|Titles||Sultan of Yogyakarta|
|Founder||Raden Mas Sujana (Hamengkubuwono I)|
|Current head||BRM Herjuno Darpito (Hamengkubuwono X)|
Sultan Agung, the Sultanate of Mataram was declining due to power struggle within the sultanate. To make things worse, VOC (Dutch East India Company) exploited the power struggle to increase its control. At the peak of the conflict, the Mataram Sultanate was split in two based on the Treaty of Giyanti of February 13, 1755: Yogyakarta Sultanate and Surakarta Sultanate.
The Giyanti Treaty mentioned Pangeran Mangkubumi as Sultan of Yogyakarta with the title of Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwono Senopati Ingalaga Abdul Rakhman Sayidin Khalifatullah Panatagama (His Majesty, The Sultan-Carrier of the Universe, Chief Warrior, Servant of the Most Gracious, Cleric and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion).
During the era of Dutch occupation there were two principalities, the Yogyakarta Sultanate (Kasultanan Yogyakarta) and the smaller Pakualaman Duchy / Principality (Kadipaten Pakualaman).
The Dutch Colonial Government arranged for the carrying out autonomous self government, arranged under a political contract. When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed, the rulers, the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Prince of Pakualaman made a declaration they would become part of the Republic of Indonesia. Those two regions were unified to form the Yogyakarta Special Region and the sultan became the Governor of Yogyakarta and the Prince of Pakualaman as the vice-governor; both were responsible to the President of Indonesia. The Special Region of Yogyakarta was created after the independence war ended and legalized on August 3, 1950.
In carrying out the local government administration it considers three principles: decentralization, deconcentration and assistance. The provincial government carries out the responsibilities and authorities of the central government, while on other hand carrying out its autonomous responsibilities and authorities. The Regional Government consists of the Head of the Region and the Legislative Assembly of the Region. Such construction guarantees good cooperation between the Head of Region and the Legislative Assembly of Region in order to achieve a sound regional government administration. The Head of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has got responsibility as the Head of the Territory and titled as a Governor.
The first Governor was the late Hamengkubuwono IX, Sultan of Yogyakarta and continued by HRH. Paku Alam VIII as acting governor untilHamengkubuwono X ascended in 1998. Unlike the other heads of regions in Indonesia, the governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has the privilege or special status of not being bound to the period of position nor the requirements and way of appointment. However, in carrying out their duties, they have the same authorizations and responsibilities.
The principal residence of the sultan is the kraton (palace), sometimes called the Yogyakarta Kraton but otherwise known in formal terms Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat.
Beksan dancers, circa 1870.
Yogyakarta is well-known as home of Gadjah Mada University,one of Indonesia’s most prominent state university. This city also houses several well known private universities such as Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Islamic University of Indonesia, Atmajaya University of Yogyakarta and Sanata Dharma University
Princes and princesses of the Yogyakarta Sultanate (1870)
As with many significant historical and respected figures in Javanese culture, the name of a ruler is usually preceded by honourifics – in most cases the usage is of Sri Sultan before the name. In full titles the first Hamengkubawana was titled:
“Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I Senopati Ing Ngalaga Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatulah“.
The Hamengkubuwana is considered by Javanese as the true claimant and heir to the throne of the Second Mataram Kingdom and the vast Majapahit Empire, hence the post-Independence special privileges of self-rule solely allotted to the Hamengkubuwana keraton (palace)- not extended to the other three princedoms and fiefdoms of the Treaty of Giyanti (1755)
For some Javanese, the name has been interpreted as having the following compontents.
- Hamangku: pleased to serve people
- Hamengku: protect the people in a just way.
- Hamengkoni: ready to take responsibility of a leader.
- Buwono: Universe
List of Sultans of Yogyakarta (1755-present)
|No.||Name||Reign start||Reign end||Notes|
|February 13, 1755||March 24, 1792|
|2.||Hamengkubuwono II||April 2, 1792||June 20, 1812|
|3.||Hamengkubuwono III||June 28, 1812||November 3, 1814|
|4.||Hamengkubuwono IV||November 9, 1814||December 6, 1823||first reign|
|5.||Hamengkubuwono V||December 19, 1823||August 17, 1826||first reign|
|4.||Hamengkubuwono IV||August 17, 1826||January 2, 1828||second reign|
|5.||Hamengkubuwono V||January 17, 1828||June 5, 1855||second reign|
|6.||Hamengkubuwono VI||July 5, 1855||July 20, 1877|
|7.||Hamengkubuwono VII||December 22, 1877||January 29, 1921|
|8.||Hamengkubuwono VIII||February 8, 1921||October 22, 1939|
|9.||Hamengkubuwono IX||March 18, 1940||October 2, 1988|
|10.||Hamengkubuwono X||March 7, 1989||incumbent|
Guard of the Sultan.
Yogyakarta is the special province in Indonesia. It is located at southern of Merapi Mount. Yogyakarta divided by Progo River and Opak River in outer range. Lava from Merapi always flows along these rivers. There are five regency / municipality. The regencies are Sleman regency, Kulon Progo regency, Gunung Kidul regency and Bantul regency. The only one municipality is Jogjakarta, that also as capital city of Yogyakarta Special Region Province. Before become a province ot was a part of Vorstenlanden.
History of Yogyakarta Special Region always be related with the kingdom of Mataram. The Kingdom of Mataram was built by Sutawijaya. Sutawijaya was a on of Ki Ageng Pemanahan. He has killed Aryo Penangsang, the enemy of Pajang Kingdom. Pajang Kingdom has given him land that was named Mentaok Forest. Sutawijaya worked hardly to build a kingdom. After he was become a king, he have a tittle Panembahan Senopati. The glorious of Kingdom Mataram was happened when it was handled by Raden Mas Rangsang who was also popular with the tittle Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo. The authority was large through over Java island and a part of Sumatera island.
The influence of Mataram authority could be larger again if no VOC here. VOC (Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie) has occupied many authority region of Mataram Kingdom. Sultan Agung was very angry so he arranged some strategy to attacked VOC. He attacked VOC in Batavia (Jakarta City now), in 1628 and 1629, unfortunately it was failed. VOC burnt food resources of Mataram. Many Mataram soldiers was hungry and no power to attacked in the war with VOC.
After the death of Sultan Agung in 1645, Mataram authority was weaker and weaker, and The Dutch presser was stronger and larger. The Prince of Sultan Agung grandchild were confronted one with another. In the case Dutch always become the third party and got the advantages from the disputes.
Sultan Amangkurat II the grandson of Sultan Agung still could handle his government. Other dispute was occured between Sunan Mas (Sunan Amangkurat III) and Prince Puger. Prince Puger then proclaimed himself to be Sunan Pakubuwono I. At the same time Mataram power faded out since Dutch always tried to divide it by all means.
Sunan Paku Buwono III (the son of Paku Buwono II) was promoted by Dutchto be a Mataram administrator. The instalation made Prince Mangkubumi (The brother of Sunan Paku Buwono II) was disappointed and choosed to back to Ngayogyakarta because of unsatisfied policies of Sunan Pakubuwono and Dutch interference in organizing Mataram. It event again caused a conflict in Mataram. Prince Mangkubumi supported by Raden Mas Said tried to fight against the Dutch (VOC).
Mataram was divided into two region, according Giyanti agrement on February 1755. Sunan Pakubuwono III ruled the Surakarta Hadiningrat. Prince Mangkubumi reined a new Kingdom, Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Then, Prince Mangkubumi was titled Sultan Hamengku Buwana I. Raden Mas said was finally recognized as the prince who held the power in Mangkunegaran and was called Pangeran Aryo Adipati Mangkunagoro. Until now Mataram broke into two and people in Projo Kejawen (Surakarta and Yogyakarta) suffered more and more.
It is located in the center of the city of Yogyakarta or just Yogya as the local people call it. Karaton means a place where the Ratu-king lives, other word isKedaton, with the same meaning. In the Javanese teachings, it has a deep philosophical meaning.
The architect designer of this palace was Sultan Hamengkubuwono Ihimself, who was also the founder of the kingdom of NGAYOGYAKARTA HADININGRAT. His skill in architecture was appreciated by the dutch scientist – DR. Pigeund and DR. Adam who adored him as ” the architect of his brother-Pakubuwono II of Surakarta”.
The first king moved to his huge and magnificent Karaton on October 7, 1756. Although there are some European style of some parts of the building, structurally this is the vivid example of Javanese palace architecture.
The 14.000 sq. m of the Karaton Yogya has deep philosophical meaning with all its building, courts, carving, trees, and location. This is a Karaton full of significant symbols of human life.
Usually visitors are coming from MALIOBORO STREET, southward through the Alun-alun (north square). In order to understand perfectly well the symbolic meaning of the Karaton, one should walk from south to north. Start from Krapyak, a village of about 3 km south of Karaton.
|1.||In the old days, Krapyak was a raised brick-stage, used by the sultans to watch his families and soldiers to hunting deers. Krapyak is located nearby small village, Mijen – from the word wiji means seed, symbolizing life, soul of human beings.[back to sketch]|
|2.||Walk northward, through a straight street where on left and right sides grow the trees of asem becomes sengsem means adorable and tanjung becomes disanjung means cared. This is symbolizing life of child in a good path : adored and cared by the parents.|
|3.||Arrive at the main entrance (Plengkung) gading depicting the child has become a teenager, adorable and neatly make-up.|
|4.||At the south square (Alun-alun) in the southern part there are twowaringin (banyan) trees. The name of the trees are WOK abbreviation from the word BEWOK means beard. In the middle of this south square, there are two other waringin trees the name are Supit Urang meaningchopsticks of a shrimp, surrounded by fence in the form of archer’s bow,symbolizing the sacred part of human body. So it must be protected (in the fence). The fence’s bow form is characteristic of a girl and boy.[back to sketch]|
|5.||Look around the south square, there are five streets entering the square,imagining of five human sense. The square is covered by sands, it meansthat human life has not been arranged. Other trees grow there namely kweni become wani (courage) and pakel (adult), meaning the child has become an adult who has courage to choose the partner.[back to sketch]|
|6.||Further north, it is the Siti Hinggil (elevated land), surrounded by gayam trees, symbolizing the youngsters feeling in love, safe and happy. In the middle of Siti Hinggil (a large open veranda), there is a Selo Gilang (a square elevated stone), where the Sultan sit when receiving visitors from relatives or subordinates. In that case, describing a wedding-chair where the young couples sit side by side.
The trees planted here are :
Both trees have plenty of red and white colors (symbolizing woman and man sperm). All these are symbols of a marriage of young adult couple, in a safe, pleasant and lovable atmosphere, they should make love to produce human beings.[back to sketch]
|7.||In the left and right side of Siti Hinggil there are bathroom. The Siti Hinggil surrounded by a street name Pamengkang, showing the positon when someone is sitting or lying with separated legs.[back to sketch]|
|8.||Go further north, there is a yard named : Kemandungan, from the word kandung (pregnant) and the four trees planted here are :
In the left and right side at this yard, there are street aiming to go out side, this is imagining the negative influences which could occur during the growth of the baby in his mother womb.[back to sketch]
|9.||Now, passing the Regol (gate) Gadungmlati, arrive in Kemagangan. The road is narrow in the beginning and then becomes wider and brighter. That means the baby is safely born, growing to be a man facing his future life. There are kitchen in this premises, named gebulen and sekullangen, describing that for the child’s growth there are available a lot of food. The street on the left and right side of the premises are reflecting, the negative factors which could influence the child life. The child must be educated properly, to the right paths, to the north, to the Karaton, where the Sultan lives doing his duties. In Karaton he could attain his goals of life, therefore he has to work diligently, with good and correct manner, faithful not to break the rules. He must also always remember and serve to God almighty.[back to sketch]|
|11.||He is entering the gate (Regol) Brojonolo (brojo means weapon; nala means heart) and sees a stone wall. “Renteng mentog baturana” (renteng means worry; baturana means stone divider) which describes that Sri Sultan should not be worried to implement a just government. There is a tree – Jambu Tlampok Arum (Arum means fragrant), meaning “Speak always nicely, so your name will be famous all over the world”.|
|12.||Sri Sultan is now in North of Siti Hinggil, in the south, four trees of kemuning (ning – clear), then he steps to bangsal Witono (a seat in heaven) could also means begin. That is imagining “clear your thoughts and begin to pray”.[back to sketch]|
|13.||The place have to be arranged by two subordinates by names of Wignya(clever), and Derma (destiny), symbolizing ” You should be clever to sit in your throne as you are destined to represent God Almighty to rule your people”.|
|14.||Bangsal (hall) Manguntur Tangkil : a high place to worship God. The Bangsal Manguntur Tangkil is located inside the Bangsal Witono, this isdescribing that inside the body, there is soul or life spirit. Sri Sultan is ready to meditate (samadi) the gamelan (Javanese musical instruments) by the name Kyai Monggang is played slowly and rhythmically following his breathing in meditation. The meditator has to arrange his breathing and concentrate solemnly by closing the nine holes of his body.[back to sketch]|
|15.||In front of Siti Hinggil, there are Tarub Ageng (great, glory) andpagelaran, in the old days it was a place for the Patih (king’s chief-minister) and other subordinates to wait before meeting Sri Sultan for audience. Gelar here means bright. That’s describing that anybody who is meditating, submitting his/her life totally to the hands of God is in a great and bright path, as a gift from God.[back to sketch]|
|16.||Alun-alun (the North Square) with the two waringin trees are a comparison with someone’s experience in samadi. He/she is feeling calmly and happily, as if he/she is a twin, microcosmos unite macrocosmos. He /she has to go on with the samadi, avoiding temptations.[back to sketch]|
|17.||Go further north, there are :
Beringharjo Market :
symbolizing temptations and obstacles during samadi, in the market there are plenty of delicious foods, jewels, luxurious things, beautiful women and handsome men.
is the office of the patih, the sultan’s chief-officer. It’s a place where power is executed ; rank, promotion of officers are decided and finance is arranged.
|18.||The above explains the philosophical meaning of Karaton Yogyakarta. It is worth to note that daily situation in the Karaton is alive. The Karaton is attended by dignified and elderly retainers wearing traditional Javanese dress.|
|19.||Now Sri Sultan is heading back to the palace, through Kemandungan yard, where some keben (shut) trees grow, meaning ‘shut your eyes and ears,as you should be ready to go to die (to another world).|
|20.||He is greeted by his wife and children, and two young ministers in Sri Manganti Hall, offering some drinks. This is depicting two angels are ready to show him the way as in accordance with Al-Qur’an.[back to sketch]|
|21.||Bangsal Trajumas which stands in front of Sri Manganti, means “You must know what is right and wrong. Don’t think anymore of anything in this earth, your wife and family, you are leaving them”.[back to sketch]|
|22.||In the south, there is a building called ‘Purworetno’ meaning “We must always remember where do we come from”.[back to sketch]|
|23.||He passes the gate Donopratopo, means “A good man always gives something to others voluntarily and he is able to erase lust”.
|24.||The two statues of giants, the one has a good manner, the second is a bad giant. Showing “You must be able to differentiate, God and evil”.|
|25.||Sri Sultan goes to Bangsal Kencono (Golden Pavilion), describing the unity of human beings and God.[back to sketch]|
|26.||Then, he enters the pavilion Praba Yeksa. Praba means light, bright. Yeksa means big. In this pavilion there is a lamp which is always burning. According to ancient belief, the travel to eternal life is following a light.[back to sketch]|
|27.||Next to Prabayekso is gedong Kuning (yellow house), symbolizing the home of the peaceful spirits in heaven.[back to sketch]|
Inside the Karaton, there is a museum dedicated to the late Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, the father of the present Sultan Hamengkubuwono X. Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was a famous political figure and leader in Indonesia. His support and contribution for the Republic of Indonesia to gain independence are sincerely respected and recognized by almost every citizen.
Yogyakarta was temporary capital of Indonesia (1946-1949) and by law is granted the status of special region equals to province. The museum exhibit gilt copies of sacred Pusaka (the heirlooms), gifts from foreign monarchs, gamelan, royal carriages and some photos of the royal families and family tree.
There is a special pavillion dedicated to the active participation of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX for the struggle of Indonesia’s independence.
Besides his position as a traditional leader as the Sultan of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, he was also appointed as the Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region for life by the President of RI.
The Present Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region
The present Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, has been inaugurated in October 3, 1998 as the Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region upon request by the people of Yogyakarta. It is a sign of appreciation for his dedication to the people and the country. In the recently difficult period, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, has emerged as one of the national trustworthy leaders for peaceful reformation
(Suryo S. Negoro)
Pictures of Sultan :
Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono VIII
Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwono
Senopati Ing Alogo Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang
Jumeneng Kaping Songo”.(IX)
When his father died in 1988 he was not really thinking of becoming functioning sultan, but the sentiments locally were to big, so he was installed as sultan 1989. Later he became the face of reasonable democracy in Indonesia, advisor for a life with discussion and not with arms also.
The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 km². While the city spreads in all directions from the kraton (the Sultan’s palace), the core of the modern city is to the north, centring around Dutch colonial-erabuildings and the commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of sidewalk vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg a restored Dutch fort.
(Malioboro, the most famous street in the city for shopping and eating out.)
At Yogyakarta’s centre is the kraton, or Sultan’s palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighborhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan’s sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined Taman Sari, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighborhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.
(The Gondolayu bridge in the afternoon)
Nearby to the city of Yogyakarta is Mount Merapi. The northern outskirts of the city run up to the southern slopes of the mountain in Sleman Regency (Indonesian language–Kabupaten). Gunung Merapi (literally Mountain of Fire in Indonesian/Javanese), is an active Stratavolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. The volcano last erupted in November 2010.
The city is divided into 14 districts (kecamatan).
Arts and culture
Yogyakarta is known for its silver work, leather puppets used for shadow plays (wayang kulit), and a unique style of making batik dyed fabric. It is also known for its vivid contemporary art scene. Yogyakarta is also known for its gamelan music, including the unique style Gamelan Yogyakarta, which developed in the courts.
Yogyakarta is also a haven for underground art. It is home to many independent filmmaking communities, independent musicians, performance artists, and visual artists. One underground community that is internationally reputable among art collectors but barely heard of within the country is the Taring Padi community in Bantul, which produces posters using a technique called cukil. daren kidul Dono Kerto Turi.
Demography and language
Most population is Javanese, but being a student city, there are also significant population of people from other ethnicities in Indonesia. This status makes Yogyakarta as one of the most heterogeneous city in terms of ethnicity in Indonesia. Indonesian as the official national language, and Javanese are widely used as daily spoken languages, especially by the Javanese.
Yogyakarta is well-known as home of Gadjah Mada University,one of Indonesia’s most prominent state university. This city also houses several well known private universities such as Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta Islamic University of Indonesia, Atmajaya University of Yogyakarta and Sanata Dharma University
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport which connects the city with some other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Bali, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, and Pontianak. It also connects the city with Singapore (operated by Indonesia AirAsia) and Kuala Lumpur (operated by AirAsia and Malaysia Airlines).
The city is located on one of the two major railway lines across Java between Jakarta / Bandungand Surabaya. It has two passenger railway stations, Tugu Railway Station which serves business and executive class trains, and Lempuyangan Station which serves economy class trains. Both stations are located in the heart of the city.
The city has an extensive system of public city buses, and is a major destination for inter-city buses to elsewhere on Java or Bali, as well as taxis, andongs, and becaks. Motorbikes are by far the most commonly used personal transportation, but an increasing number of residents own automobiles.
Starting from early 2008, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Jogja. This system is modeled after TransJakarta. But unlike Trans Jakarta, there is no particular lane for Trans Jogja buses, they run on main streets. Currently there are six lines of Trans Jogja service, with routes throughout main streets of Yogyakarta, which some overlap one another. The lines extend from Jombor bus station in the north as far as Giwangan main bus terminal in the south and Prambanan bus shelter in the east via Adisucipto International Airport. Trans Jogja has now become a new trademark of Yogyakarta and frequently used by local citizens and tourists alike.
In a recent forum discussion on long-term future transportation plans in Yogyakarta held in Universitas Gadjah Mada, Head of Yogyakarta region transportation master plan team, Prof Ahmad Munawar, said that, in 2016 various modern transport modes include monorail, aerobus, and tram will begin operating in the city and the region.
Yogyakarta is the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta for its strong Javanese culture and tradition. This makes it prominent among other Javanese cities. Along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lying about 64 km to the east, Yogyakarta is the centre of Javanese culture.
Other information about Jogyakarta please see Tour Central Java Content on this Blog.