Eruption of Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano


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Eruption of Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano

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The activity of Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island has become destructive since early May, burning dozens of homes and forcing residents to flee. Many fissures have opened, spewing lava into neighborhoods and into the Pacific Ocean.
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The activity of Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island has become destructive since early May, burning dozens of homes and forcing residents to flee. Many fissures have opened, spewing lava into neighborhoods and into the Pacific Ocean. (Bruce Omori/Paradise Helicopters/EPA/Shutterstock)
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A steam plume rises as lava enters the Pacific Ocean, after flowing to the water from a Kilauea volcano fissure, on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 20 near Pahoa, Hawaii. Officials are concerned that ‘laze’, a dangerous product produced when hot lava hits cool ocean water, will affect residents. Laze, a word combination of lava and haze, contains hydrochloric acid steam along with volcanic glass particles. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava erupts and flows from a Kilauea volcano fissure on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 18 in Kapoho, Hawaii. The U.S. Geological Survey said the volcano erupted explosively on May 17 launching a plume about 30,000 feet into the sky. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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People play golf as an ash plume rises in the distance from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 15 in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. The U.S. Geological Survey said a recent lowering of the lava lake at the volcano’s Halemaumau crater ‘has raised the potential for explosive eruptions’ at the volcano. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava flows at a lava fissure in the aftermath of eruptions from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island, on May 12 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava erupts from a Kilauea volcano fissure near a home at dawn on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 18 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Brittany Kimball watches as lava erupts from from a fissure near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 19. Two fissures that opened up in a rural Hawaii community have merged to produce faster and more fluid lava. Scientists say the characteristics of lava oozing from fissures in the ground has changed significantly as new magma mixes with decades-old stored lava. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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Lava from a Kilauea volcano fissure erupts on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 19 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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People take pictures as lava enters the ocean, generating plumes of steam near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 20. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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Lava is blurred as it erupts from a Kilauea volcano fissure on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 17 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Leilani Estates residents Elizabeth Kerekgyarto, right, and Lucina Aqulina embrace before parting ways outside Kerekgyarto’s home during the evacuation of residents at Leilani Estates in Pahoa, Hawaii on May 6. (Jamm Aquino/Honolulu Star-Advertiser via AP)
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A lava flow moves across Makamae Street near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 6. Since eruptions in the Leilani Estates neighborhood began on May 3, the flows of lava have destroyed 36 structures as of May 11 — at least 26 of them homes — and covered 117 acres. (U.S. Geological Survey via The New York Times)
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Lava flows from fissures near Pahoa, Hawaii. Kilauea volcano began erupting more than two weeks ago and has burned dozens of homes. (U.S. Geological Survey via AP)
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Center lane lines are partially visible along the lava-covered road in the Leilani Estates subdivision near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 11. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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A wide angle camera view captures the entire north portion of the Overlook crater as the eruption continued May 6 at Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano. (U.S. Geological Survey)
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Lava erupts inside Leilani Estates near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 19. As lava flows have grown more vigorous in recent days, there’s concern more homes may burn and more evacuations may be ordered. (Jamm Aquino/Honolulu Star-Advertiser via AP)
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Resident Stacy Welch inspects lava next to a destroyed home in the Leilani Estates neighborhood located 250-feet from her home, which remains standing. The volcano has spewed lava and high levels of sulfur dioxide gas into communities, leading officials to order 1,700 to evacuate. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Steam plumes rise as lava enters the Pacific Ocean, after flowing to the water from a Kilauea volcano fissure, on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 21 near Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava enters the ocean off Highway 137 near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 20. (Jae C. Hong/ Associated Press)
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Steam plumes rise as lava enters the Pacific Ocean, after flowing to the water from a Kilauea volcano fissure, on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 20 near Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Lava from a robust fissure eruption on Kilauea’s east rift zone consumes a home, then threatens another, near Pahoa, Hawaii, May 6. (BRUCE OMORI/PARADISE HELICOPTERS/EPA/Shutterstock)
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A woman takes a photo as an ash plume rises from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 15 in Volcano, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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U.S. Army National Guard First Lt. Aaron Hew Len takes measurements for sulfur dioxide gas at volcanic fissures in the Leilani Estates neighborhood on May 8 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Ti leaves and a bottle of alcohol are left as offerings to the Pele, the Hawaiian Goddess of Fire, on a hardened lava flow from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 15 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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A massive flow of fast moving lava consumes everything in its path as it enters a forest, Pahoa, Hawaii, May 19. For perspective, the Cook pines trees, in the middle right of the frame, are 80-100 feet tall. (Bruce Omori/Paradise Helicopters/EPAShutterstock)
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Volunteer Jasmine Kupihea, right, hugs Keula Keliihoomalu, a local resident affected by the lava flow, at a makeshift donation center on May 8 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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Tourists climb trees at the 18th hole of Volcano Golf and Country Club, inside Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, on May 15 to view the plumes of smoke coming from the vent inside Kilauea’s Halemaumau Crater. (Linda Davidson for The Washington Post)
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U.S. Air National Guardsman John Linzmeier looks at cracks as toxic gases rise near by in the Leilani Estates subdivision near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 18. (Jae C. Hong/Associated Press)
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An aerial view shows fissure 17 continuing to erupt, creating wide, a mile long flow of lava that now threatens homes, property, and two major thoroughfares in Pahoa, Hawaii on May 14. Eighteen fissures have been reported in and around Leilani Estate. (BRUCE OMORI/PARADISE HELICOPTERS/EPA/Shutterstock)
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Residents jam a street after being allowed to briefly return home to check on belongings and pets in an evacuation zone near volcanic activity on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 6 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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An image of falling ash from Kilauea, as captured by the Hawaii Volcano Observatory’s webcam on May 17. (U.S. Geological Survey)
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Lava from a Kilauea volcano fissure erupts and burns near a home on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 19 in Kapoho, Hawaii. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Residents evacuate as lava continues to overrun Hookupu Street on May 7 in Pahoa, Hawaii. (Jamm Aquino/Honolulu Star-Advertiser via AP)
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Steam and gas rise in Leilani Estates in the aftermath of the Kilauea volcano eruption on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 10. (Mario Tama/Getty Images)
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Activity continues on Kilauea’s east rift zone, as a fissure eruption fountains more than 200 feet into the air, consuming all in its path., near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 6. (BRUCE OMORI/PARADISE HELICOPTERS/EPA/Shutterstock)
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The governor of Hawaii declared a local state of emergency near the Mount Kilauea volcano after it erupted following a 5.0-magnitude earthquake, forcing the evacuation of nearly 1,700 residents. (U.S. Geological Survey via Getty Images)
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This combination of satellite images shows an area by the Kilauea volcano near Pahoa, Hawaii, on May 24, 2017, top, and on May 14 2018, bottom, after the recent volcanic activity. (Satellite Image ©2018 DigitalGlobe, a Maxar company via AP)
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Lava is seen spewing from a fissure in the Leilani Estates subdivision on Hawaii’s Big Island on May 4, where up to 10,000 people were asked to leave their homes on Hawaii’s Big Island following the eruption of the Kilauea volcano that came after a series of recent earthquakes. (FREDERIC J. BROWN/AFP/Getty Images)
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Hannique Ruder, a resident living in the Leilani Estates subdivision, walks past the mound of hardened lava while surveying the neighborhood near Pahoa, Hawaii on May 11. (Jae C. Hong)
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An ash plume rises from the Halemaumau crater within the Kilauea volcano summit caldera at the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on May 9. (Mario Tama)

Baby’s Feet Outside Mom’s Uterus: Amazing Image Shows Rare Rupture


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Baby’s Feet Outside Mom’s Uterus: Amazing Image Shows Rare Rupture

This image, taken using magnetic resonance imaging, shows the developing fetus in the woman’s uterus. The two white arrows indicate the point where the woman’s uterine wall ruptured and the amniotic sac, which is the large white spot, spilled out. The fetus’s legs are visible in the amniotic sac.

Credit: The New England Journal of Medicine ©2016.

Just looking at this image might give the impression that this woman’s baby literally kicked its feet right out of her uterus. But moms-to-be with kicky babies can rest easy — the MRI image showcases an extremely rare condition that was not caused by a baby’s kick.

The 33-year-old woman had developed a 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) tear in the wall of her uterus, and through the tear, part of the amniotic sac measuring 7.5 by 4.7 by 3.5 inches (19  by 12 by 9 cm) popped out, according to a brief report of her case. The amniotic sac is the fluid-filled membrane found in the uterus that contains the growing and developing fetus.

But the woman had no symptoms that any of this was going on. She didn’t learn of her condition until she came in for a routine ultrasound when she was 22-weeks pregnant, according to the report, published today (Dec. 21) in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Dr. Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet, an OB/GYN at the Angers University Hospital in France and the lead author of the report, said he had never seen a case like this before. [Here’s a Giant List of the Strangest Medical Cases We’ve Covered]

Indeed, the condition is “extremely rare,” Bouet told Live Science. There have only been 26 cases reported in the literature, he added.

This was the woman’s sixth pregnancy, the doctors wrote in the report. In all of her five previous pregnancies, the woman delivered the babies via Caesarean section (C-section), they wrote.

In fact, it was the woman’s five previous C-sections that increased her risk for a uterine tear, Bouet said. It seems that her C-sections had weakened the wall of the uterus, he said. The tear didn’t occur at the exact location of the earlier C-sections, but close by, he added.

The area of the uterus that had scarred after the C-sections was strong, but the regions around this scar were fragile, Bouet said. The forces and pressures on the uterus that occur during pregnancy ultimately led to the tear, he said.

Upon discovering the woman’s uterine tear and protruding amniotic sac, the doctors informed the woman and her husband of the potential risks, which included additional uterine tearing, preterm birth and a serious pregnancy complication called placenta accreta, in which the placenta doesn’t detach from the uterine wall after birth.

It was also possible for the amniotic sac to rupture, Bouet said. If this occurred, the doctors would make sure that the fetus still had a heartbeat, and if so, would perform an emergency C-section, Bouet said. The doctors would also have to consider the age of the fetus: if it was too early in the pregnancy, the odds of survival would be lower, he said.

The woman and her husband decided to continue the pregnancy with close monitoring, according to the report. Bouet said that the woman was not put on bed rest during this time, and that she could do some moderate walking.

By 30 weeks, the tear in the woman’s uterus grown by 2 inches (5 cm) and the portion of the amniotic sac outside the uterus had grown in size, the doctors wrote in the report. At that point, not only did this part of the amniotic sac contain the fetus’s legs, but also the abdomen, they wrote.

The doctors and the woman decided to deliver the baby via C-section. The baby boy was healthy, and weighed in at 3 lbs. (1.385 kilograms), according to the report. After delivery, the doctors repaired the woman’s uterus, and she returned home from the hospital after five days.

The doctors last checked in with mother and baby six months after he was born, and noted that they were doing well.

Originally published on Live Science.

Woman’s Scalp Was Torn from Her Head in Horrifying Accident


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Woman’s Scalp Was Torn from Her Head in Horrifying Accident

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Woman's Scalp Was Torn from Her Head in Horrifying Accident

Two months after the woman’s injury. The scar from the surgery can be seen running from ear to ear.

Credit: BMJ Case Reports/CC BY-NC 4.0

Editor’s Note: This story contains some graphic images.

In an awful accident, a woman in Japan had her entire scalp pulled off her head, according to a new report of the woman’s case.

The accident occurred when the 64-year-old woman’s long hair got caught in a spinning machine, tearing her scalp away from her skull. The machine tore a line around the woman’s skull, level with the top of her nose. The top thirds of both of her ears were part of the scalp portion that was ripped away, as was her entire right eyebrow and half of her left eyebrow.

When the woman came to the hospital, she was clearly conscious, and her scalp was in a plastic bag surrounded with ice, said lead author Dr. Jun Karibe, a plastic surgeon at Yamanashi University Hospital in Japan, who treated the woman. At the hospital, the doctors removed the hair from the scalp and rinsed it with a saline, or salt water, solution, Karibe said. Then, the scalp was sterilized before the reattachment surgery began. [27 Oddest Case Reports]

Four hours after the injury took place, plastic surgeons had successfully reattached her scalp to her head, according to the report, which was published yesterday (Oct. 24) in the journal BMJ Case Reports.

An image of the woman's scalp after the injury took place. The woman's eyebrows are visible to the left of image and the top of her right ear is visible at the bottom of the image.

An image of the woman’s scalp after the injury took place. The woman’s eyebrows are visible to the left of image and the top of her right ear is visible at the bottom of the image.

Credit: BMJ Case Reports/CC BY-NC 4.0

The type of injury, which doctors refer to as “scalp avulsion,” is extremely rare in Japan, according to the case report. Indeed, it was the first time that a “whole scalp avulsion” was reported in the country, Karibe told Live Science.

Though gruesome, scalp alvusion injuries are not life-threatening in most cases, Karibe said.

Repairing the injury involves, in part, reattaching blood vessels and nervesin the scalp to the head. The doctors were able to successfully reattach four large main blood vessels, two on the right side of the head and two on the left. However, after the operation, the doctors found that blood flowed only through the vessels on the right side of the head — but that these vessels were able to adequately supply blood to the entire scalp. The doctors were unable to reattach any of the woman’s nerves.

A CT scan of the woman's head several months after the injury shows blood flow in two of the blood vessels on the right side of her head, in the image on the left. That same blood flow is not seen in the image on the right, which shows the left side of her head.

A CT scan of the woman’s head several months after the injury shows blood flow in two of the blood vessels on the right side of her head, in the image on the left. That same blood flow is not seen in the image on the right, which shows the left side of her head.

Credit: BMJ Case Reports/CC BY-NC 4.0

Two weeks after the operation, the woman developed a lesion, 3 by 4 centimeters (1.2 by 1.6 inches) near her left eye where her skin tissue was dying. The skin in this area was removed, and the doctors performed a skin graft, transferring healthy skin to the area from a different part of her body.

By two months after the initial operation, signs pointed to the woman making a good recovery: “Exuberant hair growth was evident,” the doctors wrote, though they added that there was less hair growth on the left side of her head, perhaps due to trouble with the blood vessels on that side.

A year after the injury, the woman’s hair had grown “sufficiently.” In addition, she was able to open and close both of her eyelids and move her right eyebrow. And though the doctors weren’t able to attach the woman’s nerves, she regained sensation in the front and on both sides of her head, and was able to contract her forehead muscle — these improvements suggest that the nerves recovered on their own, according to the report.

One year after the injury, the woman's hair had grown back and she was able to open and close her eyes.

One year after the injury, the woman’s hair had grown back and she was able to open and close her eyes.

Credit: BMJ Case Reports/CC BY-NC 4.0

“We were surprised to see the result of [the] operation,” Karibe said. “My colleagues, including me, didn’t expect this amazing recovery.”

The woman was also pleased. She told the doctors she was “very satisfied with the aesthetic result,” and noted that she had “no problems in [her] daily life activities,” according to the report.

This story was updated to include quotes from the case report author.

Originally published on Live Science.

Here’s What Could Happen If You Don’t Properly Remove Mascara


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Here’s What Could Happen If You Don’t Properly Remove Mascara

Here's What Could Happen If You Don't Properly Remove Mascara

A woman who had a habit of not washing her mascara off developed darkly pigmented lumps under her eyelid, caused by the buildup of bits of mascara.

Credit: Caters News

A woman in Australia who had a habit of not washing off her mascara developed serious eye problems that could have taken her vision, according to a new report.

The 50-year-old woman went to the eye doctor after experiencing the uncomfortable feeling that something was in her eyes, according to the report, published in the May issue of the journal Ophthalmology. The woman admitted that she’d heavily used mascara for more than 25 years, and wasn’t good about taking her makeup off.

“I had fallen into a bad habit of wearing a lot of makeup and not washing it off,” the woman, Theresa Lynch, told the Daily Mail.

When the doctor examined the underside of the woman’s eyelids, she found found darkly pigmented lumps under the conjunctiva, which is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelid and white part of the eye. Some of the lumps had even broken through the surface of the conjunctiva, the report said. Her eye problems were associated with conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) and damage to the cornea.

“[The lumps] were embedded so deep that particles were building up on top of each other… I was so uncomfortable. My eyelids were swollen and heavy because I left it [untreated] for so long,” Lynch said. [‘Eye’ Can’t Look: 9 Eyeball Injuries That Will Make You Squirm]

Lynch’s doctor, Dr. Dana Robaei, an ophthalmic surgeon and clinical senior lecturer at the University of Sydney School of Medicine, told the Daily Mail that the dark lumps were caused by the buildup of bits of mascara under Lynch’s eyelids. There was a risk Lynch’s eyes could have become infected, which, in rare cases, can lead to blindness, Robaei said.

“You must be meticulous” about removing mascara, Robaei added.

Lynch underwent a 90-minute procedure to have the lumps removed, but she still has permenant scarring on her eyelids, according to the Daily Mail.

Original article on Live Science.

4,000-Year-Old Jar Contains Italy’s Oldest Olive Oil


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4,000-Year-Old Jar Contains Italy’s Oldest Olive Oil

4,000-Year-Old Jar Contains Italy's Oldest Olive Oil

The oldest olive oil on record in Italy was found in this textured pot with starfish-like designs.

Credit: Courtesy: Sicily Region; Syracuse Regional Park for archaeological sites and museums; Paolo Orsi Museum

An egg-shaped ceramic jar covered with ceramic “rope” once held a prize delicacy: the oldest olive oil on record in Italy, a new study finds.

Researchers made the discovery after analyzing residue of the so-called liquid gold on the beautiful jar and two other vessels uncovered at Castelluccio, an archaeological site in Sicily.

“It had the signature of Sicilian tableware dated to the end of the third and beginning of the second millennium B.C., [during the] Early Bronze Age,” Davide Tanasi, an assistant professor of history at the University of South Florida, said in a statement. “We wanted to learn how it was used, so we conducted chemical analysis on organic residues found inside.”

The finding shows that the ancient people of Italy made and used olive oil at the end of the third millennium B.C., a good 700 years earlier than experts previously thought, the researchers said. [Photos: Ancient Pottery Once Held Olive Oil]

Archaeologists have known about the ceramic jar for a while; archaeologist Giuseppe Voza found it while directing excavations in Castelluccio, an ancient site dating back to the Bronze Age, in the 1990s. During the dig, archaeologists identified a site on a rocky ridge with 12 huts. The jar came from one of those huts, the researchers said.

However, the ancient jar was shattered. So conservators from the Paolo Orsi Regional Archaeological Museum of Syracuse, in Italy, restored and reassembled 400 ceramic fragments, reconstructing the egg-shaped, 3.5-foot-tall (1 meter) olive oil container, which an ancient artisan had decorated with rope bands and three vertical handles on each side.

As luck would have it, archaeologists at the site also found two fragmented basins with internal dividers, suggesting that these vessels were used to hold multiple substances. They also found a large terra-cotta cooking plate.

In the new study, the researchers tested the three ceramic containers and found that all three vessels had organic residue containing oleic and linoleic acids, which are signatures of olive oil.

“The results obtained with the three samples from Castelluccio become the first chemical evidence of the oldest olive oil in Italian prehistory, pushing back the hands of the clock for the systematic olive oil production by at least 700 years,” Tanasi said.

Besides this new finding, the only known ancient storage jars with chemical signatures of olive oil in Italy were from the cities of Cosenza and Lecce, in southern Italy, that are thought to date to the Copper Age, during the 12th and 11th centuries B.C.

However, the Italian olive oil discoveries aren’t the oldest in the books. An analysis of 8,000-year-old clay pots from what is now Israel also revealed the signatures of olive oil, Live Science previously reported. That finding supports research suggesting that olive trees were domesticated about 6,000 to 8,000 years ago.

Meanwhile, the oldest Italian wine on record dates to nearly 6,000 years ago and was also found at an archaeological site in Sicily, Live Science preciously reported.

The new study was published online May 7 in the journal Analytical Methods.

Original article on Live Science.