The Demon on Your Chest and Other Terrifying Tales of Sleep Paralysis


Post 8004

The Demon on Your Chest and Other Terrifying Tales of Sleep Paralysis

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Mier expedition


Post 8003

Mier expedition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mier expedition
Frederic Remington - The Mier Expedition- The Drawing of the Black Bean - Google Art Project.jpg
“The Drawing of the Black Bean” by Frederic Remington.
Date November 1842 – February 1843
Location Ciudad Mier, Tamaulipas
Result Mexican victory
Belligerents
 Texas Mexico
Commanders and leaders
Alexander Somervell
William S. Fisher
Ewen Cameron
Francisco Mejia
Pedro de Ampudia
Strength
~700 ~3,000
The Mier expedition was an offshoot of the Somervell expedition, an unsuccessful military operation launched in November 1842 by a Texian militia against Mexican border settlements. It included a major battle at Ciudad Mier on December 26 and 27, 1842 which ended with a Mexican victory. The attack was partly in hopes of financial gain and partly in retaliation for the Dawson Massacre (as named by Texans) earlier that year, in which thirty-six Texas militia were killed by the Mexican Army. Both conflicts were part of continuing efforts by each side to control the land between the Rio Grande and Nueces River. Texas believed that this territory had been ceded to the Republic in the Treaties of Velasco, by which they gained independence; but Mexico did not agree.

Background

Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna c1853.png

Santa Anna, c. 1853
8th President of Mexico
In office
17 May 1833 – 4 June 1833
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías
In office
18 June 1833 – 5 July 1833
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías
In office
27 October 1833 – 15 December 1833
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías
In office
24 April 1834 – 27 January 1835
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by Miguel Barragán
In office
20 March 1839 – 10 July 1839
Preceded by Anastasio Bustamante
Succeeded by Nicolás Bravo
In office
10 October 1841 – 26 October 1842
Preceded by Francisco Javier Echeverría
Succeeded by Nicolás Bravo
In office
4 March 1843 – 8 November 1843
Preceded by Nicolás Bravo
Succeeded by Valentín Canalizo
In office
4 June 1844 – 12 September 1844
Preceded by Valentín Canalizo
Succeeded by José Joaquín de Herrera
In office
21 March 1847 – 2 April 1847
Preceded by Valentín Gómez Farías
Succeeded by Pedro María de Anaya
In office
20 May 1847 – 15 September 1847
Preceded by Pedro María de Anaya
Succeeded by Manuel de la Peña y Peña
In office
20 April 1853 – 9 August 1855
Preceded by Manuel María Lombardini
Succeeded by Martín Carrera
Personal details
Born 21 February 1794
Xalapa, Veracruz, Viceroyalty of New Spain (now Mexico)
Died 21 June 1876 (aged 82)
Mexico City, Mexico
Resting place Panteón del Tepeyac, Mexico City
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Inés García
María de los Dolores de Tosta
Signature

Although Antonio López de Santa Anna, the ruler of Mexico, was defeated at the Battle of San Jacinto and signed the Treaties of Velasco in 1836, ceding Texas territory from Mexican control (these treaties had not been ratified by the Mexican legislature), his forces continued to invade the Republic of Texas hoping to regain control, particularly of the territory between the Rio Grande and Nueces River.Texas had hardly any settlements there.

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On September 17, 1842, Texian and Mexican forces engaged at Salado Creek, east of San Antonio. After a separate favorable Texian engagement earlier in the day, a reinforcement company of 54 Texas militia, mostly from Fayette County, under the command of Nicholas Mosby Dawson, began advancing on the rear of the Mexican Army. The Mexican commander, General Adrián Woll, sent 500 of his cavalrymen and two cannons to attack the group. The Texians held their own against the Mexican soldiers, but their fatalities mounted after the cannons came within range. The battle lasted just over an hour, resulting in 36 Texians dead and 15 captured in what became known as the Dawson Massacre.

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Expeditions

On November 25, 1842, Alexander Somervell, a customs officer from Matagorda Island, left San Antonio with 700 men under his command on a military expedition to punish the Mexican Army for raids in Texas. The Somervell Expedition recaptured Laredo on December 7, 1842, and then, with a reduced force of 500, took the Mexican town of Guerrero. Without serious backing for the expedition from the Republic of Texas, Somervell ordered his men to disband and return home on December 19, 1842.

Five captains and their men disobeyed, initiating the start of the privateering Mier Expedition. More men were gathered at La Grange, Texas. They continued the march to Ciudad Mier under the command of William S. Fisher.

Battle of Mier

Battle of Mier
Battle of Mier.jpg
A map for the battle at Ciudad Mier.
Date December 25–26, 1842
Location Ciudad Mier, Mexico
Result Mexican victory
Belligerents
 Texas Mexico
Commanders and leaders
William S. Fisher Pedro de Ampudia
Strength
308 militia 1,000 cavalry
2,000 infantry
Casualties and losses
~30 killed or wounded
~280 captured
~600 killed
~200 wounded

On December 20, 1842, the 308 Texian soldiers, who ignored orders to pull back from the Rio Grande to Gonzales, approached Ciudad Mier. They camped on the Texas side of the Rio Grande. 261 soldiers participated in the capture of the town, while the others remained behind as the camp guard.

The Texians were unaware that 3,000 Mexican troops were in the area under the command of Generals Francisco Mexia andPedro de Ampudia. In the Battle of Mier that resulted, the Texians were outnumbered ten to one. They inflicted heavy casualties on the Mexicans—650 dead and 200 wounded—but they were forced to surrender on December 26.

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The Mexicans took 243 Texians prisoner and marched them toward Mexico City via Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Monterrey,Nuevo León.

On February 11, 1843, 181 Texians escaped but, by the end of the month, the lack of food and water in the mountainous Mexican desert resulted in 176 surrendering or being recaptured. This was in the vicinity of Salado, Tamaulipas.

When the prisoners arrived in Saltillo, Coahuila, they learned that an outraged Santa Anna had ordered all the escapees to be executed, but General and Governor Francisco Mexía of the state of Coahuila refused to follow the order. The new commander, Colonel Domingo Huerta, moved the prisoners to El Rancho Salado. By this time, diplomatic efforts on behalf of Texas by the foreign ministers of the United States and Great Britain led Santa Anna to compromise: he said one in ten would be killed.

Black bean incident

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To help determine who would die, Huerta had 159 white beans and seventeen black beans placed in a pot. In what came to be known as the Black Bean Episode or the Bean Lottery, the Texians were blindfolded and ordered to draw beans. Officers and enlisted men, in alphabetical order, were ordered to draw. The seventeen men who drew black beans were allowed to write letters home and were executed by firing squad. On the evening of March 25, 1843, the Texians were shot in two groups, one of nine men and one of eight. According to legend, Huerta placed the black beans in the jar last and had the officers pick first, so that they would make up the majority of those killed.

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The first Texan to draw a black bean was Major James Decatur Cocke. A witness recalled that Cocke held up the bean between his forefinger and thumb, and with a smile of contempt, said, “Boys, I told you so; I never failed in my life to draw a prize.” He later told a fellow Texian, “They only rob me of forty years.” Fearing that the Mexicans would strip his body after he was dead, he removed his pants and gave them to a companion whose own clothing was in worse shape. He was shot with the sixteen others who drew black beans on March 25, 1843. His last words were reported to have been, “Tell my friends I die with grace.”

The other sixteen who drew black beans in the lottery were William Mosby Eastland, Patrick Mahan, James M. Ogden, James N. Torrey, Martin Carroll Wing, John L. Cash, Robert Holmes Dunham, Edward E. Este, Robert Harris, Thomas L. Jones, Christopher Roberts, William N. Rowan, James L. Shepherd, J. N. M. Thomson, James Turnbull, and Henry Walling. Shepherd survived the firing squad by pretending to be dead. The guards left him for dead in the courtyard, and he escaped in the night but was recaptured and shot.Eastland County, Texas, is named after William Mosby Eastland.

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Texas Rangers | Myra H. Mcilvain

Captain Ewen Cameron had drawn a white bean, but was ordered executed anyway by Santa Anna a month later while being held at Perote Prison. As he waited to die, Cameron refused to confess to a priest. Standing before the firing squad, Cameron declined the offer of a blindfold, declaring, “For the liberty of Texas, Ewen Cameron can look death in the face.” He opened his hunting shirt and yelled at his executioners, “Fuego!” (Fire!).

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The survivors who picked white beans, including Bigfoot Wallace, and Samuel Walker, finished the march to Mexico City. They were later imprisoned at Perote Prison in the state ofVeracruz, along with the fifteen survivors from the Dawson Massacre and about 35 other men captured by General Adrián Woll in San Antonio. Some of the Texians escaped from Perote or died there. Most were prisoners until they were released, by order of Santa Anna, on September 16, 1844.

Legacy

In 1847, during the Mexican-American War, the U.S. Army occupied northeastern Mexico. Captain John E. Dusenbury, a white bean survivor, returned to El Rancho Salado and exhumed the remains of his comrades. He traveled with the remains on a ship to Galveston, and by wagon to La Grange in Fayette County, Texas. La Grange citizens retrieved the remains of the men killed in the Dawson Massacre from their burial site near Salado Creek in Bexar County. The remains of both groups of men were reinterred in a ceremony attended by 1,000 people. They were buried in a large common tomb in 1848, in a cement vault on a bluff one mile south of La Grange. The grave site is now part of a state park, the Monument Hill and Kreische Brewery State Historic Sites.

The Black Bean Episode is the subject of Frederic Remington‘s painting The Mier Expedition: The Drawing of the Black Bean.

Hurricane Matthew


Post 8002

Hurricane Matthew

Hurricane Matthew, the most powerful Atlantic storm in nearly a decade, left a path of destruction over the Caribbean and the southern US. Hundreds have been killed, and it is feared that Haiti suffered catastrophic damage.–By Leanne Burden Seidel
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A couple embrace in the remains of their home that was destroyed by Hurricane Matthew in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 5. The hurricane rolled across the sparsely populated tip of Cuba overnight, destroying dozens of homes in Cuba’s easternmost city, Baracoa, leaving hundreds of others damaged. (Ramon Espinosa/Associated Press)
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Local residents Michael and Tori Munton make their way through the flooded streets of downtown historic Saint Marys, Ga., as the storm surge from Hurricane Matthew hits, Oct. 7. (Curtis Compton/Atlanta Journal-Constitution via AP)
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Micah Beemon (Left) talks with a visiting neighbor about the large tree that has fallen in his front yard in Daytona Beach, Fla. Oct. 7 following the passage of Hurricane Matthew. (Willie J. Allen/EPA)
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Josephine and Kira Emberton walk through debris along wash-out highway A1A after Hurricane Matthew passed by the area, Oct. 7, in Flagler Beach, Fla. (Eric Gay/Associated Press)
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Trees sway from heavy rain and wind from Hurricane Matthew in front of Exploration Tower early Friday, Oct. 7 in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Matthew weakened slightly to a Category 3 storm with maximum sustained winds near 120 mph, but the U.S. National Hurricane Center says it’s expected to remain a powerful hurricane as it moves closer to the coast. (Craig Rubadoux/Florida Today via AP)
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A girl walks out of her house destroyed by Hurricane Matthew in the outskirts of Port Salut, Haiti, Oct. 7. (Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)
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An official vehicle navigates debris as it passes along Highway A1A after it was partial washed away by Hurricane Matthew, Oct. 7, in Flagler Beach, Fla. (Eric Gay/Associated Press)
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Haitian people cross the river La Digue in Petit Goave where the bridge collapsed during the rains from Hurricane Matthew, southwest of Port-au-Prince, Oct. 6. (Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)
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A woman cooks in the kitchen of her house destroyed by Hurricane Matthew on the outskirts of Port Salut, Haiti, Oct. 7. (Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)
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Nick Lomasney walks through heavy wind and a flooded street as Hurricane Matthew passes through the area on Oct. 7, in St Augustine, Florida. Florida, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina all declared a state of emergency in preparation of Hurricane Matthew. (Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
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David Laffita, 26, pets his dog Branco, while sitting amid the ruins of his home destroyed by Hurricane Matthew, in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 6. (Ramon Espinosa/Associated Press)
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Kaleigh Black, 14, left, and Amber Olsen, 12, run for cover as a squall with rain and wind from the remnants of Hurricane Matthew pelt them as they explore the Cocoa Beach Pier on Oct. 7, in Cocoa Beach, Fla. (Douglas R. Clifford/Tampa Bay Times via AP)
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Billy Conley lifts a piece of plywood to place over a window of a business in Cape Canaveral, Fla., Oct. 5, as Hurricane Matthew approaches Florida. (Red Huber/Orlando Sentinel via AP)
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This NOAA-NASA Goes East project satellite image shows Hurricane Matthew(L)in the Caribbean and Tropical Storm Nicole(R)to the east of Hurricane Matthew in the Atlantic on Oct. 6, at 1737 UTC. (NOAA-NASA Goes East project satellite/AFP/Getty Images)
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Local residents take shelter at the Pedro Menendez high school in St. Augustine, Florida, on Oct. 6, ahead of hurricane Matthew. (Jewel Samad/AFP/Getty Images)
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Firefighters help a woman recover her clothes from her house destroyed by Hurricane Matthew in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 6. (Ramon Espinosa/Associated Pres)
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People walk on a street next to destroyed houses after Hurricane Matthew hit Jeremie, Haiti, Oct. 6. (Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)
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A man reads updates about Hurricane Matthew on his smartphone as he takes shelter in a ballroom of the Melia Hotel overnight in Nassau, Bahamas on Oct. 5. (Carlo Allegri/Reuters)
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A loaf of bread is all that was left in the bread aisle of a Wal-Mart supermarket in Kissimmee, Fla. as people buy supplies in preparation for the landfall of Hurricane Matthew, on Oct. 6. (Gregg Newton/AFP/Getty Images)
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Residents at a shelter in the school Liliane Mars Dumarsais Estime fight for food during a delivery after Hurricane Matthew in Les Cayes, Haiti, Oct. 7. (Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)
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Girls hold hands as they help each other wade through a flooded street after the passing of Hurricane Matthew in Les Cayes, Haiti, Oct. 6. Two days after the storm rampaged across the country’s remote southwestern peninsula, authorities and aid workers still lack a clear picture of what they fear is the country’s biggest disaster in years. (Dieu Nalio Chery/Associated Press)
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Kevin Forde (L) and John Haughey put up plywood on a window as they prepare for Hurricane Matthew as it approaches the area on Oct. 6 in Miami Beach. The hurricane is expected to make landfall sometime this evening or early in the morning as a category 4 storm. (Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
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A woman cries amid the rubble of her home, destroyed by Hurricane Matthew in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 5. The hurricane rolled across the sparsely populated tip of Cuba destroying dozens of homes in Cuba’s easternmost city, Baracoa, leaving hundreds of others damaged. (Ramon Espinosa/Associated Press)
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Guests rest in a hallway at the Atlantis Paradise Island hotel, as they stay far away from their rooms’ windows during the passage of Hurricane Matthew in Nassau, Bahamas, Oct. 6. (Tim Aylen/Associated Press)
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A group of people carry a coffin and try to cross the river La Digue, after the colapse of the only bridge that connects to the south after the passing of hurricane Matthew in the country, in Petit Goave, Haiti, Oct. 5. (Orlando Barria/EPA)
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An elderly man who was in hospital before Hurricane Matthew hit, is carried back home in a hammock in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 6. The man who was released from the hospital was carried back to his home by hand because the roads have been made impassible by the damage caused by Hurricane Matthew, blocking all motor vehicle traffic to the area. (Ramon Espinosa/Associated Press)
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Haitian people cross the river La Digue in Petit Goave where the bridge collapsed during the rains of the Hurricane Matthew, southwest of Port-au-Prince, Oct. 5. AFP/Getty Images (Hector Retamal/ AFP/Getty Images)
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A woman walks on Oct. 5 along a coastal road between Guantanamo and Baracoa which was left covered in rocks and severely damaged after the passage of Hurricane Matthew through the eastern tip of Cuba on Tuesday afternoon. Hurricane Matthew, the Caribbean’s worst storm in nearly a decade, barreled towards the Bahamas Wednesday morning after killing nine people and pummeling Haiti and Cuba. (Yamil Lage/AFP/Getty Images)
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Residents work clearing a house destroyed by Hurricane Matthew in Les Cayes, Haiti, Oct. 5. (Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)
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The mother (C) of two girls who died when a landslide knocked the walls of their house down during the passage of Hurricane Matthew, is comforted outside her house in the neighborhood of Capotillo, in Santo Domingo on Oct. 4. (Erika Santelices/AFP/Getty Images)
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People look at the collapsed roof of a house where a child died in the neighbourhood of La Puya, in Santo Domingo on Oct. 4, during the passage of Hurricane Matthew through Hispaniola — the island that the Dominican Republic shares with Haiti. (Erika Santelices/AFP/Getty Images)
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People walk on the road as rain falls during Hurricane Matthew in Les Cayes, Haiti, Oct. 4. (Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)
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Children stand next to a flooded area after Hurricane Matthew passes Cite-Soleil in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Oct. 5. (Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)
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People try to cross the overflowing Rouyonne river in the commune of Leogane, south of Port-au-Prince, Oct. 5. (Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)
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Cubans recover from the damage and havoc caused by hurricane Matthew in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 5. Hurricane Matthew left serious damage at the eastern end of the island, with landslides, toppling electricity poles and cutting off roads by floods. (Alejandro Ernesto/EPA)
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Cubans recover from the damage and havoc caused by hurricane Matthew in Baracoa, Cuba, Oct. 5. (Alejandro ErnestoA/EPA)
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A man wades through a flooded street while Hurricane Matthew passes, in Cite-Soleil in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Oct. 4. (Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)
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A wave splashes on the beach at Siboney ahead of the arrival of Hurricane Matthew, Cuba, Oct. 4. (Alexandre Meneghini/Reuters)
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Civil protection workers asks residents to evacuate their homes located near the the Grise river, in Tabarre, Haiti, Oct. 3. (Dieu Nalio Chery/Associated Press)
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People wade across a flooded street while Hurricane Matthew passes through Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Oct. 4. (Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)
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Women cover their heads with pans as they walk in rain brought by Hurricane Matthew in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Oct. 4. (Dieu Nalio Chery/Associated Press)
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Destroyed desks are seen in a school after Hurricane Matthew passes Jeremie, Haiti, Oct. 5. (Carlos Garcia/Reuters)
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Clouds cover the mountains of Petion Ville as rain falls in the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince, on Oct. 3. (Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)
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A girl watches as the authorities arrive to evacuate people from her house in Tabarre, Haiti, Oct. 3. (Dieu Nalio Chery/Associated Press)
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A view of partially destroyed banana trees at a road side after the passage of hurricane Matthew on the coast of Guantanamo province, Cuba, Oct. 5. (Alexandre Meneghini/Reuters)
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People wade through floodwaters from hurricane Matthew in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, Oct. 4. Three children and an adult died due to the landslides caused by the strong rains of the hurricane that forced the displacement of 18,545 people around the country, according to the Center of Emergency Operations. (Richard Reed/EPA)
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Dean Legge (L), Steven Thigpen (R) and Graylan Coleman (C) help a relative remove furniture at a beachfront home along Waccamaw Drive in anticipation of Hurricane Matthew in Garden City Beach, South Carolina, U.S. Oct. 4. (Randall Hill/Reuters)
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Leidimar Reyes (bottom), 7, plays in a shelter at the University of Guantanamo ahead of the arrival of Hurricane Matthew in Guantanamo, Cuba, Oct. 3. (Alexandre Meneghini/Reuters)
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A woman protects herself from rain with an umbrella ahead of Hurricane Matthew in Les Cayes, Haiti, Oct. 3. (Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)
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Residents are evacuated in Fond Parisien, western Haiti, Oct. 4. (Orlando Barria/EPA)
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A man says goodbye to relatives as they get in a bus to be evacuated ahead of the arrival of Hurricane Matthew in Cecilia, Cuba, Oct. 3. (Alexandre Meneghini /Reuters)
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A woman holds her son as she looks at the news, at a shelter ahead of Hurricane Matthew in Guantanamo, Cuba, Oct. 3. (Ramon Espinosa/Associated Press)