Top 10 Reasons Diamonds Are Not As Great As You Think They Are


Post 8360

Top 10 Reasons Diamonds Are Not As Great As You Think They Are

ALEX EMERT MAY 1, 2017

http://listverse.com/2017/05/01/top-10-reasons-diamonds-are-not-as-great-as-you-think-they-are/

For many Westerners, a diamond engagement ring is the go-to item for when you decide to pop the question. However, due to years of ad campaigns, the public believes a massive amount of misinformation about these sparkly stones. So let’s shatter a few of those beliefs, shall we?

 

10Traditional?


Given how almost 80 percent of couples in the United States today propose with a diamond ring, you would think that this is an old tradition. After all, it seems like we have been doing it forever. In actuality, while the giving of a ring is an old tradition going back to at least the Romans, diamonds are another story.

Around 1900, almost no one proposed using diamond rings. It wasn’t until the DeBeers mining cartel was formed that diamonds came into play. In what was arguably one of the most successful marketing campaigns of all time, they connected diamonds with the purity of marriage. In their own words, “We are dealing with a problem in mass psychology. We seek to [ . . . ] strengthen the tradition of the diamond engagement ring—to make it a psychological necessity capable of competing successfully at the retail level with utility goods and services.” They even created a “Diamond Information Center” that promoted diamonds by making up articles about the history of diamonds. And you thought fake news was a new thing.

It was so successful that within three months, sales of diamonds had risen by 50 percent. Oh yeah, that idea that you should spend several months’ worth of your salary on an engagement ring? Another DeBeers creation.

9Last Forever?

Chipped Diamond

Photo credit: Beyond 4Cs

“Diamonds are forever” is probably a saying that is ingrained in most people’s brains. This is actually a marketing ploy from DeBeers to get more people to buy diamonds. The truth is a bit more depressing.

While it is true that diamonds are one of the hardest things in the world, that hardness comes at a price. Diamonds are actually rather brittle. Strike them at the right way and at the right strength, and they will split or chip. So just don’t be a butterfingers at your proposal, or you might have a very expensive mistake.

 

8Fireproof?

Burning Diamond

Photo credit: Mike Walker

Diamonds have another flaw that makes it very unlikely for them to see eternity. At its heart, a diamond is just a really pure piece of carbon. This is the same stuff as the graphite in your pencil or a block of wood. Just like graphite or wood, if you add enough heat and oxygen, diamonds will actually burn.

It takes a temperature of about 900 degrees Celsius (1,652 °F) to set a diamond on fire. This temperature is easily obtained with a propane torch or in a house fire. In fact, diamonds are such pure carbon that they will burn down to carbon dioxide gas, leaving not a speck of ash behind.

7Colorless?

Oppenheimer Blue

Photo credit: AP

When you think of diamonds, a pile of clear, glittering stones comes to mind. However, in the diamond world, these are the cheap stones. Diamonds come in a variety of colors, such as blue, yellow, black, brown, or the most valuable: pink. Almost all of these are rarer and more expensive than the colorless ones we are used to.

In fact, the one of the most expensive diamonds ever sold was a fancy, vivid blue diamond called the Oppenheimer Blue. It brought in a cool $57.5 million in 2016. Still, it’s nice to know that the cheap, clear stones are still being sold. We wouldn’t want the diamond merchants to lose the leases on their second vacation homes, would we?

6Rare?


Another excuse that diamond sellers have for the jaw-dropping price tags on their wares is the “fact” that diamonds are a scarce commodity. After all, if something is rare, it’s expensive, right? In actuality, the only reason that we think of diamonds as rare is due to our old friends, the DeBeers corporation.

For many decades, DeBeers had a monopoly on the diamond industry and could control how many diamonds were produced. This was a brilliant strategy to create rarity and jack up prices. Many other gems are actually much rarer then diamonds. In fact, there are enough diamonds for every person in the US to get their very own cupful.

Although DeBeers no longer has a stranglehold on the diamond industry, the image that they spent so long cultivating still captures the imagination.

 

5A Good Investment?

iStock-184116211
Yet another myth that the DeBeers corporation has fostered upon us is that diamonds are a good store in value. You aren’t just wasting a couple of months of your life on a pretty stone; it’s a good investment. In reality, diamonds are just a retail good.

Once you buy a diamond, its value drops by quite a bit. After all, you have to pay the seller’s fee, the miners, taxes, and so on. Basically everyone who touched the diamond before you has to get paid, and you won’t be able to recover that cost when you sell it. In general, there is a 100- to 200-percent markup on the price of a diamond, so expect that to evaporate the instant you buy it.

The only reason why people ever thought that diamonds appreciate in value is because DeBeers used to fix the price of diamonds so that they went up every year. Without this meddling, diamonds hold their value at best. So, the bottom line is expect to lose most of the money you sunk into the stone if you try to sell it.

4Conflict-Free?

Blood Diamonds

Photo credit: Lynsey Addario/TIME

Blood diamonds are more than a great action movie starring Leonardo DiCaprio. These stones, also known as conflict gems, basically come from the seedy parts of the world, especially in Africa. These gems provide income to warlords, criminals, and terrorists, while the people who mine them make a pittance.

The United Nations did establish the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme, which aims to stop these abuses. However, loopholes and work-arounds make it difficult to enforce. After all, how do you tell if a shiny rock was mined legally from an area or illegally? Not to mention that the chain of custody stops at individual jewelers. The only way you can tell if your diamond is conflict-free or not is to trust the jeweler to buy certified stones and not the cheaper blood diamonds. This means that a number of abuses still occur in the mining of diamonds, and the industry will probably have blood on its hands for quite some time.

3All-Natural?

Lab-Grown Diamonds

The shocking truth is that we can now make diamonds fairly easily in the lab. These stones are literally identical to the ones that are pulled from the Earth. They are so similar that even trained experts with years in the field cannot tell them apart.

If the diamond growers wanted to, these artificial diamonds could flood the market with as many diamonds as anyone could ever want. Of course, they won’t because to do so would destroy the value of diamonds and lose them buckets of money, but that’s besides the point.

2Hardest Substance?

Lonsdaleite

Ask any kid what the hardest thing is, and thanks to the efforts of hundreds of jewelers, they will be able to quickly spout back “diamonds.” However, this is not true, or at least, it’s not true anymore. Diamonds were indeed recognized as the hardest mineral or naturally occurring crystal—until 2009. As scientists scoured the Earth, they figured out that not one but two rare minerals beat diamonds for hardness.

Wurtzite boron nitride has a similar structure to diamond, which lends it a similar hardness, but the different elements it is comprised of allow it to eke out a bit more, making it 18 percent harder than diamond. Scientists have also documented lonsdaleite, which, while chemically identical to diamond, has a different chemical structure, which makes it a whopping 58 percent harder. It’s safe to say that the king of hardness has definitely been overthrown. Oh, and the hardest synthetic material? Diamond lost that back in 2005.

1Green?


While natural diamonds are not overly rare as mentioned earlier, they certainly aren’t found in any great concentration in a given patch of rock. Because of this, the environmental impact of mining them can be immense. For every carat of diamond that is mined, 1,750 tons of rock has to be mined and discarded. For comparison, that is around 82 fully loaded school buses’ worth of rock.

The most common way to mine for diamonds is called open-pit mining. This means they essentially dig a giant hole in the Earth hoping to find the diamonds. As diamonds are typically found in narrow veins called pipes, the vast majority of material pulled from the ground is waste. In addition, these mines can collect water which, then becomes acidic and kills aquatic life. If you care about the environment, getting a natural diamond is not the way to go.

+Chocolate?

Chocolate Diamond

Photo credit: Barclays Jewelers

Recently, you may have seen advertisements for “Chocolate Diamonds.” While this may seem romantic, in actuality, it’s just another way the jewelers have come up with to milk money out of people.

Chocolate diamonds are just brown diamonds. These are the most common diamonds, and up until the ad campaign, they were almost worthless. However, with a bit of rebranding, they are now being sold for the same price as other diamonds.

Alex Emert is a science teacher who spent the last three years teaching among the Lakota Sioux tribe in South Dakota.

Advertisements

Top 10 Proposed Intercontinental Bridges And Tunnels


Post 8359

Top 10 Proposed Intercontinental Bridges And Tunnels

OLIVER TAYLOR MAY 3, 2017

http://listverse.com/2017/05/03/top-10-proposed-intercontinental-bridges-and-tunnels/

The ability to drive or hop a train from Alaska to Russia, or from London to New York, is one that will fascinate many. It shouldn’t, though, because it might be possible in the future, thanks to a series of proposals to build bridges and underwater tunnels that would link continents. This doesn’t mean that we presently can’t drive from one continent to another. Turkey is located in both Europe and Asia and has three bridges and a tunnel to allow movement to and from its European and Asian regions.

Here are ten more proposed bridges and tunnels to link other continents that are identified as distinct landmasses.

 

10Saudi-Egypt Causeway
Asia And Africa

Saudi-Egypt Causeway

Photo credit: Google

The Saudi-Egypt causeway is a proposed bridge that would link Egypt with Saudi Arabia. It would include both road and rail networks and would be built over the Red Sea. While its exact location remains in doubt, some believe it will be built between Nabq, Egypt, and Ras Alsheikh Hamid, Saudi Arabia, which are the closest points between both countries, while making a detour at the Saudi island of Tiran.

Saudi Arabia’s king Salman bin Abdel Aziz hinted at the intention to build the bridge during a state visit to Egypt in 2013. According to Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, the bridge would be named “King Salman bin Abdel Aziz Bridge,” after the king. Saudi Arabia’s plans to build the bridge, which is estimated to cost $3–4 billion, is more of politics than necessity. The kingdom simply wants to prove to its regional rival, Iran, that it maintains a strong relationship with Egypt. Besides building the bridge, Saudi will also fund Egypt’s oil needs for five years.

9Bridge Of The Horns
Asia And Africa

Bridge of the Horns

Photo credit: NASA

The Bridge of the Horns is a proposed bridge that will link Djibouti, which neighbors Somalia in the Horn of Africa, with Yemen. When completed, it will have six lanes for vehicles and a railroad for trains. Its construction was proposed by Tarek Bin Laden Construction, which is owned by the eponymous half-brother of the infamous Al-Qaeda kingpin.

Critics have criticized the construction of the 28.5-kilometer (17.7 mi) bridge, which was initially estimated to cost $70 billion, for its high cost and supposedly poor choice of location, which is an earthquake-prone zone. In 2008, Djibouti’s then–prime minister Dileita Mohamed Dileita denied his government’s involvement in the proposed bridge, saying the project “fell on them from the sky.”

However, preliminary works for the bridge’s construction have been completed, and construction is being planned. It will be funded by the Noor City Development Corporation of Dubai, which will also build two cities called Al Noor (City of Light) on both sides of the bridge. There are also plans to build an airport and an extensive road network that will lead from Yemen’s Al Noor to Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. This means it would be possible to travel from Africa to Dubai by road. The Bridge of the Horns is estimated to open in 2020 at the cost of $20 billion.

 

8Bering Strait Tunnel
Asia And North America

Bering Strait Tunnel

Photo credit: J. Craig Thorpe

There have been several proposals to link Siberia with Alaska. The first of such proposals was made in the 1890s, when engineer Joseph Strauss proposed the construction of a railroad between Russia and Alaska. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia accepted a similar proposal in 1907, but it never came to fruition due to the outbreak of World War I. The proposal was reawakened in 2011. This time, it is a 105-kilometer (65 mi) underground tunnel that will be called the Bering Strait Tunnel.

The Bering Strait Tunnel would be a network of three tunnels: one to travel from Russia to Alaska, another to travel from Alaska to Russia, and a third in between, which will be reserved for emergencies and will have entry and exit points with the other tunnels. Each of the two main tunnels will have two railroads, one for high-speed trains and another for slower trains, as well as one or two lanes for vehicles. There will also be pipelines for water, gas, oil, and fiber-optic cables. The Bering Strait Tunnel is estimated to cost about $35 billion and would take 12 to 15 years to complete if approved for construction.

7Sicily-Tunisia Tunnel
Europe And Africa

Sicily-Tunisia Tunnel

The proposed Sicily-Tunisia tunnel would link mainland Italy with Tunisia via Sicily. The proposal involves the construction of a 3.3-kilomter (2.1 mi) bridge to link Reggio Calabria in mainland Italy with Messina in Sicily. Then, Sicily and Tunisia will be linked by a network of five underground tunnels. Four of the tunnels will have traffic moving in opposite directions, while the fifth will be reserved for emergencies.

Researchers at the Italian Agency for Alternative Energies have called on the governments of both countries to build four artificial islands between Tunisia and Sicily with the rocks excavated from the tunnels. They estimated the project to cost $28 billion.

6China-Russia-Canada-America Line
Asia And North America

China-Russia-Canada-America Line

Photo credit: Asia News

The China-Russia-Canada-America line is a proposed railroad that will run from China through Russia, Alaska, and Canada before ending in the mainland United States. Russia and Alaska will be linked by a 201-kilometer (125 mi) underwater tunnel in the Bering Strait. China claims that constructing the tunnel will not be a problem, as it already possesses the required technology, which it will use to build the Fujian-Taiwan underwater railroad that will link China with Taiwan.

Information regarding the plans was revealed by Wang Mengshu of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. No other government official has confirmed the project, and it is unclear whether China has consulted Russia, Canada, and the US regarding it. If the railroad is ever built, it would take two days to travel from China to the United States.

 

5Transatlantic Tunnel
Europe And North America

Transatlantic Tunnel

Photo credit: www.tunneltalk.com

The Transatlantic Tunnel is a proposed underwater railroad that would link New York with London, Paris, or Brussels. It was proposed by Ernst Frankel and the late Frank Davidson, who worked on the Channel Tunnel (aka the “Chunnel”) that links England with France. The Transatlantic Tunnel would be built under the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and would be anchored to the seabed by spring-loaded wires. Exactly how far below the surface the tunnel is would depend on how much the North Atlantic warms in the future and thus how many icebergs would be present.

If constructed, the tunnel would feature superfast magnetic-levitation trains that would shuttle between London and New York in just four hours. However, the project has been criticized for its high cost (almost $200 billion) as well as the problems associated with running a 5,600-kilometer-long (3,500 mi) tube across the ocean. According to the Discovery Channel’sExtreme Engineering, the Transatlantic Tunnel won’t be a reality anytime soon because the required funds and technology will not be available beforethe year 2099.

4Darien Gap Highway
North And South America

iStock-506844914
Guinness World Records recognizes the Pan-American Highway, which stretches from Prudhoe bay, Alaska, to Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as the world’s longest road network. The highway is not a single highway but rather the interlinked highways of several North and South American countries. Yet, it is impossible to drive from North America to South America, specifically at the border between Panama and Colombia, which is covered by a thick jungle called the Darien Gap.

Previous attempts to build a highway across the gap have met brick walls in the form natives and conservationists who claim that the highway will destroy the forest. One plan to build a US-funded highway across the gap was thwarted in 1974, and another that was made in 1992 was abandoned.

Today, road travelers bypass the gap by either boarding a boat or airplane, although an expedition crossed it in a Land Rover in 1959. But this is almost impossible today thanks to the presence of criminals and drug traffickers in the vast jungle. One proposal to bypass the gap and still have a road network that will connect North and South America is the construction of an underwater tunnel between Panama and Colombia.

3Gibraltar Tunnel
Europe And Africa

Strait of Gibraltar

Photo credit: NASA

Proposals to build an underwater tunnel through the Strait of Gibraltar to link Europe with Africa have been in the works since 1930, when Spanish engineers proposed a 32-kilomter (20 mi) tunnel from Spain to North Africa. Spain and Morocco are currently working on building such a tunnel, which will be called the Gibraltar Tunnel.

The two countries’ closest points are just 14 kilometers (9 mi) apart. In fact, it is possible to see the coastline of one country from the other. But the tunnel will not pass through this narrow route because of the presence of hardened rock underneath. Rather, it will run from Cape Malabata, Morocco, to Punta Paloma, Spain, a distance of 28 kilometers (17 mi). The tunnel itself will be 40 kilometers (25 mi) long because of bends.

The tunnel is estimated to cost €6.5–13 billion, and both countries have applied for funding from the European Union. Before settling for the tunnel, both countries proposed building a bridge but abandoned the idea over concerns that it might not withstand the wind and water currents of the region.

2Intercontinental Peace Bridge
Asia And North America

Intercontinental Peace Bridge

Photo credit: Popular Mechanics

The Intercontinental Peace Bridge is a proposed 88-kilometer-long (55 mi) bridge to link Siberia and Alaska. It was proposed by award-winning structural engineer T.Y. Lin during the Cold War and would be built over the Bering Strait. Lin was so serious about the bridge that he gave President Ronald Reagan a 16-page pamphlet detailing his plans for the bridge in 1986. This move internationalized his idea and won him some fans and critics.

He renewed his proposal in 1994, when he upgraded his plans to include a pipeline network to transport oil and gas from Russia to North America. His revised proposal came after Russia turned its attention to the vast, untapped oilfields of Siberia. The Intercontinental Peace Bridge is not Lin’s only proposal to link two continents. He also proposed the construction of a bridge over the Strait of Gibraltar to link Spain and Morocco.

1Trans Global Highway
Worldwide

Trans Global Highway

Photo credit: Frank Didik

The Trans Global Highway is a proposed highway to link all the continents of the world. It was proposed by Frank Didik. It is not a new highway per se but rather the standardization and connection of existing highways and the construction of new highways and tunnels where necessary. If the proposal is ever realized, it would be possible to travel around the world by road.

Besides the road, the highway would have pipelines for oil, gas, water, and communication cables. Didik believes that the only hindrance to the achievement of the Trans Global Highway is the hatred among various neighboring states, which will refuse to maintain road networks to their neighboring enemies.

Oliver Taylor is a freelance writer and bathroom musician. You can reach him atOliverNickTaylor@gmail.com

Top 10 Totally Unexpected Uses For Common Elements


Post 8358

Top 10 Totally Unexpected Uses For Common Elements

REUBEN JACOBS MAY 4, 2017

http://listverse.com/2017/05/04/top-10-totally-unexpected-uses-for-common-elements/

 

In the 200 or so years that mankind has been arranging and grouping elements, we have discovered 118 of them, and we have figured out what most of them are good for. Oxygen is for breathing, helium is for having a good time without getting the police involved, gold is for hip hop artists, and curium is for, something, apparently. Some elements, however, can be used in alternative and often surprising ways. Here are ten elements with surprising applications.

 

10Copper Has Antimicrobial Properties

copper

Long ago, even before man knew what science was, they knew that copper could kill things that could kill you. That weird fuzzy thing growing on the water would meet its demise at the hands of copper. Ancient Egyptiantexts[1] say copper was used to clean wounds, sterilize water, and treat a variety of other ailments, such as burns, headaches, weird growths, and leg ulcers.

Today’s studies have observed that copper does indeed kill bacteria in the awesomely named process of “contact killing.” What is even more awesome is the actual process of contact killing. Studies suggest that when bacteria comes into contact with copper’s surface, the bacterial membrane ruptures and copper ions enter the bacteria and disrupt life processes until they die.Copper and its alloys are now known for their danger to microbes, and as such continue to see use in this day and age as doorknobs and other such things that a lot of people come into contact with.

9Phosphorus Can Be Used as a Deadly Weapon

whitephosporbomb

Phosphorus is famous for almost nothing. It is used in matches and fertilizer, but that seems to be about it. The military, however, believed that phosphorus had not yet achieved its full potential as an element. Enter “white phosphorus.”

White phosphorus is made from a common allotrope of the element, and it isdeadly. It was used in Vietnam, where it got the nickname “Willy Pete,” which in turn, came from military jargon. It rapidly oxidizes and ignites, which burns like hell, and ignites, fuel, clothes, ammunition, and burns deeply into skin.

It is the subject of controversy and intense debate; some feel that it should be classified as a chemical weapon[2] and therefore banned. It was used in Iraq, most notably in Fallujah, and supposedly more recently in Gaza and the Ukraine. However, white phosphorus is not used exclusively as a weapon and can be used in tracer rounds and smoke screens because of the amount of smoke it produces.

 

8Arsenic Can Detect Tumors

arsenic

The world has been cracking down on arsenic and its toxic properties lately, which is a huge step up from using it as wallpaper and poisoning everyone in your home. The people who are generally in charge of making sure people do not die all agree that arsenic is bad and not good, but it would seem that arsenic is getting a second chance. New research has come to light revealing that the arsenic-74 isotope could be used to detect tumors.

In a paper published in 2012, a team of researchers crammed as many scientific-sounding words as they could into one paper. Upon further perusal of said paper, it is said that arsenic-74 isotopes were able to produce clear images of liver tumors[3] found in rats. The paper then concludes that arsenic has potential, and it is being researched further to see if it is safe for humans and that their doctors will not kill them while detecting tumors.

7Sulfur Is Used in Winemaking

glass_of_wine_with_matchstick

If you have ever smelled anything foul, it was probably because of sulfur. Rotten eggs, skunks, and even body odor are caused by sulfur. The pungent substance is not something you want to be around. That is why some people decided it was a good idea to use it to make wine.

Sulfur dioxide has been in use in winemaking since the 15th century, and possibly earlier. Roman winemakers would burn sulfur candles in their wine barrels when transporting them to preserve the wine, and a Prussian decree[4] in 1487 allowed the use of sulfur dioxide in winemaking.

Sulfur dioxide is a pungent gas that has antimicrobial properties. It kills any sort of yeast that might grow in the barrel and turn the wine to vinegar. A ten percent solution of potassium metabisulphite is added to wine, and the sulfur just does its thing. If you think that this is just some artisan, hipster thing, rest assured that it is not, and it is actually a common practice in thewinemaking industry.

6Gallium Can Detect Neutrinos

Gallium_drops

Gallium is that one element that melts in your hand and was a source of amazement and wonder in the days of grade school. So what could one element with the melting point of a Popsicle have to do with neutrinos, one of the least understood aspects of the universe?

Scientists have been trying to understand neutrinos[5] since they were discovered. They behave like electrons, but without a charge. Since they are so small and hard to detect, scientists need to know how to find them, because they can help understand the universe.

Researchers studying neutrinos had a tank filled with 101 tons of gallium-trichloride-hydrochloric acid, and this mixture contained 30 tons of gallium. The researchers then worked their science-magic and used neutrinos to induce nuclear reactions. The gallium was transmuted into germanium and then converted to germane. When they detected the decay of the germane with a counter, they noticed that the decay agreed with earlier studies made about neutrinos. Each detected decay corresponded with each detected neutrino.

 

5Cesium Is Used in Atomic Clocks

cesium clock

Atomic clocks are the most accurate clocks on the planet. The time on your phone and on your computer is probably synced to an atomic clock somewhere. Atomic clocks make sure that the world runs smoothly enough. If you were just in time to catch Wrestlemania on TV, thank atomic clocks.

The standard time in the United States is provided by cesium, an element you have probably never heard of and will forget about again shortly after reading this article. Before you forget, atomic clocks are powered by locking an electric oscillator to the frequency of an atomic transition. Since transitions are stable and constant, they make for a good measurement of time.

During the cycles of the cesium atoms, they will reach the frequency of 9,192,631,770 Hz. They pass through a microwave field with an almost exact frequency and any cesium atoms[6] that receive the energy, change their energy state. A magnetic field separates the atoms, and those with the correct energy state are detected by a detector. The output peaks, and is used to adjust the frequency of the microwave field, and that frequency is divided by 9,192,631,770 to get one pulse per second. Simple, right?

4Xenon Is an Anesthetic

xenon

Xenon is one of the coolest-sounding elements, but not many people know what it is good for. A few people would probably assume it was a planet or something. It is actually a noble gas and can be found in Earth’s atmosphere.

Xenon can actually be used as an anesthetic, as it is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. There is also less risk of hypoxia[7] with the use of xenon. Xenon has an advantage over other NMDA receptor antagonists because of its lack of neurotoxicity. It actually reduces the neurotoxicity of ketamine and nitrous oxide, other more popular anesthetics.

Another plus point for xenon is that it is not a greenhouse gas, so releasing it into the atmosphere will not harm it. There is already xenon in the atmosphere, so the atmosphere should not be harmed by the addition of more xenon. It is akin to adding more stuff to a pizza; the only people complaining are probably crazy.

3Bismuth Can Fight Diarrhea

bismuth

Bismuth has been known since ancient times, where it was confused for other, more valuable metals, like tin, lead, and even antimony, which is surprising because nobody knows what antimony is. Nowadays, bismuth enjoys a position few other metals do: it has got a place in the medicine cabinet.

If you have had diarrhea and had to drink a pink liquid or take a tablet named Pepto-Bismol, then bismuth has greatly alleviated your discomfort. Pepto-Bismol is the marketing name of bismuth subsalicylate, and it is a colloid of bismuth salicylate, with the empirical formula of C7H5BiO4. It works by decreasing the flow of electrolytes and fluids[8] into the bowel. It also kills the organisms that cause diarrhea.

Whenever we feel the runs coming, we all know who to thank. Bismuth does not get enough love for the job it does. Bismuth does a thankless job of soothing your stomach with a wintergreen flavor.

2Zinc Can Be a Treatment for the Common Cold

zinc

We already use a lot of zinc. It is in our food, it is a dietary supplement, and it is even in sunscreen lotion. We cannot seem to get enough of zinc. There are so many uses for it, and some scientists and researchers think that it could be a remedy for the common cold.

Zinc acetate or zinc gluconate, when taken in lozenge form or as a nasal gel, could alleviate cold symptoms. Scientists are not entirely sure how the zinc works, but results show zinc can be a treatment for the common cold. The symptoms of the common cold, such as discharge, congestion, sneezing, coughing, and others, were shown to have been reduced by varying percentages when the subject was taking zinc. These may be because of the way zinc affects the pharyngeal region. In fact, zinc was discovered to treat the common cold[9] when a girl with leukemia dissolved a zinc tablet in her mouth and her cold symptoms disappeared. Since then, scientists have been researching zinc.

1Tungsten Is Used to Counterfeit Gold

fake gold 3

Tungsten comes from the Swedish words tung sten, which means “heavy stone.” It also has the alternate name of wolfram, which is infinitely cooler sounding than tungsten. Wolfram just rolls off the tongue better.

The density of tungsten is 19.25g/cm3, while the density of gold is 19.3g/cm3. Because of the closeness of the densities, tungsten can pass off as gold in superficial tests. There are several methods[10] to do this. One is to plate a bar of tungsten with gold. While this scam dates back to the 80s, people still fall for it. As recently as 2010, a bank in Germany was fooled into accepting gold-plated tungsten bars. Tungsten can be bought for $30 a pound, while the price of gold per pound is exponentially larger, so this is an appealing and lucrative trick to pull. However, if you get caught, you will go to jail, so do us a favor and don’t get caught.

Reuben is often called a “sheep in wolf’s clothing” by his friends, and “stranger” by people he doesn’t know. You can read his other works at Hubpages.