10 Brutal Facts About Growing Up In The Aztec Empire

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10 Brutal Facts About Growing Up In The Aztec Empire



Parents just don’t raise kids like they used to. Back in the good ol’ days, people raised their kids to be tough and didn’t balk if that meant being strict with them. If a kid had to be held over a fire, forced to carry logs until he collapsed, or sent to starve in a temple, nobody looked twice.

Of course, in those days, we had real leaders—like the king of kings, Moctezuma II, who struck fear in the hearts of his enemies for the glory of Huitzilopochtli, bird-god of war and human sacrifice.

We’ll probably never get back to North America’s real traditional values. But here’s a glimpse into what life was like when men were men, women were women, and flayed gods demanded blood.

Featured image credit: aztecsandtenochtitlan.com

10Newborn Babies Were Told That Life Is Pain

The Aztecs didn’t believe in lying to children—no matter how young they were. When they heard a newborn baby crying, they didn’t coo to it or try to convince it that everything was going to be fine. As far as they were concerned, that newborn baby had the right reaction to being alive—and they made sure those were the first words the baby heard.

As soon as a baby was born, an Aztec midwife would take it in her arms, cut the umbilical cord, give a prayer of thanks, and then lay down some hard truths. She’d look that newborn baby right in the eyes and, as a religious necessity, say, “Life is all affliction. Then, to really drive the point home, she’d promise the baby that he would die a horrible and violent death either in war or as a human sacrifice.

It didn’t matter if you were rich or poor—everyone got the same treatment. The children of nobility would even get regular talkings-to where they were reminded that, even if they found great success in life, it would only bring them more sadness.

9Parents Thought Children Only Grew If You Stretched Them

Photo credit: mexicolore.co.uk

Aztec parents didn’t really understand that kids grew on their own. They knew that babies got bigger over time, but they didn’t fully comprehend that this was just the way a body worked. They thought the only way to make sure that a child grew up big and tall was to stretch him out. So that’s what they did.

Parents would hold regular ceremonies called “The Stretching of People for Them to Grow. First, they’d grab their baby by the neck and dangle him in the air, thinking that gravity would make the kid taller. Then they’d pull on every part of the baby’s body—arms, legs, nose, and ears—to make sure that every part grew out evenly.

There were all kinds of rules that parents had to follow to make sure their kids didn’t stay more or less the same height. If there was an earthquake, parents had to grab their children by the necks. At mealtime, younger brothers had to let their elder brothers drink first. Every rule had to be followed or else the gods would curse your children to a lifetime of being short.

8Misbehaving Children Were Dangled Over Fires

Photo credit: mexicolore.co.uk

Aztec kids weren’t lazy. Their parents made sure of that. By the time a child was eight years old, the parents figured he was ready to take some responsibility in his life. He was expected to get up early, do what he was told, and never dawdle. And if he didn’t, his parents saw to it that he learned his lesson.

If a young Aztec child misbehaved, the parents would stab their child with the spines from a maguey cactus. If it was a small offense, the kid would get a light prick in the wrist. But if he was really bad, it could get serious. Parents would strip their kids naked, bind their arms and wrists, and cover them with maguey spines.

Once a child turned 11, the punishments became really severe. At that age, a father could hold his child over burning chili peppers in a fireplace and make him inhale the acrid smoke. They had to keep that one short, though. If the parents kept their kids there too long, it would kill them.

7Poor Children Were Forced To Lug Wood Around

Photo credit: mexicolore.co.uk

When children turned 15, they were sent off to school. In the Aztec Empire, education was compulsory for all children, no matter who they were. But Aztec kids had to do a lot more than just learn fractions.

A poor child would be sent to the telpochcalli, where he would learn a trade and be tested in the art of war. Their teachers would be watching these kids to see if they were tough enough to become soldiers—and the teachers put the kids through hell trying to find out.

Boys in the telpochcalli would have to go into the forest and gather firewood—partly because they needed it and partly just to see how tough they were. Every time a boy went out, he’d be required to carry one more log than he had the previous time. Each day, they’d pile more and more wood on him until he literally collapsed.

If the boy broke down after the first few trips, he’d probably end up being nothing more than a peasant. But if a boy could carry more than his own weight, his teachers would take notice. This was a future warrior. From then on, instead of wood, he would carry weapons to the battlefields.

6Noble Children Were Starved And Tortured

Noble children—and a few poor children nominated by the priests—would be sent to the calmecac, a school run by the Aztec head priest. The kids would be trained as novice priests and prepared to become the most important men in the empire. They would become holy men, military leaders, and government officials. All of this sounds great on paper, but in practice, it was a living hell.

Students in the calmecac were expected to learn sacrifice and self-denial. They would rise before dawn and sweep the temple. Then, when the work was done, they would start fasting. They were taught to be “fond of empty-guttedness,” so they were actively starved at every opportunity.

They would paint their entire bodies black, and that paint was almost the only thing on their bodies. They were barely allowed to wear any clothes because the priests thought that the kids would learn to be penitent if they were freezing to death. If anyone complained, the priest would beat him.

Spanish missionaries called the calmecac “a house of weeping, tears, and sorrows,” and the Aztecs didn’t totally disagree. Before a child was sent there, his parents would tell him to forget what it was like to live in the comfort and love of home. “It is ended,” the child was told. “Thou goest knowing it.”

5Boys Who Hadn’t Captured Anyone Were Publicly Shamed

Photo credit: mexicolore.co.uk

A boy couldn’t become a man until he’d captured an enemy in battle. Until then, he was a disgraceful little boy and the Aztecs made sure everyone knew it.

When a child turned 10 years old, his parents would shave all the hair on his head except for one tuft. From then on, that child was forbidden from cutting off the tuft until the day he defeated an enemy in battle and returned the captive to the empire, often to be used a human sacrifice. Until then, the child had a growing tuft of hair to show the world his shame.

The strong boys who could carry enough lumber to get sent to the battlefield would try to get involved as soon as they could. It was fairly common for a young boy who was only supposed to be carrying supplies to rush into the heat of battle and try to participate. More often than not, those boys ended up dead. But if they survived, they’d come home as heroes.

Boys who didn’t have the level of courage that straddles the line of insanity were stuck with their long tufts of hair. In that case, just going outside was torture. Girls would crowd around them and taunt them. “It is a stinking tuft of hair!” the girls would yell. “Art thou not just a woman like me?

4Lazy Children Were Burned With Firebrands

Being punished by your parents was bad enough. But once a child started going to school, it got really harsh. Boys in the telpochcalli who didn’t do their best weren’t just held over a fire. They were put right into it.

If a young boy got caught doing nothing or being careless with his work, he would get the firebrand. His teacher would grab him by that shameful tuft of hair and drag him into a public place. It was brutal and humiliating—but even more so in their culture. Normally, being grabbed by the tuft meant that you’d been captured in war and were going to be sacrificed to the gods.

These kids weren’t killed, but they definitely didn’t get off easy. Their masters would cut off every hair on their heads, leaving only the tuft of shame and then would singe the boys’ heads with a firebrand. The Aztecs called it “being old-ladied.” Nobody knows exactly how it got that name, but it makes one thing clear: If an Aztec child was old-ladied, nobody felt sorry for him

3Mandatory Late-Night Dance Parties

Photo credit: mexicolore.co.uk

Whether rich or poor, every Aztec child had to go to the cuicacalli. It was basically an all-night dance party—and in Aztec culture, getting down was mandatory.

This was the only place that Aztec boys and girls were allowed to be together. In school, they were separated. But when night fell, they were sent out to temples to party. There, the boys and girls would learn to sing sacred songs, dance ritual dances, and hear the stories of the gods and men.

For the adults, this was a way to teach the new generation their culture. The kids learned about religion and philosophy through the lyrics of the songs, and they were introduced to the rituals they would have to follow for the rest of their lives.

To the kids, this was mostly just a way to meet the opposite sex. Boys would try to show off their burgeoning muscles to impress the girls, while girls would whisper little flirtations to try to impress the boys.

It was their only real chance to get together, and they took it. When the party ended and everyone was sent home, it wasn’t uncommon for some young couples to sneak off into the night and break a few rules together.

2Boys Who Had Premarital Sex Were Publicly Beaten

Sneaking off with a sweetheart wasn’t always a great idea. Abstinence was a big deal for the Aztecs. Fathers would sit down with their sons and encourage them to stay pure until their wedding nights, promising that they’d have more vigor if they abstained. And if a boy didn’t take his father’s advice, he’d find out just how seriously his people took saving themselves for marriage.

If a boy was caught with a prostitute or in the bed of a woman, he would be tortured for it. Sometimes, that meant having pine needles stuck in every inch of his body. But sometimes, it was a lot worse than that.

In one case, a man who was caught sleeping with a young girl was stripped of all possessions, had his hair cut, and was dragged into the courtyard. There, they beat him with a pine stick and burned his body with the firebrand until—to quote the original description—“his body was smoking.”

“With this, they cast him forth,” an eyewitness wrote. “He just slowly crept away; he was going from one side to the other; he just went confused. [ . . . ] He withdrew forever; nevermore was he to sing and dance with the others.

1Noble Children Were Ordered To Cut Themselves

The noble children didn’t get off any easier. The children in the calmecacwere beaten just like the poor kids. But for them, it didn’t stop there. They were required to hurt themselves, too.

Noble children were required to perform “autosacrifice” regularly. If they’d done something wrong, for example, they would be expected to wander out in the middle of the forest and stab themselves with maguey spines.

Even if a child never did anything wrong, though, he still had to hurt himself. A child could never move past the rank of “novice priest” until he started walking around with his own blood smeared on his ear.

Every night at midnight, the boys of the calmecac would be awakened and forced to go to the midnight prayer. There, they either stabbed themselves in the shinbones with maguey spines or, if it was a special occasion, cut open their arms and rammed reeds into the wounds.

The bloody reeds and maguey spines would be sacrificed to the god of the Sun. But not all sacrifices were equal. Whoever could spill the most blood was considered the greatest and most penitent. And that was a great honor. If he was really penitent, he might even become head priest one day—and then that lucky boy would get to do this every day for the rest of his life.

3 Roman-Era Shipwrecks Found Off Egyptian Coast

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3 Roman-Era Shipwrecks Found Off Egyptian Coast

 3 Roman-Era Shipwrecks Found Off Egyptian Coast
Divers have discovered the remains of three Roman-era shipwrecks, along with a votive bark likely dedicated to the god Osiris, off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

Credit: Egypt Ministry of Antiquities

Three Roman-era shipwrecks have been uncovered just off the coast of Alexandria, Egyptian antiquities authorities announced.

In addition to the shipwrecks, divers found a crystal carving of a head from the Roman era, three gold coins from the rule of Emperor Augustus, and a votive bark likely dedicated to the god Osiris, according to Mostafa Waziri, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

Osama Alnahas, head of Egypt’s central department of underwater antiquities, added that the divers found more wooden planks and pottery that suggest there may be a fourth shipwreck awaiting discovery. [The 25 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds on Earth]

The Egyptian Council of Antiquities and the European Institute for Underwater Archaeology (IEASM) began this latest round of surveys and excavations off the Alexandrian coast in September.

The divers also discovered a crystal carving of a head from the Roman era.

The divers also discovered a crystal carving of a head from the Roman era.

Credit: Egypt Ministry of Antiquities

The waters off Alexandria are rich with sunken treasures from ancient cities and neighborhoods that became submerged hundreds of years ago, due to a combination of factors, such as rising sea levels, earthquakes and tidal waves.

Over the last three decades, French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio, director of the IEASM, has led expeditions to reveal the underwater city of Heraklion, which was the port of entry intoEgypt before Alexandria was founded in 331 B.C. Goddio’s team has also uncovered remains of the city Canopus, once famous for its shrines, and a sunken section of ancient Alexandria, dubbed Portus Magnus.

At these sites, divers have revealed dozens of shipwrecks, larger-than-life stone statues of Egyptian gods and pharaohs, some measuring 16 feet (4.9 meters) tall, as well as more ephemeral traces of ancient life, such as animal footprints in the soil.

Original article on Live Science

The True Story Behind Turkey’s Ancient ‘Underwater Castle’

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The True Story Behind Turkey’s Ancient ‘Underwater Castle’

The True Story Behind Turkey's Ancient 'Underwater Castle'

The castle found beneath the surface of Lake Van in Turkey may have been built 3,000 years ago by ancient people called the Urartians, but archaeologists can’t say for certain.

Credit: Photo by Tahsin Ceylan

Last week, a story about a 3,000-year-old castle discovered beneath the waters of Lake Van, in Turkey, went viral. But what’s the real story behind this Atlantis-like discovery?

It turns out that the story is more complicated and mysterious than recent news reports suggest, Live Science found after speaking with several archaeologists as well as the leader of the photography team who discovered the castle.

Parts of the “castle,” a term that the discoverers use to describe it, likely date to the Middle Ages, which lasted from about A.D. 476 to 1450, and it may not be an entirely new discovery: Reports from surveys of the Lake Van area conducted in the 1950s and 1960s noted the existence of the structure. It’s not clear when the castle was washed underwater. [See Photos of the Remains of the Underwater Castle in Turkey]

For instance, some of those reports indicated that medieval castle builders at Lake Van actually reused ancient material dating back to about 1000 B.C. to create the castle walls. The reports also mention a wall that plunges into the lake that has inscriptions on it that discuss an ancient king named “Rusa” and his interactions with a god named “Haldi.”

For the past 10 years, a team led by Tahsin Ceylan, an underwater photographer, has been exploring the waters beneath Lake Van, documenting natural features like microbialites (living, organic rock structures that are similar in some ways to coral) as well as archaeological sites, such as a Russian ship that dates to 1915.

Live Science talked to a number of archaeologists who said that much of the structure appears to consist of medieval castle walls with some Urartian remains also visible. Archaeologists noted the existence of these ruins back in the 1950s and 1960s finding that the medieval castle builders had re-used blocks carved by the ancient Urartians.

In 2016, this team, which does not include an archaeologist, found a structure outside the harbor of Adilcevaz, a town in Turkey that has been inhabited for thousands of years. We “came across some sort of wall outside the harbor in one of our dives. Later [we] found out that it is a castle’s wall that starts within the harbor and continues outside,” Ceylan told Live Science. [Image Gallery: Stone Structure Hidden Under Sea of Galilee]

“The castle is approximately 1 kilometer [less than a mile] long and has a solid structure.”

The castle is made primarily of cut stones, Ceylan said, adding that the team had found a lion drawing on one of them, supporting the idea thatUrartians — a people who flourished in Turkey about 3,000 years ago — may have built the structure. Lions were a popular motif among the people of Urartu.

This drawing found carved into stone may show a lion, Ceylan said. Archaeologists are not certain what it is, but say that it may date to the Middle Ages.

Media reports suggested that an archaeologist was part of the team. “Our team of divers does not include an archaeologist — that is something the press added on their own,” Ceylan said. “In our statement that we’ve sent to the press, we indicated that [given] the fact it was built with cut stones and one of the stones has a lion figure carved on it, the castle might belong to [the] Urartian civilization that lived here 3,200 years ago. But we specifically stated that archaeologists are the sole deciders on the matter. But the press made their own assumptions from this statement,” Ceylan said.

The underwater remains were found by Tahsin’s team in 2016, outside the harbor of Adilcevaz, a town in Turkey that has been inhabited for thousands of years. Tahsin’s team eventually found that the walls go up onto the harbor. A report published in 1959 refers to a wall that starts on land and goes into the lake that has Urartian blocks. Other reports dating to the 1950s and 1960s say that medieval castle builders in the Lake Van region actually re-used blocks carved by the Urartians.

The archaeologists that Live Science talked to thought that many of the remains the team found likely date to the Middle Ages. The underwater remains seem to consist of “Medieval castle walls and probably an Urartian site,” said Geoffrey Summers, an archaeological research associate at the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute. The remains have been “known for a long time” from survey reports, Summers said.

Summers looked at a high-resolution image of the lion drawing, saying he thinks it looks more medieval than something from the Urartian kingdom.

Kemalettin Köroğlu, an archaeology professor at Marmara Üniversitesi, agreed that much of the underwater remains are actually medieval. He noted that some of the images show masonry between the ashlar wall stones (which are a type of stone that is square cut). “The walls [seem] medieval or late antique period rather than Urartu. Urartian never used any material between ashlar wall stones to connect each other,” Köroğlu said.

It’s possible that some of the 3,000-year-old Urartian remains seen in the photos were actually reused by castle builders during the Middle Ages, said Paul Zimansky, a history professor at Stony Brook University in New York. He also said that he needs to conduct more research.

A vast collection of surveys and documents published by archaeologists who surveyed the Lake Van area in the 1950s and 1960s includes mentions of both Urartu and medieval remains in the area.

One intriguing paper, by archaeologists Charles Allen Burney and G.R.J. Lawson, published in 1958 in the journal Anatolian Studies, discusses a “medieval castle at Adilcevaz, on the north shore of Lake Van,” whose builders had reused blocks that had been constructed by the Urartians 3,000 years ago.

Lake Van, the largest lake in Turkey, of course has its own "lake monster," or Van Gölü Canavarı in Turkish.
Lake Van, the largest lake in Turkey, of course has its own “lake monster,” or Van Gölü Canavarı in Turkish.

Credit: Pecold/Shutterstock

Another intriguing report published in 1959 in the journal Anatolian Studies by a scholar named P. Hulin reports on a “lofty wall of later than Urartian times” that runs “into the lake.” While investigating the wall, Hulin apparently discovered inscriptions dating back about 2,700 years that mention an Urartian king named Rusa. The inscriptions are fragmentary, and Hulin could make out only a small amount of the writing. The inscriptions discuss Rusa, who appears to be interacting with Haldi, an Urartian god.

The archaeologists and divers that Live Science spoke to all agree that more research is needed to determine what exactly these underwater remains consist of. “The area needs to be thoroughly researched by [an] archaeologist,” Ceylan said. “For the time being, there is no team here to conduct dives and researches on the castle.”

Originally published on Live Science.

Don’t Blink: Striking Image Shows Bullet in Man’s Eye Socket

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Don’t Blink: Striking Image Shows Bullet in Man’s Eye Socket

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Don't Blink: Striking Image Shows Bullet in Man's Eye Socket

This CT scan shows a bullet that came to rest in a man’s eye socket.

Credit: Reproduced with permission from JAMA Ophthalmology. 2017. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.40502017. Copyright© 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

A striking new image shows a bullet lodged in a man’s eye socket.

The 45-year-old man went to the emergency room after he was shot with a 0.22 caliber pistol, according to a new report of the case, published today (Nov. 30) in the journal JAMA Ophthalmology. The bullet went through a wooden door before entering the man’s right eye.

The bullet came to rest in the man’s eye socket, right up against a muscle that controls eye movement. It did not fracture his skull, the report said.

The man was in severe pain, and doctors could see an entry wound for the bullet in the corner of the man’s eye. There was damage to ducts in the eyelid through which tears drain. [‘Eye’ Can’t Look: 9 Eyeball Injuries That Will Make You Squirm]

The man had surgery to remove the bullet and repair the damage to the tear ducts. Afterwards, the man’s pain improved rapidly, and his vision wasn’t affected by the bullet, the report said.

If a bullet enters the eye socket, it often results in significant destruction of the socket, sinuses and brain, the report’s authors noted. But in this case, the man experienced only limited damage to his eye socket because the bullet passed through a door first, which slowed it down, they said.

Original article on Live Science.

Now, That’s Deep! Mariana Trench Fish Lives 5 Miles Down

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Now, That’s Deep! Mariana Trench Fish Lives 5 Miles Down

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Now, That's Deep! Mariana Trench Fish Lives 5 Miles Down

A CT scan of the new fish species that lives in the Mariana Trench also reveals the fish’s last meal, in green.

Credit: Adam Summers/University of Washington

The dark and chilly depths of the ocean’s so-called “midnight zone” thousands of feet below the surface are home to numerous species of bizarre-looking and fearsome fish. Many of these creatures have oversized jaws filled with massive teeth.

But a deceptively vulnerable-looking fish is not only right at home in the very deepest ocean environment on Earth — where few creatures can survive — it’s also one of the region’s top predators.

And now, for the first time, scientists have collected specimens of this unusual creature. Dubbed the Mariana snailfish, it swims in the Mariana Trench near Guam, at a depth of about 26,200 feet (8,000 meters). [Infographic: Tallest Mountain to Deepest Ocean Trench]

The snailfish’s small, pink and scaleless body hardly seems capable of surviving in such a punishing environment, but this fish is full of surprises, researchers reported in a new study. The animal appears to dominate in this ecosystem, going deeper than any other fish and exploiting the absence of competitors by gobbling up the plentiful invertebrate prey that inhabit the trench, the study authors wrote.

The fish’s scientific name, Pseudoliparis swirei, includes a nod to 19th-century sailor Herbert Swire, who served on the naval expedition that discovered the Mariana Trench in the late 1800s, according to the study.

The Mariana Trench occupies a part of the ocean that is so deep, dark and cold that its name — the “hadal zone” — was taken from “Hades,” the Greek underworld, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This region consists mostly of marine trenches and extends from depths of about 19,685 to 36,089 feet (6,000 to 11,000 m).

In addition to being pitch-black and frigid, that region experiences pressure that’s unendurable for many forms of life. At the bottom of the funnel-shaped Mariana Trench, the pressure reaches 15,750 lbs. per square inch; for an unprotected human, that pressure would crush the lungs “to the size of ping-pong balls” and compress every single air pocket in the body “until you were a tightly packed, humanoid-shaped flesh chunk,” according to the book “And Then You’re Dead: What Really Happens If You Get Swallowed by a Whale, Are Shot from a Cannon or Go Barreling Over Niagara” (Penguin Books, 2017).

Snailfish, however, do just fine under this crushing pressure. There are more than 300 species in the snailfish family, many of which are known to inhabit a range of ocean depths, where they gather in groups to hoover up crustacean meals, according to the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC). Previously, scientists had collected snailfish at some of these depths, but prior to this study, the creatures had not been observed so deep, the scientists reported. The researchers in the study collected 38 specimens, gathered during expeditions in 2014 and 2017, sampling at depths in the trench from around 22,600 to 26,200 feet (6,900 to 8,000 m).

Researchers recover the trap after it landed on the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

Researchers recover the trap after it landed on the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

Credit: Paul Yancey


To shoot video and capture fish in the trench, the scientists dropped free-falling, mackerel-baited traps equipped with cameras, study lead author and marine biologist Mackenzie Gerringer, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Washington (UW), told Live Science in an email.

“We deploy the lander over the side of the ship, and it sinks down with a steel ballast weight. It can take about 4 hours for the lander to sink all the way to the bottom of the trench!” Gerringer wrote.

“The traps and cameras stay down for about 12 to 24 hours; then we call them back up using an acoustic signal. The lander drops its weight and rises to the surface with its flotation. Then, we need to look for the orange flag floating at the surface and go drive the ship to pick up the lander and see what it found,” Gerringer explained.

Mariana snailfish are small, translucent and scaleless, but they are the top predators in their extreme environment.

Credit: Mackenzie Gerringer/University of Washington/University of Hawai’i


The snailfish individuals that the researchers collected ranged in length from 3.5 to 9.3 inches (89 to 235 millimeters), though their bodies shrank by about 10 percent during preservation. The bigger fish had more rows of teeth and more teeth per row, the researchers wrote in the study. The snailfishes’ eyes were small, and their bodies were pinkish-white, with internal organs and muscles that were visible through the animals’ scale-free skin, the scientists reported.

No one had ever brought back a fish from these depths before, so when the scientists saw these snailfish, the researchers suspected they were looking at a new species, Gerringer told Live Science. Closer examination of the fish’s body structures and genetics confirmed that it was a species not previously known to science, she said. [Photos: The Freakiest-Looking Fish]

“The discovery of another hadal snailfish, this time in the Mariana Trench, is exciting,” Gerringer said. “It tells us that there is indeed something special about this family of fishes, something that allows them to do so well at hadal depths.”

Seeing these denizens of the deep ocean at all is exceptionally rare, and being able to handle and examine them up close is downright remarkable, Adam Summers, a professor at UW and the scientist who CT-scanned the snailfish, suggested on Twitter.

“It was really the thrill of a lifetime to hold one in my hand and prepare it for CT scanning. I was completely smitten,” he wrote in the tweet.

The discovery of the Mariana snailfish reminds us that even those environments that seem the most inhospitable can support life; they may even harbor unexpectedly robust biodiversity, the study authors concluded.

“The finding of this new species of fish also reminds us to keep exploring,” Gerringer wrote in the email. “There is so much more out there to discover.”

The findings were published online Nov. 28 in the journal Zootaxa.

Original article on Live Science.