Scientists Found the Deepest Land on Earth Hiding Beneath Antarctica’s Ice


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Scientists Found the Deepest Land on Earth Hiding Beneath Antarctica’s Ice

“Using BedMachine to zoom into particular sectors of Antarctica, you find essential details, such as bumps and hollows beneath the ice that may accelerate, slow down or even stop the retreat of glaciers,” Mathieu Morlighem, an Earth system scientist at the University of California, Irvine and the lead author of a new paper about the map, said in a statement.

The new map, published Dec. 12 in the journal Nature Geoscience, reveals previously unknown topographical features that shape ice flow on the frozen continent.

The previously unknown features have “major implications for glacier response to climate change,” the authors wrote. “For example, glaciers flowing across the Transantarctic Mountains are protected by broad, stabilizing ridges.”

Understanding how ice flows in Antarctica becomes increasingly important as Earth warms. If all of Antarctica’s ice were to melt, it would raise global sea levels by 200 feet (60 meters), according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. That isn’t likely anytime soon, but even if small fractions of the continent were to melt, it would have devastating global effects.

Included in the data is evidence for the deepest canyon on planet Earth. By studying how much ice flows through a particular, narrow region known as the Denman trough each year, the researchers realized it must dive at least 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) below sea level to accommodate all the frozen water volume. That’s far deeper than the Dead Sea, the lowest exposed region of land, which sits 432 meters (1,419 feet) below sea level, according to the Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research center.

The map offers a wealth of new information on precisely which regions of the continent’s ice are at most risk of sliding into the ocean in the coming decades and centuries, the authors wrote.

//content.jwplatform.com/players/Lm6UIVUg-UbKkvo80.html

Mystery of Weird Hum Heard Around the World Solved


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Mystery of Weird Hum Heard Around the World Solved

By Laura Geggel – Associate Editor 13 hours ago

https://www.livescience.com/underwater-volcano-hum.html

Highly detailed planet Earth in the morning, showing Mozambique and Madagascar.

(Image: © Shutterstock)

Mysterious seismic hums detected around the world were likely caused by an unusual geologic event — the rumblings of a magma-filled reservoir deep under the Indian Ocean, a new study finds.
These odd hums were an unconventional geologic birth announcement. A few months after the sounds rippled around the Earth, a new underwater volcano was born off the coast of the island of Mayotte, located between Madagascar and Mozambique in the Indian Ocean.

The new findings provide a detailed, one-year timeline of the newborn volcano’s birth, which would make any mother (in this case, Mother Earth) proud. The study details how magma from a reservoir about 20 miles (35 kilometers) under the ocean floor migrated upward, traveling through Earth’s crust until it reached the seafloor and created the new volcano.

“It took only [a] few weeks for the magma to propagate from the upper mantle to the seafloor, where a new submarine volcano was born,” study lead researcher Simone Cesca, a seismologist at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany, told Live Science in an email.

This illustration shows how magma in a reservoir deep underground ascended to form a submarine volcano in the Indian Ocean.

This illustration shows how magma in a reservoir deep underground ascended to form a submarine volcano in the Indian Ocean. (Image credit: James Tuttle Keane/Nature Geoscience (2020))
A volcano is born

The saga began in May 2018, when global earthquake-monitoring agencies detected thousands of earthquakes near Mayotte, including a magnitude-5.9 quake, the largest ever detected in the region. Then, in November 2018, seismologists recorded weird seismic hums, some lasting up to 40 minutes, buzzing around the world. To put it mildly, these mysterious hums “trigger[ed] the curiosity of the scientific community,” the researcherswrote in the study.
The researchers found more than 400 such signals, Cesca said.
In 2019, a French oceanographic mission showed that a new volcano had been born near Mayotte. It was huge, measuring about 3.1 miles (5 km) long and almost a half mile (0.8 km) high.
Other researchers have suggested that these mysterious hums were tied to the new volcano and possibly a shrinking underground magma chamber, given that Mayotte has sunk and moved several inches since the earthquakes began. However, that research has yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

In the new study, the researchers used data gathered worldwide, as there wasn’t any local seismic data available from Mayotte. Their analyses show that two major stages led to the volcano’s birth. First, magma from a 9-mile-wide (15 km) reservoir flowed upward diagonally until it reached the seafloor, leading to a submarine eruption, Cesca said. As the magma moved, it “triggered energetic earthquakes along its path to the surface,” he said. “In fact, we reconstructed the upward migration of magma by following the upward migration of earthquakes.”

A sketch showing the deep magma reservoir and the magma highway that led to the new submarine volcano in the Indian Ocean.

A sketch showing the deep magma reservoir and the magma highway that led to the new submarine volcano in the Indian Ocean. (Image credit: Cesca et al. 2019, Nature Geoscience)
In the next stage, the magma path became a highway of sorts, allowing magma to flow out of the reservoir to the seafloor, where it built the volcano. As the reservoir drained, Mayotte sank almost 8 inches (20 centimeters). It also caused the area above the reservoir, called the overburden, to weaken and sag, creating small faults and fractures there. When earthquakes related to the volcano and tectonic plates shook this particular area above the reservoir, they triggered “the resonance of the deep reservoir and generate[d] the peculiar, very long period signals,” Cesca said. In other words, those strange seismic hums.
Related: Photos: Hawaii’s New Underwater Volcano
In all, about 0.4 cubic miles (1.5 cubic km) of magma drained ont of the reservoir, the researchers calculated. However, given the vast size of the volcano, it’s likely that even more magma was involved, Cesca noted.
Although the volcano is now formed, earthquakes may still rattle the area.
“There are still possible hazards for the island of Mayotte today,” study senior researcher and head of the section Physics of Earthquakes and Volcanoes at the GFZ Torsten Dahm, said in a statement “The Earth’s crust above the deep reservoir could continue to collapse, triggering stronger earthquakes.”
The new study was published online Monday (Jan. 6) in the journal Nature Geoscience.

Originally published on Live Science.

Eruption of Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano


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Eruption of Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano

http://www.bostonglobebigpicture

The activity of Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island has become destructive since early May, burning dozens of homes and forcing residents to flee. Many fissures have opened, spewing lava into neighborhoods and into the Pacific Ocean.
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The activity of Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island has become destructive since early May, burning dozens of homes and forcing residents to flee. Many fissures have opened, spewing lava into neighborhoods and into the Pacific Ocean. (Bruce Omori/Paradise Helicopters/EPA/Shutterstock)
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A steam plume rises as lava enters the Pacific Ocean, after flowing to the water from a Kilauea volcano fissure, on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 20 near Pahoa, Hawaii. Officials are concerned that ‘laze’, a dangerous product produced when hot lava hits cool ocean water, will affect residents. Laze, a word combination of lava and haze, contains hydrochloric acid steam along with volcanic glass particles. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava erupts and flows from a Kilauea volcano fissure on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 18 in Kapoho, Hawaii. The U.S. Geological Survey said the volcano erupted explosively on May 17 launching a plume about 30,000 feet into the sky. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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People play golf as an ash plume rises in the distance from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 15 in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. The U.S. Geological Survey said a recent lowering of the lava lake at the volcano’s Halemaumau crater ‘has raised the potential for explosive eruptions’ at the volcano. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava flows at a lava fissure in the aftermath of eruptions from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island, on May 12 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava erupts from a Kilauea volcano fissure near a home at dawn on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 18 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Brittany Kimball watches as lava erupts from from a fissure near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 19. Two fissures that opened up in a rural Hawaii community have merged to produce faster and more fluid lava. Scientists say the characteristics of lava oozing from fissures in the ground has changed significantly as new magma mixes with decades-old stored lava. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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Lava from a Kilauea volcano fissure erupts on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 19 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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People take pictures as lava enters the ocean, generating plumes of steam near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 20. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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Lava is blurred as it erupts from a Kilauea volcano fissure on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 17 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Leilani Estates residents Elizabeth Kerekgyarto, right, and Lucina Aqulina embrace before parting ways outside Kerekgyarto’s home during the evacuation of residents at Leilani Estates in Pahoa, Hawaii on May 6. (Jamm Aquino/Honolulu Star-Advertiser via AP)
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A lava flow moves across Makamae Street near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 6. Since eruptions in the Leilani Estates neighborhood began on May 3, the flows of lava have destroyed 36 structures as of May 11 — at least 26 of them homes — and covered 117 acres. (U.S. Geological Survey via The New York Times)
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Lava flows from fissures near Pahoa, Hawaii. Kilauea volcano began erupting more than two weeks ago and has burned dozens of homes. (U.S. Geological Survey via AP)
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Center lane lines are partially visible along the lava-covered road in the Leilani Estates subdivision near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 11. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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A wide angle camera view captures the entire north portion of the Overlook crater as the eruption continued May 6 at Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano. (U.S. Geological Survey)
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Lava erupts inside Leilani Estates near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 19. As lava flows have grown more vigorous in recent days, there’s concern more homes may burn and more evacuations may be ordered. (Jamm Aquino/Honolulu Star-Advertiser via AP)
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Resident Stacy Welch inspects lava next to a destroyed home in the Leilani Estates neighborhood located 250-feet from her home, which remains standing. The volcano has spewed lava and high levels of sulfur dioxide gas into communities, leading officials to order 1,700 to evacuate. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Steam plumes rise as lava enters the Pacific Ocean, after flowing to the water from a Kilauea volcano fissure, on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 21 near Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava enters the ocean off Highway 137 near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 20. (Jae C. Hong/ Associated Press)
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Steam plumes rise as lava enters the Pacific Ocean, after flowing to the water from a Kilauea volcano fissure, on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 20 near Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava from a robust fissure eruption on Kilauea’s east rift zone consumes a home, then threatens another, near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 6. (BRUCE OMORI/PARADISE HELICOPTERS/EPA/Shutterstock)
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A woman takes a photo as an ash plume rises from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 15 in Volcano, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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U.S. Army National Guard First Lt. Aaron Hew Len takes measurements for sulfur dioxide gas at volcanic fissures in the Leilani Estates neighborhood on May 8 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Ti leaves and a bottle of alcohol are left as offerings to the Pele, the Hawaiian Goddess of Fire, on a hardened lava flow from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 15 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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A massive flow of fast moving lava consumes everything in its path as it enters a forest, Pahoa, Hawaii, May 19. For perspective, the Cook pines trees, in the middle right of the frame, are 80-100 feet tall. (Bruce Omori/Paradise Helicopters/EPAShutterstock)
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Volunteer Jasmine Kupihea, right, hugs Keula Keliihoomalu, a local resident affected by the lava flow, at a makeshift donation center on May 8 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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Tourists climb trees at the 18th hole of Volcano Golf and Country Club, inside Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, on May 15 to view the plumes of smoke coming from the vent inside Kilauea’s Halemaumau Crater. (Linda Davidson for The Washington Post)
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U.S. Air National Guardsman John Linzmeier looks at cracks as toxic gases rise near by in the Leilani Estates subdivision near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 18. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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An aerial view shows fissure 17 continuing to erupt, creating wide, a mile long flow of lava that now threatens homes, property, and two major thoroughfares in Pahoa, Hawaii on May 14. Eighteen fissures have been reported in and around Leilani Estate. (BRUCE OMORI/PARADISE HELICOPTERS/EPA/Shutterstock)
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Residents jam a street after being allowed to briefly return home to check on belongings and pets in an evacuation zone near volcanic activity on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 6 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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An image of falling ash from Kilauea, as captured by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory’s webcam on May 17. (U.S. Geological Survey)
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Lava from a Kilauea volcano fissure erupts and burns near a home on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 19 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Residents evacuate as lava continues to overrun Hookupu Street on May 7 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Jamm Aquino/Honolulu Star-Advertiser via AP)
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Steam and gas rise in Leilani Estates in the aftermath of the Kilauea volcano eruption on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 10. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Activity continues on Kilauea’s east rift zone, as a fissure eruption fountains more than 200 feet into the air, consuming all in its path., near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 6. (BRUCE OMORI/PARADISE HELICOPTERS/EPA/Shutterstock)
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The governor of Hawaii declared a local state of emergency near the Mount Kilauea volcano after it erupted following a 5.0-magnitude earthquake, forcing the evacuation of nearly 1,700 residents. (U.S. Geological Survey via Getty Images)
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This combination of satellite images shows an area by the Kilauea volcano near Pahoa, Hawaii, on May 24, 2017, top, and on May 14 2018, bottom, after the recent volcanic activity. (Satellite Image ©2018 DigitalGlobe, a Maxar company via AP)
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Lava is seen spewing from a fissure in the Leilani Estates subdivision on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 4, where up to 10,000 people were asked to leave their homes on Hawaii’s Big Island following the eruption of the Kilauea volcano that came after a series of recent earthquakes. (FREDERIC J. BROWN/AFP/Getty Images)
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Hannique Ruder, a resident living in the Leilani Estates subdivision, walks past the mound of hardened lava while surveying the neighborhood near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 11. (Jae C. Hong)
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An ash plume rises from the Halemaumau crater within the Kilauea volcano summit caldera at the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on May 9. (Mario Tama)

How Did a ‘Lava Bomb’ Split a Man’s Leg Open?


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How Did a ‘Lava Bomb’ Split a Man’s Leg Open?

How Did a 'Lava Bomb' Split a Man's Leg Open?

A Hawaii man nearly lost his leg to a renegade ‘lava bomb’ launched by Kilauea volcano this week.

Credit: Mario Tama/Getty

When you think of the ways a volcanic eruption can hurt or kill, you probably imagine gooey lava streams, steaming fissures and crumbling ash columns that could turn a whole city into statues. You might not imagine the volcano belching gigantic, red-hot cannonballs at you, though — but they do that, too.

When globs of molten lava blast into the air and solidify, they become “lava bombs.” One such bomb recently struck Hawaii Island resident Darryl Clinton while he tried to put out a fire in his neighborhood. Burning ejecta from the still-erupting Kilauea volcano had lit the blaze. According to CNN, the chunk of hardened lava shot like a rocket from a fissure roughly 100 yards (91 meters) away from Clinton, set his porch on fire and sliced his leg to the bone. [Fiery Lava from Kilauea Erupts on Hawaii’s Big Island]

“It was the most forceful impact I’ve ever had on my body in my life,” Clinton told the KHON news channel. “I’ve been hit by big waves and various things. That was just incredibly powerful and hot. It burned.”

Clinton is recovering in the hospital and will be able to walk again in about six weeks, KHON reported. He is the first person seriously injured by Kilauea volcano’s recent eruptive period, which began several weeks ago. But if more folks stray too close to erupting fissures, he may not be the last.

Lava bombs, also known as volcanic bombs, are partially molten chunks of lava that explode out of volcanic vents during eruptions, harden in the air and then come crashing down again. Lava bombs can be hurled as high as 3,300 feet (1,000 m) and land still hot enough to set houses ablaze, prior studies have shown.

What’s more, depending on the size and viscosity of the lava being ejected, these bombs can change shape during flight, becoming more smooth and aerodynamic. The final shape of the bomb determines its name.

According to the American Museum of Natural History, spindle bombs spin and taper during flight and end up looking like red-hot footballs. Bread crust bombs solidify on the outside but remain fluid on the inside, resulting in gas bubbles and cracks along the bomb’s surface. Cow pie bombs land while they’re still mostly liquid; when they hit the ground, they splat like a pancake — or, you know, something you’d rather not step in on a farm.

This ancient lava bomb from a German volcano weighs more than 260,000 pounds.

This ancient lava bomb from a German volcano weighs more than 260,000 pounds.

Credit: Alamy

Luckily, the lava bomb that hit Clinton’s leg was relatively small for one of these incendiary boulders. The town of Strohn, Germany, holds one of the world’s largest known lava bombs, weighing more than 260,000 lbs. (120 metric tons) and spanning 16 feet (5 m) in diameter. This exceptional piece of house-size ordnance formed in the nearby Wartgesberg volcano, but probably never flew very far; geologists suspect the massive bomb acquired its weight and volume by rolling up and down the volcano’s crater, caking more and more lava along its edges as if nature were trying to make a lava snowman.

Lava bombs aren’t just dangerous projectiles, though; they’re also objects for research. Scientists can study these bombs to get a glimpse of the mineral compositions of volcanoes and the Earth deep beneath them.

Usually, as Clinton pointed out to KHON, you can hear the initial eruption that launches a lava bomb long before the bombs actually fall. But that doesn’t mean a stray chunk of lava won’t come flying straight out of a vent like a shell from a cannon, before you have time to run for cover. To avoid lava bomb-related injury, take heed of evacuation notices (Clinton admitted his neighborhood was under evacuation, but he felt safe in his home) — and please, no matter where you are, do not attempt to stop the lava.

Originally published on Live Science.

What on Earth Is This Fiery Blob?


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What on Earth Is This Fiery Blob?

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What on Earth Is This Fiery Blob?

This impressive blob is a 65-foot (20 meters) high lava dome fountain that was photographed in Hawaii on Oct. 11, 1969.

Credit: USGS

At first glance, it looks like a fiery monster out of “The Incredibles.” Or maybe a glowing alien orb, or a giant, irritated zit popping up above the Earth’s surface.

But it’s neither. Rather, it’s an incredibly rare, 65-foot-tall (20 meters) lava-dome fountain.

Normally, volcanoes erupt lava in powerful jets that look like fountains gone wild. But in this photo — captured Oct. 11, 1969, in Hawaii — the lava spurted out symmetrically, forming an aesthetically pleasing lava-dome fountain. [History’s Most Destructive Volcanoes]

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) tweeted the photo on March 29 for Throwback Thursday (#TBT), a popular hashtag used when people post nostalgic photos from their past on social media.

The red-hot lava fountain certainly is a nostalgic moment for the USGS. This particular fountain was part of the Mauna Ulu eruption, which lasted (on and off) for an astonishing five years, from May 1969 until July 1974,according to the USGS.

Mauna Ulu is a volcanic cone on the east rift zone of the Kilauea volcanoon the Big Island of Hawaii. At the time Mauna Ulu erupted, it was the longest-lasting and most voluminous eruption on Kilauea’s eastern side in at least 2,200 years, the USGS said. The 1,774-day eruption spewed out about 460 million cubic yards (350 million cubic meters) of lava — enough to fill 140,000 Olympic-size swimming pools.

Mauna Ulu no longer holds the record for the longest-erupting volcano. Pu’u ‘Ō’ō, a volcanic vent on Kilauea’s east rift zone, has erupted nearly continuously since January 1983, according to a 2003 report from the USGS. But despite Pu’u ‘Ō’ō’s feat, “the Mauna Ulu eruption was more accessible to the public, with a viewing platform established at one point to observe a lava lake in the crater,” the USGS said.

The fountain pictured here spewed out lava from Oct. 10 to Oct. 13, 1969, relatively early in Mauna Ulu’s epic eruption. (As a side note, the perspective of the photo makes it look as if the lava were coming out of the water. But it’s actually on land, and those “waves” are ripples of lava.)

Typically, lava fountains occur when gas bubbles rapidly form and expand in molten rock, which prompts jets of lava to spray outward, the USGS said. Though impressive, Mauna Ulu’s fountain wasn’t on the big side; lava fountains range from about 30 to 330 feet (10 to 100 m) in height, and some have reached the incredible height of 1,640 feet (500 m), the USGS reported.

Geologists have found that lava fountains can gush out of isolated vents and fissures, from active lava lakes and from lava tubes that are exposed to water.

Original article on Live Science.

8 Trillion ‘Gallons’! Huge Blob of Magma Found Atop Undersea Volcano


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8 Trillion ‘Gallons’! Huge Blob of Magma Found Atop Undersea Volcano

 8 Trillion 'Gallons'! Huge Blob of Magma Found Atop Undersea Volcano

Credit: Shutterstock

A giant undersea caldera near Japan hosts a lava dome made from 8 trillion gallons of molten rock.

The dome, which is 6.2 miles (10 kilometers) wide and 1,968 feet (600 meters) tall, is solid rock now, and it doesn’t presage an impending eruption. However, it does add a new wrinkle to the history of the Kikai caldera, a huge depression that formed during a massive volcanic super-eruption about 6,300 or 7,300 years ago (the broad range has to do with different methods of dating the eruption). That eruption sent heated pyroclastic flow 50 miles (80 km) across the sea and spread ash up to 620 miles (1,000 km) away, said Yoshi Tatsumi, the author of a new study on the caldera’s inner workings, published today (Feb. 9) in the journalScientific Reports.

The system is still active, and it’s a relatively high-risk place for eruptive activity, said Erik Klemetti, a volcanologist at Denison University, who was not involved in the study. The volcano also blew its top in super-eruptions95,000 years ago and about 140,000 years ago. It occasionally burps ash and steam even in the modern day, with the last recorded eruption occurring between 2013 and 2014. [The 11 Biggest Volcanic Eruptions in History]

But because the caldera is hidden underwater, it’s hard to keep tabs on its activity. Tatsumi and his colleagues conducted multiple remotely-operated-vehicle dives to the caldera floor, south of Kyushu Island in the Japanese archipelago. They used sonar to map the caldera’s floor and shot small explosive charges into the seafloor to create seismic waves they could record and use to image the subsurface. The team also collected data on the water column’s chemistry and took rock samples from the looming dome in the center of the caldera.

This relief map shows the Kikai caldera: The inner and outer caldera are shown in solid lines. The blue diamonds indicate the diving sites of the remotely operated vehicle (ROV).

This relief map shows the Kikai caldera: The inner and outer caldera are shown in solid lines. The blue diamonds indicate the diving sites of the remotely operated vehicle (ROV).

Credit: Tatsumi et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-21066-w

The findings proved that the dome was, in fact, built up from lava, specifically a form of lava called rhyolite — some 8 trillion gallons (32 cubic kilometers) of it. This dome could have formed anytime since the last eruption, Klemetti said, so it isn’t clear how new it is. However, Tatsumi and his colleagues found that its chemical composition is different than the lava ejected from the caldera during the last super-eruption. This finding suggests that a new magma system formed after the eruption, Tatsumi told Live Science.

“The post-caldera activity, at least [at] this caldera, is regarded as the preparation stage to the next super-eruption, not as the calming-down stage from the previous super- eruption,” he said.

That doesn’t mean an eruption is imminent, but that the volcanic system that underpins the caldera has been changing and evolving over the millennia, the researchers reported. It’s interesting to see that the lava dome apparently originates from a different part of the magmatic system (underground chambers of molten rock) than the last super-eruption’s lavas, Klemetti said. [50 Amazing Facts About Volcanoes]

The best way to be sure the dome has a separate origin would be to test the minerals in the lavas and to find out when they formed, whether before the caldera-forming super-eruption, around the same time or after, Klemetti said. Tatsumi and his team plan to look deeper under the caldera. Given the giant size of the lava dome, there could be a large magma reservoir under the surface, Tatsumi said. The team plans to use subsurface imaging to look for that reservoir and describe it if it exists.

Original article on Live Science

Lava Gulps Down GoPro Camera, Which Records the Entire, Fiery Affair


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Lava Gulps Down GoPro Camera, Which Records the Entire, Fiery Affair

 https://www.livescience.com/61085-lava-engulfs-gopro-camera.html

The internet is awash with extreme videos, but footage of lava barreling toward and then melting the lens of a GoPro camera may be one of the hottest (literally) recordings online.

The fiery affair happened on Aug. 10, 2016, when Kilauea EcoGuides tours owner and lead guide Erik Storm took a group of tourists from San Francisco to Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park, according to National Geographic. The video resurfaced this month after Erez Marom, an Israeli photographer, accidently melted a drone camera when he flew it too close to lava flows in Hawaii, renewing interest in flaming-hot lava footage.

Storm captured the recording when he showed the tour group a fast-moving lava flow in the park that day. Storm put his GoPro Hero4 Black camera into a crevice to capture a recording of the molten rock, but he made what he now calls “a $400 mistake” — he didn’t pull out the camera in time, National Geographic reported. [50 Amazing Volcano Facts]

At least Storm has a good excuse for losing his GoPro to a molten blob. He was busy telling the tourists a story about Pele, the Polynesian fire goddess, he told National Geographic. After the scorching incident, he set to work retrieving the camera.

Don't drop your GoPro in the searing lava.
Don’t drop your GoPro in the searing lava.

Credit: Shutterstock

“I had a geologist rock hammer with me, and that is how I was able to get it out of the now cooling rock,” Storm wrote on Storyful, a video site. “When I got home, I hammered all the hardened rock off of the camera and was amazed to see the blue Wi-Fi light still blinking!”

Amazingly, the camera could still turn on, although the lens had melted, rendering it unusable. “The SD [secure digital] card popped right out and the footage was intact,” he told Storyful. “At the end of the video, you can see me with the rock hammer.”

It’s no wonder the lava melted Storm’s camera. Crawling, dark-red lava on Hawaii can reach temperatures of 895 degrees Fahrenheit (479 degrees Celsius), according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Live Science previously reported.

Bright-red lava flows are even hotter, reaching upward of 1,165 degrees F (629 degrees C), and glowing, orange lava indicates the molten rock is a steaming 1,600 degrees F (871 degrees C) or so, Live Science reported.

Despite the great footage, Storm doesn’t recommend that other people mess with lava: Many native Hawaiians consider lava to be sacred.

“No one should ever poke the lava with anything, cook with the lava orthrow anything into or in front of the flowing lava to ‘see what happens,'” Storm told Storyful. “I respect the place where I work to the fullest and work hard to make sure people understand that this is a very sacred place that commands respect.”

Original article on Live Science.

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