a sign of his love . Reportedly, the princess is always sad because it harbored a profound longing for home which is hilly . Therefore Sultan build Structure’s history mengubati longing for the princess . Until now, this structure’s history can still be seen and visited.
Sultan Iskandar Muda ‘s reign which began in 1607 until 1636, is the most glorious period for Aceh Sultanate, although on the other side of the tight control by Iskandar Muda , caused many rebellions in the future after the death of the Emperor.
Aceh is a very rich country and prosperous in its heyday . According to an explorer of origin France who arrived in Aceh in the heyday era Sultan Iskandar Muda Perkasa Alam Meukuta, The power reaching the west coast of Aceh Minangkabau. Aceh powers also include up to Silver .
When Iskandar Muda came to power in 1607, he soon made a naval expedition that caused him to gain effective control in the area northwest Indonesia. Full royal accomplished smoothly at all important ports on the west coast of Sumatra and on the east coast , to the Shavings in the south. Sailing conquest waged far into Penang, on the east coast Malays Peninsula, and foreign merchants were forced to submit to him . His kingdom wealthy , and became the center of science.
Controls on domestic
According to the tradition of Aceh , Iskandar Muda Aceh region divided into administrative regions called uleebalangs and habitation; This was reinforced by reports of a French explorer named Beauliu , that “Iskandar Muda clearing out almost all of the old nobility and created a new aristocracy. Habitation1 initially is the set of several villages to support an mosque headed by a Priest (Aceh: Imeum) . Uleebalangs (Wither: Commander) Initially perhaps the major subordinate Sultan , who was awarded the Sultan of several mukims , to manage as a feudal owners . This pattern in djumpai Aceh Besar and in lands conquered Aceh important .
Relationship with a foreign nation
On 16th century, Queen English, Elizabeth I, Sent his envoy named Sir James Lancester to the Kingdom of Aceh and send a letter addressed : “To Civil Servant , King of Aceh Darussalam.” and a set of high- value jewelry . Sultanate of Aceh at that time did receive good intentions ” sister ” in the UK and allow UK to anchor and to trade on the territory of Aceh . Even the Sultan also sent valuable gifts , including a pair of bracelets of rubies and a letter written on fine paper with gold ink . Sir James was awarded the title ” Rich White People . “
Sultan also reply to a letter from Queen Elizabeth I. Here are excerpts of the letter the Sultan of Aceh , which is still kept by the government of the British Empire , dated 1585 year :
I am the mighty Ruler of the Regions below the wind , the WHO holds sway over the land of Aceh and over-the land of Sumatra and over all the lands tributary to Aceh , Which stretch from the sunrise to the sunset.
( present yourselves mighty ruler Countries under the wind , which accumulated on the ground in Aceh and on land Sumatra and over the whole area is subject to the Aceh region , which stretches from horizon sunrise to sunset) .
intimate relationship between Aceh and the King of England continued in James I of England and Scotland . King James sent a cannon as a gift to the Sultan of Aceh . The cannon is still preserved and known by the name of King James Cannon .
In addition to the United Kingdom, Prince Maurits – founder Oranje dynasty– also had sent a letter with the intention of asking the help of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam. Sultan welcomed their good intentions by sending emissaries to party Netherlands. The delegation was led by Tuanku Abdul Hamid.
The conquest of Iskandar Muda, 1608-1637.
The successes of Iskandar Muda were based on his military strength. His armed forces consisted of a navy of heavy galleys each with 600-800 men, a cavalry using Persian horses, an elephant corps, conscripted infantry forces and more than 2000 cannons and guns (of both Sumatran and European origin). Upongaining power, he began consolidating control over northern Sumatra. In 1612 he conquered Deli, and in 1613 Aruand Johor. Upon the conquest of Johor, its sultan, Alauddin Riayat Syah II, and other members of the royal family were brought to Aceh, along with a group of traders from theDutch East India Company. However, Johor was able to expel the Acehnese garrison later that year, and Iskandar Muda was never able to assert permanent control over the area. Johor further built an alliance with Pahang, Palembang, Jambi, Inderagiri, Kampar andSiak against Aceh.
Iskandar Muda’s campaigns continued, however, and he was able to defeat a Portuguesefleet at Bintan in 1614. In 1617 he conquered Pahang and carried its sultan Ahmad Syahto Aceh, and thus achieved a foothold on the Malayan peninsula.This conquest was followed by Kedah in 1619, in which the capital was laid waste and the surviving inhabitants were brought to Aceh. A similar capture of Perak occurred in 1620, when 5,000 people were captured and left to die in Aceh. He again sacked Johor in 1623 and took Nias in 1624/5. At this point Aceh’s strength seriously thretened the Portuguese holding of Melaka. In 1629, he sent several hundred ships to attack Melaka, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all of his ships were destroyed along with 19,000 men. After this loss, Iskandar Muda launched only two more sea expeditions, in 1630/1 and 1634, both to suppress revolts in Pahang. His sultanate maintained control over northern Sumatra, but was never able to gain supremacy in the strait or expand the empire to the rich pepper-producing region of Lampung on the southern part of the island, which was under the control of the sultanate of Banten.
Economy and administration
The economic foundations of the sultanate was the spice trade, especially in pepper. The conflicts between Aceh and Johor and Portuguese Melacca, as well as the numerous pepper-producing ports in the sultanate’s domain, were the main causes of the military conflict. Other major exports included cloves and nutmegs, as well as betel nuts, whose narcotic properties bypassed the Muslim prohibition of alcohol. Exports, encouraged by the Ottoman Sultans as an alternative to the “infidel” (i.e. Portuguese)-controlled route around Africa, added to the wealth of the sultanate. Iskandar Muda also made shrewd economic decisions that supported growth, such as low interest rates and the widespread use of small gold coins (mas).However, like other sultanates in the area it had trouble compelling the farms in the hinterland to produce sufficient excess food for the military and commercial activities of the capital. Indeed, one of the aims of Iskandar Muda’s campaigns was to bring prisoners-of-war who could act as slaves for agricultural production.
One reason for Iskandar Muda’s success, in contrast to the weaker sultans who preceded and succeeded him, was his ability to suppress the Acehnese elite, known as the orang kaya (“powerful men”). Through the royal monopoly on trade, he was able to keep them dependent on his favor. The orang kaya were forced to attend court where they could be supervised, and were prohibited from building independent houses, which could be used for military purposes or hold cannons. He sought to create a new nobility of “war leaders” (Malay language: hulubalang; Acehnese: uleëbalang), whom he gave districts (mukim) in feudal tenure. After his reign, however, the elite often supported weaker sultans, in order to maintain their own autonomy. He also sought to replace the Acehnese princes with royal officials called panglima, who had to report annually and were subject to periodic appraisal. An elite palace guard was created, consisting of 3,000 women. He passed legal reforms which created a network of courts using Islamic jurisprudence. His system of law and administration became a model for other Islamic states in Indonesia.
Iskandar Muda’s reign was also marked by considerable brutality, directed at disobedient subjects. He also did not hesitate to execute wealthy subjects and confiscate their wealth. Punishments for offenses were gruesome; a French visitor in the 1620s reported “every day the King would have people’s noses cut off, eyes dug out, castrations, feet cut off, or hands, ears, and other parts mutilated, very often for some very small matter.” He had his own son killed, and named his son-in-law, the son of the captured sultan of Pahang, as his successor, Iskandar Thani.
During Iskandar Muda’s reign, eminent Islamic scholars were attracted to Aceh and made it a center of Islamic scholarship. Iskandar Muda favored the tradition of the Sufi mystics Hamzah Pansuri and Syamsuddin of Pasai, both of whom resided at the court of Aceh. These writers’ works were translated into other Indonesian languages, and had considerable influence across the peninsula. Both were later denounced for their heretical ideas by Nuruddin ar-Raniri, who arrived in the Aceh court during the reign of Iskandar Thani, and their books were ordered to be burnt.
The chronicle Hikayat Aceh (“The Story of Aceh”) was probably written during the reign of Iskandar Muda, although some date it later.It describes the history of the sultanate and praises Iskandar Muda in his youth. It was apparently inspired by the Persian Akbarnama for the Mogul Emperor Akbar.
Among the Acehnese, Iskandar Muda is revered as a hero and symbol of Aceh’s past greatness. Posthumously he was given the titlePo Teuh Meureuhom, which means “Our Beloved Late Lord,or “Marhum Mahkota Alam”.
He has several buildings and structures in and near Banda Aceh named after him, including the Sultan Iskandarmuda Airport and Sultan Iskandar Muda Air Force Base. Kodam Iskandar Muda is the name of the military area commands overseeing Aceh Province.
The Sultanate of Aceh was established by Sultan Ali Mughayatsyah in 1511. Then, During itsgolden era) in the 15th century, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern Thailand, Johor in Malay Peninsula, and Siak in what is today the province of Riau. As was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca. It was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production.
After the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing theMalacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh and increased Acehnese rulers’ wealth. During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 17th century, Aceh’s influence extended to most ofSumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Acehnese military power waned gradually thereafter, and Aceh ceded its territory of Pariamanin Sumatra to the Dutch in 18th century.
By the early nineteenth century, however, Aceh had become an increasingly influential power due to its strategic location for controlling regional trade. In the 1820s it was the producer of over half the world’s supply of black pepper. The pepper trade produced new wealth for the Sultanate and for the rulers of many smaller nearby ports that had been under Aceh’s control, but were now able to assert more independence. These changes initially threatened Aceh’s integrity, but a new sultan Tuanku Ibrahim, who controlled the kingdom from 1838 to 1870, reasserted power over nearby ports.
Under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 the British ceded their colonial possessions on Sumatra to the Dutch. In the treaty, the British described Aceh as one of their possessions, although they had no actual control over the Sultanate. Initially, under the agreement the Dutch agreed to respect Aceh’s independence. In 1871, however, the British dropped previous opposition to a Dutch invasion of Aceh, possibly to prevent France or the United States from gaining a foothold in the region. Although neither the Dutch nor the British knew the specifics, there had been rumors since the 1850s that Aceh had been in communication with rulers of France and of the Ottoman Empire.
General Kohler, commandant of Dutch troops, died after shot by Acehnese sniper during first aggression to Aceh
Pirates operating out of Aceh threatened commerce in the Strait of Malacca; the sultan was unable to control them. Britain was a protector of Aceh and gave the Netherlands permission to eradicate the pirates. The campaign quickly drove out the sultan but the local leaders mobilized and fought the Dutch in four decades of guerrilla war, with high levels of atrocities. The Dutch colonial government declared war on Aceh on 26 March 1873. Aceh sought American help but was rejected by Washington.
The Dutch tried one strategy after another over the course of four decades. An expedition under Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler in 1873 occupied most of the coastal areas. It was his strategy to attack and take the Sultan’s palace. It failed. They then tried a naval blockade, reconciliation, concentration within a line of forts, then passive containment. They had scant success. Reaching 15 to 20 million guilders a year, the heavy spending for failed strategies nearly bankrupted the colonial government.
The Aceh army was rapidly modernized, and Aceh soldiers managed to kill Köhler (a monument to this achievement has been built inside Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh). Köhler made some grave tactical errors and the reputation of the Dutch was severely harmed. In addition, in recent years in line with expanding international attention to human rights issues and atrocities in war zones, there has been increasing discussion about the some of the recorded acts of cruelty and slaughter committed by Dutch troops during the period of warfare in Aceh.
Hasan Mustafa (1852–1930) was a chief ‘penghulu,’ or judge, for the colonial government and was stationed in Aceh. He had to balance traditional Muslim justice with Dutch law. To stop the Aceh rebellion, Hasan Mustafa issued a fatwa, telling the Muslims there in 1894, “It is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to be loyal to the Dutch East Indies Government”.
Later years and conquest by the Dutch
Tuanku Muhammad Daudsyah Johan Berdaulat, the last Sultan of Aceh.
In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, Koh Lay Huan – the firstKapitan Cina of Penang, had good contacts with the English-and-French-speaking Sultan of Aceh, Jauhar al-Alam. The Sultan allowed Koh to gather pepper plants in Aceh to begin pepper cultivation in Penang. Later, about 1819, Koh helped Sultan Jauhar al-Alam put down a rebellion by Acehnese territorial chiefs.
In the 1820s, as Aceh produced over half the world’s supply of pepper, a new leader, Tuanku Ibrahim, was able to restore some authority to the Sultanate and gain control over the “pepper rajas” who were nominal vassals of the Sultan by playing them off against each other. He rose to power during the Sultanate of his brother, Muhammad Syah, and was able to dominate the reign of his successor Sulaiman Syah (r. 1838–1857), before taking the Sultanate himself, under the title Sultan Ali Alauddin Mansur Syah (1857–1870). He extended Aceh’s effective control southward at just the time when the Dutch were consolidating their holdings northward.
Britain, heretofore guarding the independence of Aceh in order to keep it out of Dutch hands, re-evaluated its policy and concluded the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra, which allowed for Dutch control throughout Sumatra in exchange for concessions in the Gold Coast and equal trading rights in northern Aceh. The treaty was tantamount to a declaration of war on Aceh, and the Aceh War followed soon after in 1873. As the Dutch prepared for war, Mahmud Syah (1870–1874) appealed for international help, but no one was willing or able to assist.
In 1874 the Sultan abandoned the capital, withdrawing to the hills, while the Dutch announced the annexation of Aceh. He eventually died of cholera, as did many combatants on both sides, but the Acehnese proclaimed a grandson of Tuanku Ibrahim Sultan. The local rulers of Acehnese ports nominally submitted to Dutch authority in order to avoid a blockade, but they used their income to support the resistance.
However, eventually many of them compromised with the Dutch, and the Dutch were able establish a fairly stable government in Aceh with their cooperation, and get the Sultan to surrender in 1903. After his death in 1907, no successor was named, but the resistance continued to fight for some time.
Sultan tomb complex from era before Iskandar Muda in Banda Aceh
A complex of tomb of Acehnese sultan from Bugis descendant in Banda Aceh
|Sultan of Aceh
|Ali Mughayat Syah
|Alauddin al Qahhar
|Husain Ali I Riayat Syah
|Alauddin II Mansur I Syah
|Alauddin III Riayat Syah Sayyid al-Mukammil
|Ali II Riayat Syah
|Ratu Safiatuddin Tajul Alam
|Ratu Naqiatuddin Nurul Alam
|Ratu Zaqiatuddin Inayat Syah
|Ratu Kamalat Syah Zinatuddin
|Badrul Alam Syarif Hashim Jamaluddin
|Perkasa Alam Syarif Lamtui Syah Johan Berdaulat
|Jamal ul Alam Badrul Munir
|Jauhar ul Alam Aminuddin
|Alauddin IV Ahmad Syah
|Alauddin V Johan Syah
|Mahmud I Syah
|Sulaiman I Syah
|Alauddin VI Muhammad I Daud Syah
|Alauddin VII Jauhar ul Alam
|Syarif Saif ul Alam
|Alauddin VII Jauhar ul Alam (second time)
|Muhammad II Syah
|Sulaiman II Syah
|Mansur II Syah
|Mahmud II Syah
|Muhammad III Daud Syah Johan Berdaulat