Raging wildfires in California

Post 8549

Raging wildfires in California


Destructive fires in Northern California have killed at least 13 people and destroyed at least 1,500 buildings, leaving devastating scenes in their path. More than 115,000 acres have been burned, forcing the evacuation of up to 20,000 people.
Flames overtake a structure as nearby homes burn in the Napa wine region in California on October 9, as multiple wind-driven fires continue to whip through the region. (Josh Edelson/AFP/Getty Images)
Michael Pond, left, looks through ashes as his wife Kristine, center, gets a hug from Zack Thurston, their daughter’s boyfriend, while they search the remains of their home destroyed by fires in Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jeff Chiu/Associated Press)
An American flag still flies as as structures burn in Coffey Park, Oct. 9. (Kent Porter/The Press Democrat via AP)
A resident rushes to save his home as an out of control wildfire moves through the area on Oct. 9, in Glen Ellen, Calif. (Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
The Coffey Park subdivision in Santa Rosa, Calif., is seen before, left, and after wildfires swept through the area on Oct. 9. Officials have called it one of the most destructive fire emergencies in the state’s history. (GOOGLE EARTH, left and CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL)
Kristine Pond reacts as she searches the remains of her family’s home destroyed by fires in Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jeff Chiu/Associated Press)
A destroyed car sits in the remains of a home in Santa Rosa, Calif. Oct. 9. Multiple wildfires are scattered through out Napa, Sonoma and Mendocino counties, leaving at least 10 people dead and destroying homes and businesses in their path. (MABANGL/EPA-EFE/REX/Shutterstock)
Jim Stites watches part of his neighborhood burn in Fountaingrove, Calif., Oct. 9. (Kent Porter/The Press Democrat via AP)
Burned out wine bottles sit on a rack at the fire damaged Signarello Estate winery after a wildfire moved through the area on Oct. 9, in Napa, California. (Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
Coffey Park homes burn early Oct. 9 in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Kent Porter/The Press Democrat via AP)
A woman evacuates horses as strong Santa Ana winds blow fire and smoke from the Canyon 2 Fire toward them on Oct. 9 in Orange, Calif. (Robyn Beck/AFP/Getty Images)
Residents of the Coffey Park neighborhood sift through a relative’s home that was torched, Oct. 9, in Santa Rosa. (Kent Porter/The Press Democrat via AP)
Vicky Walker hugs Orange County Fire Authority firefighter Jose Garcia as she thanks him for helping to save her home in Anaheim Hills in Anaheim, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jeff Gritchen/The Orange County Register via AP)
A sign stands next to fire damaged mobile homes at the Journey’s End Mobile Home Park on Oct. 9, in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
Smoke rises as a wildfire burns in the hills east of Napa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Michael Short/San Francisco Chronicle via AP)
Flames from a wildfire approach a pair of horses in a field Oct. 9, in Napa, Calif. (Rich Pedroncelli/Associated Press)
Firefighters assess the scene as a house burns in the Napa wine region of California on Oct. 9, as multiple wind-driven fires continue to ravage the area burning structures and causing widespread evacuations. (Josh Edelson/AFP/Getty Images)
Hotel guests watch the Hilton Sonoma Wine Country burn to the ground in Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
Rudy Habibe, from Puerto Rico, stands by the burning Hilton Sonoma Wine Country hotel, where he was a guest, in Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jeff Chiu/Associated Press)
Fire consumes a home as out of control wildfires move through the area on Oct. 9, in Glen Ellen, Calif. (Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
A firefighter positions a hose at a home burning in Glen Ellen, Calif., Oct. 9. Fast-moving wildfires raged across several counties in Northern California overnight, forcing the evacuation of at least two hospitals and numerous neighborhoods early Monday, the authorities said. (Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
A firefighter puts out hot spots in a home that was destroyed by a wildfire in Anaheim Hills in Anaheim, Calif. (Jeff Gritchen/The Orange County Register via AP)
The Historic Round Barn burns, Oct. 9 in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Kent Porter/The Press Democrat via AP)
A row of chimneys mark destroyed homes in the Coffey Park subdivision of Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
Homeowners embrace after learning that their home was destroyed by the Canyon Fire No. 2 in Anaheim Hills, Calif. USA, 09 October 2017. The Canyon Fire 2 has spread to between four to five thousand acres and is zero percent contained. Canyon Fire No. 2 burns homes in Southern California, Anaheim Hills, USA – 09 Oct 2017 (Paul Buck/EPA/Shutterstock)
People watch as a wildfire burns along a hillside, Oct. 9, in Orange, Calif. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
Bruce and Lisa Coats look over the remains of their home in the Coffey Park subdivision of Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
A home destroyed by a wildfire is visible in Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (JOHN G. MABANGLO/EPA/Shutterstock)
A motorcycle burns in the driveway of a home on fire in Glen Ellen, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
A firefighter puts water on a home destroyed by the Canyon Fire No. 2 in Anaheim Hills, Calif. (PAUL BUCK/EPA/Shutterstock)
A firefighter takes a break after battling wildfire flames during the Canyon Fire No. 2 in Anaheim Hills, Calif. (GARCIA/EPA/Shutterstock)
A burning home is doused with water from firefighters during the Canyon Fire No. 2 in Anaheim Hills, Calif., (EUGENE GARCIA/EPA/Shutterstock)
A Cazadero firefighter struggles to protect a home from catching fire in Coffey Park, Oct. 9, in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Kent Porter/The Press Democrat via AP)
The sun is seen through a smoked filled sky as a charred tree stands near a destroyed home in Santa Rosa, Calif. (MABANGL/EPA/Shutterstock)
Trees sway in the Santa Ana Winds as a smoke rises from the Canyon Fire 2, Oct. 9, in Orange, California. (ROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty Images)
Burned out cars sit next to a building on fire in a fire ravaged neighborhood on Oct. 9, in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Justin Sullivan)
Residents walk through the fire damaged Journey’s End Mobile Home Park on Oct. 9, in Santa Rosa, Calif. (Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
A helicopter dumps water on a home as firefighters battle a wildfire in Anaheim Hills in Anaheim, Calif., Oct. 9. (eff Gritchen/The Orange County Register via AP)
Tina and Art Anaya hug Lisa Coats on a street in the Coffey Park subdivision, where they all lost their homes to a wildfire, in Santa Rosa, Calif., Oct. 9. (Jim Wilson/The New York Times)
Burning embers remain from a demolished home in the Anaheim Hills neighborhood in Anaheim, California on Oct. 9, after a fire spread quickly through the area destroying homes, prompting mandatory evacuations and freeway closures. (FREDERIC J. BROWN/AFP/Getty Images)

Monster ‘Fatberg’: 143 Tons of Grease and Garbage Clog UK Sewer

Post 8517

Monster ‘Fatberg’: 143 Tons of Grease and Garbage Clog UK Sewer

Monster 'Fatberg': 143 Tons of Grease and Garbage Clog UK Sewer

What’s as hard as cement and is currently blocking 820 feet of sewer network in the U.K.? A disgusting mass of solid waste called a “fatberg.”

Credit: Thames Water

Writer Neil Gaiman’s 1997 urban fantasy novel “Neverwhere” imagined sewers underneath large cities as magical shadow worlds, each a home to a host of peculiar individuals and monstrous beasts. However, the reality of what lies below cities in their waste networks is much more disgusting, as a team of Thames Water engineers in the United Kingdom recently found out.

In a sewer region located about 11 feet (4 meters) under the Whitechapel neighborhood in London, workers are just beginning to dismantle an inanimate but uniquely revolting inhabitant — a vast and rock-solid plug of oily waste charmingly known as a “fatberg.”

Composed of stinking garbage and grease and weighing in at 143 tons (130,000 kilograms), the Whitechapel fatberg sprawls for 820 feet (250 m) — about the length of two English football fields. This means the blob is more than twice as long as the nefarious iceberg responsible for sinking the Titanic, which was estimated to measure a mere 200 to 400 feet (61 to 122 m) long. [In Photos: The World’s Grossest Things]

Remote inspections using CCTV cameras showed that sewer passages were blocked by the fatberg, according to a statement released by Thames Water, the agency directing the cleanup effort.

Removing the mountainous mass — a three-week project — requires a crew of eight people working seven days a week from 8 a.m. local time until 5 p.m. Workers will blast the ‘berg with high-powered water jets to break it down, and then vacuum up the chunks — about 22 to 34 tons (30,844 to 19,958 kg) per shift — for removal to a recycling site, Thames Water representatives announced in the statement.

An infographic shows how far the Whitechapel fatberg extends underground — the length of two British football fields.

An infographic shows how far the Whitechapel fatberg extends underground — the length of two British football fields.

Credit: Thames Water

The enormous and slimy blockage built up over time, from grease and oils that were poured down sink drains, joining forces along the way with diapers, condoms, sanitary products, hand wipes and other waste that was flushed down toilets, Matt Rimmer, Thames Water’s head of waste networks, said in the statement.

Once these gloppy discards found their way into the sewers, they accumulated and solidified into the consistency of concrete, Rimmer explained, describing the Whitechapel fatberg as “the biggest we’ve ever seen.”

Because in case you were wondering — yes, there have been more.

A 15-ton (13,607 kg) fatberg made headlines in 2013, when it was discovered in a sewer serving the London suburb of Kingston. A supervisor for Thames Water said in a statement that while the agency had removed greater volumes of gloppy garbage from sewers previously, they’d never seen “a single congealed lump” this size.

The more recent — and bigger — Whitechapel fatberg far outweighs the Kingston glob, granting it the dubious honor of being the largest sewer-grown fatberg in British history, according to Thames Water.

Unlike icebergs, which emerge when large sections of ice calve from glaciers near the North and South poles, these greasy, monumental fatberg sewer plugs are formed by people — and only people can prevent fatbergs, Rimmer said in the statement.

“Everyone has a role to play. Yes, a lot of the fat comes from food outlets, but the wipes and sanitary items are far more likely to be from domestic properties. The sewers are not an abyss for household rubbish,” Rimmer said.

Original article on Live Science.

Alleged Massacre of Uncontacted Tribe Members Spurs Probe in Brazil

Post 8514

Alleged Massacre of Uncontacted Tribe Members Spurs Probe in Brazil

Alleged Massacre of Uncontacted Tribe Members Spurs Probe in Brazil
Uncontacted Indians in the Brazilian Amazon, filmed from the air in 2010.

Credit: Survival International

Brazilian authorities are investigating reports that gold miners killed about 10 members of an uncontacted tribe in the Amazon rainforest.

The alleged killing took place last month along the Jandiatuba River, in a remote part of the Amazon near Brazil’s border with Peru, according to FUNAI, Brazil’s indigenous affairs department.

The probe began after two illegal gold miners, known as “garimpeiros,” were overheard talking about the attack in São Paulo de Olivença, a town in the state of Amazonas. [Gallery: Images of Uncontacted Tribes]

The miners allegedly bragged about the killings in a bar, showing off a carved paddle taken from the tribe as a trophy, The New York Times reported.

The miners were arrested but so far no physical evidence has been found to prove the massacre, according to a statement from FUNAI.

The indigenous rights group Survival International warned that such an attack could mean that a large percentage of the tribe has been wiped out.

Stephen Corry, director of Survival International, said in a statement that the Brazilian administration under President Michel Temer would “bear a heavy responsibility for this genocidal attack” if the reports are confirmed.

These burnt communal houses of uncontacted Indians were seen in December 2016 and could be signs of another massacre in the so-called Uncontacted Frontier.

These burnt communal houses of uncontacted Indians were seen in December 2016 and could be signs of another massacre in the so-called Uncontacted Frontier.

Credit: Survival International

The Guardian reported in July that FUNAI’s budget under the current administration was nearly halved this year, forcing the agency to close dozens of its regional offices and three bases that are involved in protecting isolated tribes. One FUNAI official told The Guardian that land grabbers, loggers and miners were taking advantage of the situation to encroach on indigenous territories.

“All these tribes should have had their lands properly recognized and protected years ago,” Corry said. “The government’s open support for those who want to open up indigenous territories is utterly shameful, and is setting indigenous rights in Brazil back decades.”

In recent years, groups like Survival International have raised the alarm about an increase in sightings of uncontacted tribes in Brazil, warning that encounters with loggers, miners, drug smugglers and tourists could be deadly for tribe members, not only due to violence but also disease.

Original article on Live Science

3 People Die After Falling into Volcanic Crater

Post 8513

3 People Die After Falling into Volcanic Crater

3 People Die After Falling into Volcanic Crater
Solfatara Crater, near Naples, Italy, is a dormant volcano that last erupted in 1198.

Credit: Dmytry Sukrov/Shutterstock.com

Three members of a family have died after falling into a volcanic crater in Italy, according to news reports.

The family of four from northeastern Italy was on vacation in Pozzuoli, viewing the sulfurous Solfatara crater. Their 11-year-old son ran through a safety barrier and went onto an unstable portion of the crater that is made of crumbling quicksand.

The boy’s mother and father rushed to save him and caused the crater to collapse, forming a small hole. All three dropped into the hole, fell unconscious and died, likely by inhaling the noxious fumes, the BBC reported. The couple’s other son, who is 7 years old, stayed put and survived. Rescue workers did manage to retrieve the bodies and reported that the pit was filled with boiling mud.

The Solfatara crater is one of many now-dormant volcanoes in a field of volcanic activity west of Naples. It formed about 4,000 years ago but last erupted in 1198, the BBC reported. Despite being dormant, Solfatara still emits sulfur and steam, and is a popular tourist attraction.

Originally published on Live Science.

Top 10 Most Unbelievable Child Survival Stories

Post 8502

Top 10 Most Unbelievable Child Survival Stories



Children have amazingly resilient bodies. They can bend and shift in ways many adults can’t. They seem to endure countless bumps and bruises without any permanent damage and even manage to look cute throughout all their crazy charades. However, even children have their limits. There are all too many stories of babies’ lives coming to unfortunate ends in unforeseen circumstances. Even so, some have escaped the chains of almost certain death in unimaginable ways. Here are ten of the most unbelievable child survival stories.

10Freezing Temperatures

On a subzero night in Alberta, Canada, in 2001, 13-month-old Erika got out of the bed she was sharing with her mother, opened an unlocked back door, and wandered out into the cold, snowy night. At some point along the way, she fell into the snow and lay there for an unspecified amount of time. Erika’s mom didn’t realize her daughter was gone until 3:00 AM, which is when she plummeted into a mother’s worst nightmare. Amazingly, she quickly spotted the toddler lying facedown in the snow.

When the paramedics arrived, they immediately began reviving Erika’s cold, blue body. Problems arose when her limbs were so frozen that a needle could hardly penetrate the skin, and her mouth was so full of ice that breathing tube insertion was nearly impossible. Luckily, the rescuers’ persistence led to their overcoming these trials with an IV in the leg and final success with the tube.

Once in the hospital, Erika was covered with a “Bair hugger” blanket, which heated her body from the outside. Astonishingly, her heart, which had been stopped for two hours, began beating once again. Erika beat all odds and survived one of the deadliest conditions.

9Plummeting Fall

This story is no less harrowing. In a Bronx apartment in 2017, two-year-old Audrianna had become used to sitting on the windowsill, playing her on her tablet. The window was, of course, always locked. One day, circumstances changed when her 17-year-old cousin Isabella came to visit.

While the two girls were playing in the room, Isabella opened the window to amplify the pattering sound of rain outside. Then, she briefly left the room to grab a slice of pizza from the kitchen, only to hear a loud “bang” and a following scream from Audrianna, who had just fallen out the window to an awning five stories below. The awning provided the perfect cushioned landing, and the toddler escaped the fall just fine.

If the awning hadn’t been there, the toddler’s crash would have been almost certainly deadly. The little one was rescued by a neighbor, who pulled her inside through a second-story window. Audrianna emerged from the scene with just a simple bruise on her arm and a smile on her face.] How’s that for an impromptu skydiving experience?

8Horrendous Car Crash

Photo credit: CBS Evening News

Another mind-boggling modern miracle occurred in Texarkana, Arkansas, in 2016, when a car was sideswiped by a semitruck that was trying to change lanes. What had originally been a car with five healthy people quickly turned into a flipped car with four injured adults and a missing eight-month-old. When it was discovered that the baby was ejected from the car, rescuers began hopelessly searching for the child’s body.

Soon, they heard a small noise coming from a patch of hay in the median. Unbelievably, the baby was sitting there in a storm drain, happily reaching up to the rescuers for them to pick her up. Even though the baby had flown 7.3 meters (24 ft) from the car due to not being restrained properly in a car seat, she was found with only a minor injury. She left the scene nearly unscathed and would live to see another day.

7Cokeville Bombing

Rarely has there ever been a story more riveting than the Cokeville, Wyoming, elementary school bombing in 1986. When David, Doris, and Princess Young entered the school on May 16, there was one goal in mind: to carry out David’s dark plan called “the Biggie.” This plan included holding all 100+ children in the elementary school hostage for $2 million each, detonating a bomb that was attached to David, and transporting all the children and money to his new world, where he would be God.

Upon arriving at the school, Princess rebelled, ran to pick up two other hostages who were being held in a van, and brought them to the sheriff’s office to alert authorities to her father’s plan. Meanwhile, Doris and David rounded up all the children and teachers into a small room for “an assembly,” which turned out to be a hostage situation. Everyone sat in the small room, surrounded by weapons, while the teachers tried to keep the students calm throughout the ordeal.

Soon, David transferred the bomb from his body to his wife’s, allowing him to go use the restroom. While he was gone, Doris accidentally detonated the bomb, engulfing her body in flames and burning many children. David came back and shot his wife while everyone else escaped. David also shot a teacher, who was escaping out the window, in the back. After that, David went to the bathroom and killed himself. The amazing part of this story? While 76 people, including the shot teacher, were injured from the explosion, not a single person died other than David and Doris.

6Alligator Attack

In 2017, during what seemed like a normal day, a Florida ten-year-old sat on the shore of a lake in Orange County. However, Juliana’s relaxing excursion quickly came to a halt when an 2.7-meter (8.8 ft) alligator chomped into her knee and calf. At first, the girl punched the predator in the face, but her attempt to loosen its grip was no use. Then, she remembered a lifesaving fact she learned in Gatorland, an alligator amusement park. Jamming her fingers into the animal’s nose, the girl waited for it to lose its breath and then pried its mouth open.

After the gator let her loose, the girl jumped up screaming and ran away. Her family took her to the hospital, where she received several stitches for her deep puncture wounds. Other than that, she was okay. Authorities reacted to the attack, caught the alligator, and closed the lake for public swimming for a period of time in order to prevent similar accidents. Luckily, Juliana’s calm wisdom came to her rescue, and nobody else was injured that day.

5Suicide Attempt

Photo credit: Google

It’s common for people to commit suicide by jumping off towering bridges, but it’s far less common for them to try to include their children in their gruesome deaths. When the Spicken family experienced just that, the outcome was nothing less than a miracle. In 2016, after getting into a heated family argument, John Spicken picked up his two toddler boys and drove away from the home. After following Spicken’s phone GPS signal, police found his empty car near a popular suicide bridge in New Jersey. At this point, the authorities knew something had gone terribly wrong.

In his family suicide attempt, John jumped off the 30-meter (100 ft) bridge—his three-year-old and one-year-old sons in tow. The three bodies landed in the trees below, missing the river underneath the bridge. Amazingly, the brush cushioned both the boys’ falls, and they each emerged alert and alive. While the father died upon impact, the young boys conquered the horrific fall, each suffering just mild concussions.

4Trash Chute Baby

After a young 12-year-old teen gave birth in her Bronx apartment in 1991, she immediately rid herself of her newborn child. Instead of bringing him to a safe drop-off, the mother threw the baby down the trash chute. The fragile infant fell four stories and landed amid the rubbish below. Around 9:45 AM, two and a half hours after the fall, the maintenance men were about to turn on the compactor when they heard a noise coming from the dumpster. Instead of turning on the compactor, which would have instantly smashed and killed the child, the two men decided to call the police.

When a patrol sergeant came to check out the scene, he crawled into the small opening of the trash compactor, where he found the feeble baby alive under a pile of newspapers. The baby was rushed to the hospital and treated for hypothermia. He was soon in stable condition. The infant had defied all odds by avoiding injury in his long fall and escaping the crushing blows of the trash compactor.

3Tornado Terror

Photo credit: XDragon

A thundering tornado stormed through Castalian Springs, Tennessee, in 2008, leaving behind a jaw-dropping pile of flattened buildings, raging fires, unending debris, and dead bodes. As rescuers scoured the area, their countenances faded as they found three corpses, all of which had been flung hundreds of feet from their homes and had become entangled in tree branches. At 1:30 AM, three and a half hours after the search for survivors had begun, one of the rescuers found a doll lying facedown in the mud. Upon closer inspection, the doll appeared to be alive and was, in fact, an 11-month-old baby.

Baby Kyson was picked up by the powerful tornado and flung hundreds of yards away from his flattened duplex, along with his 23-year-old mother, who did not survive the impact. After his silent body was picked up, the frightened Kyson was wrapped up in a coat and sat shivering, a blank stare across his face. Finally, the boy started crying, a huge relief to the rescue team. Upon closer examination, Kyson appeared healthy and basically unscathed. He was taken in by the loving arms of his grandparents, lucky to have survived an unbelievably destructive storm.

2Lost At Sea

In 1961, the Duperrault family of five took an idyllic Bahamas cruise, which quickly turned into a nightmare. In the middle of the cruise, the captain decided to carry out a sinister plan and kill his wife. His wife, not willing to go down so easily, put up a screaming fight, attracting the attention of the passengers aboard. To cover up his tracks, Captain Harvey not only killed his wife but also murdered everyone else on the ship. Everyone, that is, except for Tere Duperrault Fassbender, the 11-year-old middle child of the Duperrault family.

While the killing spree was commencing, Tere was safely in her cabin belowdecks. When she heard the screams, she came out to find the bloody bodies of her mother and brother. The ship was quickly taking on water from the aftermath of the mayhem, so instead of immediately killing her, the captain gave Tere a line to the dinghy below. He told her he would be right back and was just going to grab something before they escaped.

Tere did not fall for his lies, and instead of surrendering to her own murder, she let go of the line. Harvey never found her and returned to land, telling a tale of a sunken ship. He almost got away with murder. However, he was unaware that Fassenbender had actually survived and was fighting for her life at sea. She loved the outdoors, so despite enduring blistering heat in the day and hypothermia at night, she knew she would survive. She had no food or water to nourish her body, but her fighter spirit kept her alive. Four days into being stranded at sea, Fassenbender was rescued and lived, providing a witness to the horrendous cruise murder scene.

1Wheel Well Survival

Photo credit: AP

In 2014, in an almost unimaginable feat, a 16-year-old boy survived something almost no one else could on a standard flight to Hawaii. Instead of buying a coach ticket from San Jose to Kahului, the boy decided to hop the fence surrounding the airport and run to the wheel well of the airplane. While security cameras caught footage of his antics, nobody actually saw him do it in person. After climbing in the wheel well, he endured the five-hour flight to paradise.

Somehow, he managed to make it to Hawaii alive, overcoming subzero temperatures at oxygen-depleted heights. He reportedly became unconscious during takeoff, only to wake up an hour after the plane had landed. He completely astonished the ground crew when he emerged and was taken into the custody of welfare services.

In most cases, when a person is trapped in freezing temperatures with little oxygen, they pass away within just a few minutes. This boy must have fallen into a hibernative state, cooling his body and preserving his central nervous system. Even still, with temperatures reaching –59 to –62 degrees Celsius (–75 to –80 °F), his survival in a cramped wheel well is remarkable. He also managed to not be crushed by the landing gear folding back into the plane or fall out of the wheel well—both of which were real possibilities in this boy’s situation. Amazingly, his body fell unconscious in just the right position to hold him safely in the landing gear of the plane. After he survived the amazing feat, the boy avoided federal charges and went on to be one of the few survivors to ever overcome a wheel well flight.

How Two Bodies Stayed Mummified for 75 Years in a Swiss Glacier

Post 8452

How Two Bodies Stayed Mummified for 75 Years in a Swiss Glacier

The mountain range bordering the Jungfrau Glacier in Switzerland, as viewed from the Jungfraujoch.

Credit: Terry Chambers/Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty

Last week, during a routine inspection tour, a ski-lift technician for the Swiss adventure resort Glacier 3000 found what he thought was a collection of black rocks near the Tsanfleuron glacier in the western Bernese Alps, reported The New York Times. Upon close inspection, though, he discovered that the rocks were, in fact, mummified bodies.

DNA testing has now confirmed that the bodies are those of Marcelin and Francine Dumoulin, spouses that had been lost ever since they left home to feed their cattle the morning of Aug. 15, 1942. So how did the bodies become preserved in the glacier?

Whether the Dumoulins fell into a crevasse remains a mystery, but it may be that a snowstorm covered them, making it impossible to find the couple by sight. But regardless of what happened, the water inside their bodies eventually froze. Still, the ice crystals in their tissues likely didn’t stay put, said Dan Fisher, a professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Michigan, who was not involved in identifying the remains. [25 Grisly Archaeological Discoveries]

“The tissue starts out with a high water content, but that water would freeze, and in many cases,actually under those frozen conditions, when surrounded with [air] with low water-vapor content, the ice crystals in the tissue can sublimate,” Fisher told Live Science. Sublimation is the process by which solid ice transitions directly into water vapor without ever becoming liquid. In other words, the tissue dried out, Fisher said.

As such, it was both the cold and the dry conditions that inhibited the work of bacteria and fungi, as well as the chemical processes that would normally break down human tissue, leaving the bodies well-preserved.

Additionally, the bodies remained relatively intact likely because the Tsanfleuron glacier may be relatively stable, even though glaciers, rivers of slow-flowing ice, are in constant motion. They advance when more ice and snow are added than lost, and retreat when more ice and snow is lost, according to Martin Callanan, an associate professor of archaeology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, who was not involved in identifying the remains.

This retreat makes it possible to glimpse even further back into the past. In 2003, less than 20 miles (32 kilometers) away from Tsanfleuron, at the Schnidejoch glacier, coins, leather, a piece of a wooden bowl and a bow and arrows were among items discovered. Those objects date from Medieval times, all the way back to nearly 4500 B.C., during the Neolithic age.

“There is a definite increase in the number of objects that we’re finding and in the number of different regions that are reporting finds,” said Callanan, mentioning that he couldn’t speak to whether this was true specifically for bodies as well.

Photo published for Swiss police confirm identity of couple found on glacier

Callanan attributed this increase in discoveries, in part, to global warming. Global temperatures in 2014, 2015, and 2016 each broke the record for the hottest year on the planet since recordkeeping began in 1880, researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration told Live Science. This warming is causing glaciers worldwide to shrink, a 2016 study in Nature Geoscience confirms with 99 percent certainty.

The recent discovery and identification of the Dumoulins is a great relief to the couple’s daughter Marceline Udry-Dumoulin. Udry-Dumoulin, one of seven children, was only 4 when her parents went missing. After their disappearance, local rescue teams searched crevasses for more than two months but found nothing.

“I climbed the glacier three times afterwards, always looking for them,” Udry-Dumoulin told the Swiss newspaper Le Matin. “I kept wondering if they had suffered and what had become of them. Now I have the pleasure of having answers to these questions.”

Original article on Live Science.

7 European Countries Where College Is 100% Free

Post 8446

7 European Countries Where College Is 100% Free

Getting a free education is something that is not as easy as ABC these days, especially in this period where every organisation is aiming at generating revenue for themselves. A college degree is one of the strongest certificate one can actually achieve in life, but the best is always being able to get it for free.

MUST READ: 20 Animals That Totally Look Like Celebrities

Footing college bills especially when you don’t have the financial capacity of bearing the burden could be very discouraging. A college degree should be the most important thing once the process of education begins. We all have the dream to have free colleges everywhere in the world.  Unfortunately, that’s not the case everywhere.  There are however certain countries in the world where the taxpayer pays the bill for all students looking to get a college degree.  The countries in this list are mainly in Europe and have cultures that “take care of each other”.



Estonia, a country in Northern Europe, borders the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland. Including more than 1,500 islands, its diverse terrain spans rocky beaches, old-growth forest and many lakes

Public Universities In Estonia

Tallinn University Not ranked
Tallinn University of Technology Not ranked
University of Tartu Not ranked

Above are the details of some of the public Universities in Estonia.

6. Denmark


Denmark is one of 8 countries with some free college university programs

Top Colleges & Universities In Denmark

University of Copenhagen Times Higher Education World Ranking #82
Aurhus University Time Higher Education World Ranking #106
Technical University of Denmark Time Higher Education World Ranking #167
Aalborg University Time Higher Education World Ranking #201-250
Copenhagen Business School Time Higher Education World Ranking #201-250
University of Southern Denmark Time Higher Education World Ranking #301-350



According to the 2015 OECD report, Finland is one of 8 countries with free college university systems

Top 10 Public Universities in Finland

University of Helsinki Administrative Staff – 8000 Employees
Abo Academy University Administrative Staff – 1300 Employees
University of Turku Administrative Staff – 3319 Employees
University of Tampere Administrative Staff – 1982 Employees
University of Jyvaskyla Administrative Staff – 2583 Employees
University of Oulu Administrative Staff – 2852 Employees
University of Vaasa Administrative Staff – 498 Employees
University of Lapland Administrative Staff – 633 Employees
University of Eastern Finland Administrative Staff – 2800 Employees
Aalto Universirty Administrative Staff – 4424 Employees

4. Norway


According to the 2015 OECD report, Norway is one of 8 countries with free college university systems

Most Popular Universities In Norway

University of Oslo Number of Full Time Students – 27,628
University of Bergen Number of Full Time Students – 17,000
Western Norway University of Applied Sciences Number of Full Time Students – 16,000
University of Tromso Number of Full Time Students – 9500
University of Stavanger Number of Full Time Students – 9000

3. Slovak Republic (Slovakia)

Slovak Republic (Slovakia)

Slovakia is one of the top 8 countries with free college university systems

Top Colleges In The Capital – Bratislava

University of Economics In Bratislava Popular Study Program – Business Management
University of Technology In Bratislava Popular Study Program – Civil Engineering
Comenius University In Bratislava Popular Study Program – Mathematics and Physics
University of Performing Arts In Bratislava Popular Study Program – Music and Dance
Academy of Fine Arts and Design In Bratislava Popular Study Program – Architecture

2. Slovenia


According to the 2015 OECD report, Slovenia is one of 8 countries with free college university systems

Top College In Slovenia

University of Ljubljana Established in 1919
  1. Turkey

  2. Turkey

Turkey has over 178 different universities to choose coursework from :

Here Are 3 Of The Oldest Universities

Ankara University Established – 1946
Istanbul Universities Established – 1933
Istanbul Technical University Established – 1944