Egyptian Mummy’s Face Recreated with 3D Printing

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Egyptian Mummy’s Face Recreated with 3D Printing

Egyptian Mummy's Face Recreated with 3D Printing

Researchers created a 3D-printed replica of the skull from an Egyptian mummy.

Credit: Varsha Pilbrow and Gavan Mitchell, University of Melbourne

An Egyptian mummy’s head and face have been reconstructed with forensic science and 3D printing, offering scientists a tantalizing glimpse of the individual’s life and death.

The mummified head was discovered by accident in the collections of the University of Melbourne in Australia. A museum curator happened upon the remains during an audit and, concerned about the state of the specimen, sent it for a computed tomography(CT) scan.

“Turns out, [the skull] is actually quite intact; it has got bandages and looks well on the inside,” said Varsha Pilbrow, a biological anthropologist in the University of Melbourne’s Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience. “Of course, that then allowed us to think what to do next.” [In Photos: Egypt’s Oldest Mummy Wrappings]

With the help of an imaging specialist, Pilbrow and her team used the scans to create a 3D-printed replica of the mummy’s skull. Then, the scientists studied the specimen’s facial-bone features, such as the size and angle of the jaw and characteristics of the eye sockets, to determine that the head belonged to a female. The researchers are calling the specimen Meritamun. They say she was probably not more than 25 years old at the time of her death and was important enough to be mummified.

“It is quite fascinating that we did all of this without destroying the specimen in any way, and that is important from a museum curatorial point of view,” Pilbrow said.

The true origins of the mummified head are still unknown, though. Scientists think it belonged in the collections of Frederic Wood Jones, a professor who conducted archeological work in Egypt before joining as the head of anatomy at the University of Melbourne in 1930. From the distinctive style of the linen bandaging and embalming of the specimen, the researchers think Meritamun was mummified in Egypt and that she may have lived at least 2,000 years ago. They will now use radiocarbon dating to date the specimen more precisely, the scientists said.

Meanwhile, the CT scans and 3D-printed replica of the skull are revealing other details about Meritamun, including her dental abnormalities and diseases she might have had.

“We noticed that the top of her skull is very thin. It is extremely porous,” Pilbrow told Live Science. “It suggests that she would have suffered from severe anemia.”

A deficiency of hemoglobin and oxygen would have led to the swelling of bone marrow — as it tried to produce more red blood cells — and thinning of the skull bone, Pilbrow said.

“Anemia and dental pathologies were quite prevalent among Egyptian populations,” Pilbrow said.This provides just one possible clue about how Meritamun died, but Pilbrow and her co-workers are continuing to dig into other factors that may have cost the young woman her life.

The research has yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Original article on Live Science.

Facts About Germanium

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Facts About Germanium
Germanium is a silvery white metalloid. This is a 2-by-3 centimeter piece of polycrystalline germanium, weighing about 12 grams.

Credit: Jurii/Creative Commons

Shiny and silvery, yet very brittle, germanium is an important component in semiconductors and fiber optics. Some people think germanium supplements have health benefits, but research has not supported those claims.

  • Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 32
  • Atomic symbol (on the periodic table of elements): Ge
  • Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 72.630
  • Density: 3.077 ounces per cubic inch (5.323 grams per cubic cm)
  • Phase at room temperature: solid
  • Melting point: 1,720.9 degrees Fahrenheit (938.3 degrees Celsius)
  • Boiling point: 5,131 F (2,833 C)
  • Number of natural isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons): 5. There are also 19 artificial isotopes created in a lab.
  • Most common isotopes: Ge-74 (36.28 percent of natural abundance), Ge-72 (27.54 percent of natural abundance), Ge-79 (20.84 percent of natural abundance), Ge-73 (7.73 percent of natural abundance), Ge-76 (7.61 percent of natural abundance)

The existence of germanium was predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, after he developed the periodic table of elements, according to Chemistry Explained. Arranging the elements by atomic weight left some gaps in the table. Mendeleev theorized that there were several elements yet to be discovered, including element No. 32. In 1885, Clemens Winkler, a German chemist, discovered what was then referred to as “eka-silicon” in an ore known as argyrodite. The ore contained silver, sulfur, iron oxide, and zinc with about 7 percent of the unknown metal.

According to Chemistry Explained, Mendeleev had predicted that element 32 would have a density of 5.5 grams per cubic centimeter (5.5 times the density of water) and atomic weight of 70 (a little less than four times the atomic weight of water): very close to the actual density (5.323 grams per cubic centimeter) and atomic weight (72.630) of germanium. The accuracy of Mendeleev’s prediction increased chemists’ confidence in the periodic table.

Electron configuration and elemental properties of germanium.

Electron configuration and elemental properties of germanium.

Credit: Greg Robson/Creative Commons, Andrei Marincas Shutterstock

  • Germanium is metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. Other metalloids on the periodic table are boron, silicon, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  • Germanium is one of the few elements that expand when it freezes, like water does, according to Chemicool. Others include gallium, silicon, bismuth and antimony.
  • The name “germanium” comes from the Latin name for Germany, named for Winkler’s home country, according to the Jefferson Lab.
  • According to Chemicool, the abundance of germanium in the Earth’s crust is about 1.5 parts per million by weight, and the abundance in the solar system is about 200 parts per billion by weight.
  • Germanium’s value was recognized during World War II, according toEmily Darby, a chemistry student at Harvey Mudd College, when it was used in high-resolution radar receivers. The first germanium transistor was invented shortly afterward.
  • According to the U.S. Geological Survey, approximate percentages of the uses of germanium are: 30 percent for infrared (IR) optics, including detectors; 20 percent fiber optics used in communications; 20 percent polyethylene terephthalate used in a variety of products such as cloth fibers, food containers, and resins; 15 percent for electronics and solar cells for solar panels; and 5 percent for phosphors, metallurgy, and organics including medications.
  • Germanium is primarily mined with zinc ore as well as with argyrodite, germanite, and coal according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. According to Chemistry Explained, germanium is mined in Alaska, Tennessee, China, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, Russia and Belgium.

There have been claims that germanium may be beneficial for health, including improving the immune system, oxygen supply in the body, and destroying free radicals. According to Healthline, germanium has also been considered to be beneficial in treating allergies, asthma, arthritis, HIV/AIDS and various forms of cancer.

There is, however, little to no scientific support of these claims, and using germanium supplements or medications can lead to many side effects, including kidney damage, anemia, muscle weakness and lack of coordination, and elevated liver enzymes, according to Healthline.

In experiments, a derivative of germanium called spirogermanium has been shown to inhibit replication in certain cancer cells, but human studies show it has adverse effects and is not suitable as an anticancer treatment, according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Germanium is commonly used in detectors in a variety of fields, according to a study published in Applied Physics Letters in 2016. The study discusses the high efficiency of germanium photodetectors when used in the visible and near infrared spectra of light. The germanium detectors were compared to conventional silicon based photodetectors and, according to the authors, had better signal to noise ratio and responses near the ends of the spectral range of light able to be observed with the detectors.

Germanium was tested for use in photodetectors due to its smallbandgap, or the easier ability for electrons to jump to a higher energy state, which is common in semiconductor metals. These photoconductors are used in many types of technologies that are used in our everyday lives such as television remote controls, automatically opening doors common at large stores, and fiberoptic communication systems as well as many scientific uses in astronomy, laboratory research, and environmental monitoring according to LaserFocusWorld. With increased efficiency due to the higher absorption of germanium in photodetectors versus traditional materials such as silicon, more and better information can be received in the target wavelength.

Additional resources

Jewish avengers unapologetic for targeting Nazis after WWII

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Jewish avengers unapologetic for targeting Nazis after WWII

  • In this April 1946 photo from the U.S. Army Signal Corps, U.S. Lt. Robert R, Rogers, left, and Erich Pinkau, of the German criminal police, examine the under-floor hiding place where arsenic was found in a Nuremberg, Germany bakery which supplied bread to Stalag 13, seven miles away. In mid-April, over 2,200 prisoners at the camp were stricken with arsenic poisoning from the toxicant coated on the loaves given to the prisoners. Seventy years after the most daring attempt of Jewish Holocaust survivors to seek revenge, the leader of the plot has only one simple regret _ that to his knowledge he didn't actually succeed in killing any Nazis. Joseph Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish "Avengers" who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 after World War II. The poisoning sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. (U.S. Army Signal Corps via AP)

    In this April 1946 photo from the U.S. Army Signal Corps, U.S. Lt. Robert R, Rogers, left, and Erich Pinkau, of the German criminal police, examine the under-floor hiding place where arsenic was found in a Nuremberg, Germany bakery which supplied bread to Stalag 13, seven miles away. In mid-April, over 2,200 prisoners at the camp were stricken with arsenic poisoning from the toxicant coated on the loaves given to the prisoners. Seventy years after the most daring attempt of Jewish Holocaust survivors to seek revenge, the leader of the plot has only one simple regret _ that to his knowledge he didn’t actually succeed in killing any Nazis. Joseph Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish “Avengers” who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 after World War II. The poisoning sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. (U.S. Army Signal Corps via AP)(The Associated Press)

Seventy years after the most daring attempt of Jewish Holocaust survivors to seek revenge against their former tormentors, the leader of the plot has only one simple regret — that to his knowledge he didn’t actually succeed in killing any Nazis.

Joseph Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish “Avengers” who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 that sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. A recently declassified U.S. military report obtained by The Associated Press has only added to the mystery of why the brazen operation did not kill Nazis, because it shows the amount of arsenic used should have been fatal to tens of thousands.

Still, the 91-year-old Harmatz says the message echoed into a rallying cry for the newborn state of Israel — that the days when attacks on Jews went unanswered were over.

“We didn’t want to come back (to pre-state Israel) without having done something, and that is why we were keen,” Harmatz said in a hoarse, whispery voice from his apartment in north Tel Aviv.

Despite a visceral desire for vengeance, most Holocaust survivors were too weary or devastated to seriously consider it, after their world was shattered and 6 million Jews killed during World War II. For most, merely rebuilding their lives and starting new families was revenge enough against a Nazi regime that aimed to destroy them. For others, physical retribution ran counter to Jewish morals and traditions. For even more, the whole concept of reprisals seemed pointless given the sheer scope of the genocide.

In this photo made on Monday, May 23, 2016, Joseph Harmatz sits during an interview with the Associated Press at his apartment in Tel Aviv, Israel. Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish "Avengers" who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 after World War II. The poisoning sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths.(AP Photo /Tsafrir Abayov)

In this photo made on Monday, May 23, 2016, Joseph Harmatz sits during an interview with the Associated Press at his apartment in Tel Aviv, Israel. Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish “Avengers” who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 after World War II. The poisoning sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths.(AP Photo /Tsafrir Abayov)(The Associated Press)

But a group of some 50, most young men and women who had already fought in the resistance, could not let the crimes go unpunished and actively sought to exact at least a small measure of revenge. The Nuremberg trials were prosecuting some top Nazis, but the Jewish people had no formal representative. There was a deep sense of justice denied, as the vast majority of Nazis immersed themselves back into a post-war Germany that was being rebuilt by the Americans’ Marshall plan.

While there were some isolated acts of Jews harming individual Nazis after the war, the group, codenamed Nakam, Hebrew for vengeance, sought a more comprehensive form of punishment.

“We didn’t understand why it shouldn’t be paid back,” said Harmatz, who was nicknamed Julek, and lost most of his family in the Holocaust.

So the group set out with a simple mission.

“Kill Germans,” Harmatz said flatly.

How many?

“As many as possible,” he quickly replied.

The first plan of action described by Harmatz was audacious. Initiated by the resistance fighter and noted Israeli poet Abba Kovner, the idea was to poison the water supply of Nuremberg, a plot that could have potentially killed hundreds of thousands.

But there were deep reservations even among the Avengers that such an operation would kill innocent Germans and undermine international support for the establishment of Israel. Either way, when Kovner sailed for Europe with the poison, he drew suspicion from British authorities and was forced to toss it overboard before he was arrested.

This photo from the U.S. Army Signal Corps taken during World War II shows a bakery in Nuremberg, Germany, which supplied bread to Stalag 13, seven miles away. In mid-April, over 2,200 prisoners at the camp were stricken with arsenic poisoning from arsenic coated on the loaves given to the prisoners. Full and empty bottles of the toxicant were found under the floor of the facility. Seventy years after the most daring attempt of Jewish Holocaust survivors to seek revenge, the leader of the plot has only one simple regret _ that to his knowledge he didn't actually succeed in killing any Nazis. Joseph Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish "Avengers" who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 after World War II. The poisoning sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. (U.S. Army Signal Corps via AP)

supplied bread to Stalag 13, seven miles away. In mid-April, over 2,200 prisoners at the camp were stricken with arsenic poisoning from arsenic coated on the loaves given to the prisoners. Full and empty bottles of the toxicant were found under the floor of the facility. Seventy years after the most daring attempt of Jewish Holocaust survivors to seek revenge, the leader of the plot has only one simple regret _ that to his knowledge he didn’t actually succeed in killing any Nazis. Joseph Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish “Avengers” who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 after World War II. The poisoning sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. (U.S. Army Signal Corps via AP)(The Associated Press)

Following that setback, attention shifted toward Plan B, a more limited operation that specifically targeted the worst Nazi perpetrators. Undercover members of the group found work at a bakery that supplied the Stalag 13 POW camp at Langwasser, near Nuremberg, and waited for their chance to strike the thousands of SS men the Americans held there.

It came on Apr. 13, 1946. Using poison procured from one of Kovner’s associates, three members spent two hours coating some 3,000 loaves of bread with arsenic, divided into four portions. The goal was to kill 12,000 SS personnel, and Harmatz oversaw the operation from outside the bakery.

While the mass death count of the first plan would have been disastrous for the Jewish people, the second’s more direct route was easier to accept, since its targets were the worst of the worst, said Dina Porat, the chief historian at Israel’s Yad Vashem memorial. She has written a biography of Kovner and is about to publish another book on the Avengers themselves.

“The terrible tragedy was about to be forgotten, and if you don’t punish for one crime, you will get another,” she explained. “This is what was driving them, not only justice but a warning, a warning to the world that you cannot hurt Jews in such a manner and get away with it.”

Even if they were ultimately unsuccessful, she said, the Avengers’ act was seeped with symbolism for a burgeoning state of Israel fighting for its survival in a hostile region.

“What is Zionism? Zionism is the Jews taking their fate in their own hands and not letting the others dictate our fate,” she said. “This is what they wanted to show. You cannot get away with such a terrible deed.”

Under German regulations, authorities in Nuremberg later investigated Harmatz and Leipke Distal, who worked undercover in the bakery for months, after they appeared in a 1999 television documentary and revealed details of the operation.

The prosecutors, in the uncomfortable position of having to investigate Holocaust survivors trying to kill Nazis, eventually concluded that even though there was an attempted murder they would not file charges because of the “extraordinary circumstances.”

According to previously classified files from the U.S. military’s Counter Intelligence Corps, which investigated the 1946 incident and which the Nuremberg prosecutors did not have access to, the amount of arsenic used should have been enough to cause a massive number of deaths. The files were obtained by the AP through a Freedom of Information Act request to the National Archives.

In one memo from 1947 stamped “confidential,” investigators write that at the bakery they found “three empty hot water bottles and a burlap bag containing four full hot water bottles.” An analysis of the contents “revealed that they contained enough arsenic mixed with glue and water to kill approximately 60,000 persons.”

Another confidential report said a chemist called in to help in the investigation had determined “10 kilo of pure arsenic was present, mixed with water and glue for adhesive purposes.”

Laboratory investigators found arsenic on the bottom, top and sides of the bread, and reported that doctors said the SS men exhibited symptoms “similar to cholera and included vomiting, diarrhea and skin rashes.” The report added that the most amount of arsenic found on a loaf was 0.2 grams — which fell well within the range of 0.1-0.3 grams that would be ‘in most cases lethal.”

To this day, it remains a mystery as to why the poison failed to kill Nazis. The prevailing theory is that the plotters in their haste spread the poison too thinly. Another is that the Nazi prisoners immediately sensed something was off with the bread and therefore no one ingested enough of it to die.

After the attack, Harmatz, Distal and others had to flee quickly. At the border of Czechoslovakia they were met by Yehuda Maimon, an Auschwitz survivor from Poland who lost his parents in the camps and decided to join Nakam shortly after escaping a death march. He was responsible for smuggling the group out safely and bribing officials at the border. From there, they slipped into Italy before migrating for good to the Holy Land.

From the retirement home outside Tel Aviv where his grandchildren frequently visit him, the 92-year-old Maimon, who goes by the nickname Poldek, fixes a steely gaze with his piercing blue eyes. He looks back with satisfaction at carrying out his “duty” for revenge before starting anew in Israel.

“It was imperative to form this group. If I am proud of something it is that I belonged to this group,” he said. “Heaven forbid if after the war we had just gone back to the routine without thinking about paying those bastards back. It would have been awful not to respond to those animals.”


Herschaft reported from New York. Associated Press writer David Rising in Berlin contributed to this report.

On Twitter, follow Heller at and Herschaft at

First secret from ancient stone tablet revealed

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First secret from ancient stone tablet revealed

A close-up of a stele found at Poggio Colla, a site of religious ritual for the ancient Etruscans.


An ancient tablet recently unearthed in Tuscany has revealed its first secret: the engraved name of a goddess linked to fertility.

The 500-pound (227 kilograms) stone slab, or stele, was unearthed earlier this year at Poggio Colla, a sixth century B.C. site built by the Etruscans. The stele bears a long inscription in a language that has not been used for 2,500 years, project archaeologist Gregory Warden, a professor emeritus at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, told Live Science in April.

Now, translation is underway and archaeologists have discovered that the tablet references the goddess Uni. [Photos: The Tomb of an Etruscan Prince]

“We can at this point affirm that this discovery is one of the most important Etruscan discoveries of the last few decades,” Warden said in a statement. “It’s a discovery that will provide not only valuable information about the nature of sacred practices at Poggio Colla, but also fundamental data for understanding the concepts and rituals of the Etruscans, as well as their writing and perhaps their language.”


The 500-pound stele, partly cleaned, bears the name of the Etruscan fertility goddess Uni and the head of the Etruscan pantheon, Tina.


Mother goddess?

Uni was an important goddess linked to fertility. Previously, the most famous find at Poggio Colla was a piece of ceramic depicting a woman squatting to give birth, perhaps suggesting that a fertility cult worshiped at the site, according to Warden.

The Etruscans were a heavily religious society that started around 700 B.C. in modern-day northern and eastern Italy. They flourished until they were absorbed by Rome, a gradual process that took place between 500 B.C. and 100 B.C.

There are at least 120 characters on the Poggio Colla stele, making it the longest Etruscan inscription ever found on stone and among the longest three sacred texts ever discovered, researchers will report in a yet-unpublished article in the journal Etruscan Studies. The inscription might express the laws of the sanctuary, Warden said, perhaps outlining the ceremonies that took place there. Archaeologists have deciphered another word on the tablet, “Tina,” which refers to the head god of the Etruscan Pantheon (much like Zeus for the Greeks).

Striking find

Archaeologists have been digging at Poggio Colla for 21 years, and found the slab at the very end of the most recent field season at the site. It’s about 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide and made of sandstone. Because the stone is scuffed and chipped, researchers are painstakingly cleaning it in order to translate the words. Etruscans left behind few texts because they mostly wrote on linen or erasable wax tablets. Understanding Etruscan religious belief and ritual is important because as the civilization was engulfed by Rome, it influenced Roman culture and belief.

Most previously discovered texts are short inscriptions on graves, according to Warden. One linen book written in the Etruscan language was found on an Egyptian mummy — recycled as wrappings. Otherwise, researchers know little about Etruscan religious rituals, other than that they were polytheistic.

Though the stele is still being cleaned and studied, a hologram projection of it will be displayed in Florence on Aug. 27 as researchers announce the translations they’ve made so far.

Original article on Live Science.

AP documents 72 mass graves in territory freed of IS

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LORI HINNANT and DESMOND BUTLER,Associated Press 30 minutes ago

Lightning strike kills more than 300 reindeer in Norway

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Lightning strike kills more than 300 reindeer in Norway

Lightning kills over 300 reindeer in Norway
Lightning kills over 300 reindeer in Norway 02:05

Story highlights

  • 323 wild reindeer killed after being hit by a single lightning strike
  • The carcasses were scattered across Norway’s mountain plateau, Hardangervidda

(CNN)More than 300 reindeer have been killed by a single lightning strike at a Norwegian national park.

Pictures released by the Norwegian Environment Agency on Sunday show 323 carcasses scattered across a small, isolated area in Hardangervidda National Park. The plateau-like park in south-central Norway is home to Europe’s largest herds of wild reindeer, according to its website.
One of the agency’s inspectors discovered the dead animals over the weekend after a storm passed through.
Wild animals are occasionally struck by lightning, but the agency has never seen so many killed at once, spokesperson Kjartan Knutsen told CNN.
“We have never experienced such numbers before. This is very large,” Knutsen said. He said the wild reindeer were huddled together because of heavy weather on Friday, when the strike occurred.
“That’s why it’s possible for the lightning to kill so many,” he said.
The Norwegian park is home to Europe's largest herds of wild reindeer.

Humans rarely visit the remote area. The dead reindeer were found by one of the agency’s inspectors because Norway is in the midst of its annual wild reindeer hunting season.
Knutsen said five reindeer were still alive when the inspector came across the scene, but they had to be euthanized.
He said the agency has now begun taking samples from the dead animals as part of a health survey.
“We know they were killed by lightning, but this testing is for science,” he said.
The dead reindeer were still on site Monday. While the agency usually does not remove animals when they die in the wild, it is currently considering other options because of the large numbers, Knutsen said.
It’s not the first time a large herd of animals have been killed by lightning. In 2005, 68 cows were killed in Australia by a single bolt.

10 Misconceptions About Military Drones

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10 Misconceptions About Military Drones


Military drones have garnered a great deal of attention over the years since the 9/11 bombings, but they’re very misunderstood. While some reports accurately describe how they’re used in combat, many stories portray misconceptions that are outlandish and not supported by facts. Here are ten of the most common misconceptions about military drones.

Featured image credit: Lance Cheung, US Air Force

10They’re Called ‘Drones’

Reaper UAV Flight

Almost everyone refers to a military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/System (UAV/S) as a drone, but that is a misnomer which is insulting to their pilots. (Yes, they have pilots.) The word “drone” is most often associated with a low humming sound, which is one of the reasons that male bees are called drones. Using the word “drone” to describe the complex systems put in place on today’s battlefields can be incongruous with military jargon and insulting to the operators.

“Drone” implies a lack of involvement by an expert operator, so the term isn’t widely used in the military. Outside the military, the word “drone” is most often associated with quadcopters, remote-controlled small aircraft used by hobbyists for various activities, including racing, aerial photography, and general fun.


9They’re New To Warfare

Venice Balloon Bombs

Photo credit: Prof. Jurij Drushnin via Monash University

UAVs aren’t new to warfare, but it might surprise you to learn that they were first used in the 19th century! Austrian forces attacking Italy in 1849 approached the city of Venice armed with 200 balloons. These balloons were armed with bombs controlled by timed fuses. They weren’t entirely successful, as many of them were blown by the wind back over the Austrian lines before they exploded, but several did explode over their targets. This is the first instance of pilotless aircraft being used in warfare.

Since that time, remotely operated aircraft have been developed and used throughout warfare. Until GPS became a widespread technology, allowing for satellite-controlled aircraft anywhere in the world, most were operated remotely via radio. This included radio-guided bombs among other types of weapon systems.

8They Require Few People To Operate Them

Reaper Maintenance

Photo credit: US Air Force

One of the biggest downsides to manned aircraft is the total number of people required to operate them. You have pilots, copilots, and onboard crew, depending on the type of vehicle. You also have the people required to fuel the vehicle, move it, maintain and repair it, and even store it when not in use.

UAVs are no different. In fact, they require more people to operate them than most manned vehicles. In addition to the people needed to maintain the aircraft and fly it, there are operators for each of the sensors and cameras onboard. To compare, an F-16 requires approximately 100 people for it to operate, while a Predator requires 168 and a Reaper requires 180.


7They Rarely Crash And Require Minimal Upkeep

Crashed UAV

Photo credit: US Air Force via The Washington Post

Upkeep of any military aircraft is expensive, and UAVs are no different in this regard. One major problem UAVs have is that they tend to crash . . . a lot. This is certainly preferable to losing a manned aircraft, since that requires a search and rescue operation to recover the pilot(s), while a crashed UAV doesn’t. Of course, the military isn’t generally satisfied with letting their technology fall into their enemy’s hands, so a crashed UAV often still requires a mission to recover or destroy the downed vehicle.

UAV crashes have been on the rise since 2004, possibly due to the increase in operational hours and an overtaxing of the available systems being used in Afghanistan and Iraq. In 2004, there were only nine crashes, while the number jumped to 26 in 2012. Very few crashes are the result of hostile action against the vehicle and most drop out of the sky for unknown (or unreleased) reasons.

6Jamming Their Communications Will Bring Them Down

Most UAVs use a satellite uplink, which is very difficult to jam. The waves are a very narrow beam pointing up toward the satellites, so jamming them from the ground is very difficult, though not impossible. If a drone’s communication is jammed, it switches to autopilot until it can regain communications with its host.

Commercial drones are much easier to jam, since they tend to work via radio communications, so an increase of energy on their operating frequency tends to take them out. When it comes to military UAVs, jamming is much less common.

Communications jamming is a dangerous enterprise due to the high amount of power needed to operate the equipment. There are several products and DIY projects people can find on the Internet to build “jamming rifles” if they feel that they need or want to jam a commercial drone, though we do not advise doing this.

5They Can Only Remain Airborne For A Short Period Of Time

Predator UAV Flight

This misconception might be due to the comparatively short-duration flights that commercial drones are capable of maintaining. Most commercial quadcopters can remain airborne for 15 minutes, with very few topping at twice that time. The main reason for this is simply energy storage and consumption. Most commercial drones are small and powered via an onboard battery. Almost all UAVs, however, carry fuel like any aircraft. Because of this, they can remain airborne and operational for much longer than their commercial counterparts.

The Predator, which is one of the most utilized UAVs in combat, has a flight time of approximately 27 hours, with a future upgrade with a cap of 40 hours projected to hit the battlefield in 2018. Another recently designed aircraft called the Global Observer Stratospheric Persistent UAS is able to fly for a period of 168 hours due to its high operating altitude of 20,000 meters (65,000 ft) and its use of liquid hydrogen for fuel.


4Anyone Can Operate A Drone (Like A Video Game)

UAV Piloting

While it might be true that a good video game player could make a good UAV operator, that doesn’t necessarily work in reverse. Most UAV pilots would resent this notion, and many have gone on record detailing how it is not at all like a video game. Most UAVs in operation in the military are as complicated to fly as any other aircraft and require a highly trained and skilled pilot to fly them. While some games can duplicate this to some degree, very few people who are good at playing Microsoft Flight Simulator can sit in a cockpit for eight hours without a break.

Another comparison that separates the two is that a UAV pilot may be called on to attack and destroy a target, which might very well be a living, breathing person. No video game can approximate what a person has to go through to accomplish that mission.

3They Have ‘Kill Lists’

Predator Sensor

Photo credit: Michael Pereckas

The primary mission for nearly all UAVs is reconnaissance and force protection. When in operation, they essentially amount to “eyes in the sky” and are used to ensure the safety of personnel operating on the ground. That isn’t to say that drones aren’t armed and used to engage targets; they do, but that’s not their primary mission. As such, they do not operate with “kill lists” naming targets that are to be engaged if found.

In order for a UAV to fire on any target, it first has to be identified and vetted, and then a decision is made by the ground commander whether or not to fire. Unfortunately, mistakes can be made as with piloted aircraft, and civilian targets have been engaged by mistake. This has led many to believe that UAVs have “kill lists” that allow them to engage a target whenever identified, regardless of the situation.

The military does maintain lists of High-Value Targets, but these are not loaded onto aircraft and seen as targets of opportunity. Rather, the lists drive mission planning in operational pursuit of a target, which may or may not involve a UAV.

2They’re Autonomous

Predator Pilots

As detailed above, almost all UAVs require highly skilled operators to pilot and utilize their various systems. Because of this, they cannot be considered autonomous, though some flight operations are handled by computers much like autopilot operations on a commercial aircraft.

While it can be said that the military does not operate autonomous killing robots as many may believe, that isn’t to say that they aren’t developing exactly that for future operations. Currently, the US Navy and Army areresearching autonomous drones due to a lack of pilots, and DARPA has commissioned a study to try to develop packs of six aircraft that would “Collaborate to find, track, identify, and engage targets.” Perhaps Sarah Connor was right . . .

1They’re All Armed And Designed To Kill

Pioneer UAV

Most UAVs operated by the US Military, which has more than 7,000, are designed and used for some form of aerial reconnaissance or surveillance. The Predator was designed for this and wasn’t armed until well into the conflict with Iraq. Fleets of smaller aircraft have never been and likely will never be armed due to their size and other uses.

While this remains a common misconception today, the future is less certain. Most countries are developing UAVs specifically for combat roles. In 2013, Boeing was able to retrofit an F-16, which normally requires two people to operate, to fly completely unmanned. Removing personnel from the cockpit allows the vehicle to achieve up to 9Gs, which would be incredibly dangerous for a person.

Beyond this, UAV helicopters with mounted miniguns have been in development as well as stealth aircraft and all sorts of weapon systems. The future of UAV warfare seems to be leaning toward making this misconception a reality.

10 Horrifying Future Wars We Will Live To See

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10 Horrifying Future Wars We Will Live To See


War is one of humanity’s constants. No matter how enlightened we become or how much our technology changes, we’ll still spend our time killing one another. As such, it is inevitable that today’s younger generation will experience war. The only question is when.

These 10 examples of war could well blow up within the next few years. Some are regional, some are global. Some are small, some are big. The only constant is how horrifying these conflicts could potentially be.

Featured image credit: Socio-Economics History Blog

10The China-Russo Siberian War


Photo credit: The New York Times

One superpower in its twilight years. One new upstart ready to take on the world. At the moment, China and Russia are the big beasts east of the Ural Mountains. Both have vast armies. Both are nuclear-armed. Both are expansionist. And both have a claim on Siberia.

A sparsely populated, resource-rich sweep of land bigger than Canada, Siberia has long been in China’s sights. Recently, the Middle Kingdom caused outrage in Russia by trying to buy up tracts of Siberian land. Beijing considers itself to have a historic claim to at least the eastern part of Siberia, and many ethnic Chinese are settling over the Russian border. For the Kremlin, this spells trouble.

A China-Russo war over Siberia would be devastating and have only two possible outcomes. Either the Chinese army would decimate Russia or Moscow would unleash nuclear war. Either way, the death toll would be catastrophic.


9The War For The Baltics


After Putin’s annexation of Crimea, Europe has been jumpy about the possibility of war with Russia. According to the former deputy NATO commander, Sir Alexander Richard Shirreff, it’s a virtual certainty.

Shirreff points to Russia’s fear of encirclement by NATO as the spark that will ignite the region’s tensions. As early as May 2017, the decorated British general expects Moscow to drive a land corridor through Ukraine, connecting the Crimea to Russia, and then invade one or more of the Baltic states. Since Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are all NATO members, this could result in aninsane Western war with Russia.

The initial battle for the Baltics alone could kill tens of thousands. Chillingly, Shirreff believes Russia would threaten to launch nukes if NATO tried to intervene, threatening millions of lives.

8The North Korean Spring


This summer, a high-ranking North Korean diplomat in London defected to South Korea. It was just the latest in a string of incidents that point to the imminent collapse of the Kim Jong Un regime.

Kim has alienated powerful allies such as China. He’s no longer able to keep his elite in luxury. Cheap smartphone technology has allowed his people to see life on the outside for the first time. Meanwhile, the country is preparing for shortages that could make the 1994 famine look like a stroll in the park.

The result could be a revolution unlike anything the DPRK has seen. People could take to the streets, the army could split into warring factions, and all hell could be unleashed. The last time a communist dictatorship imploded violently was in Romania, where a popular revolt killed over 1,100 in less than 10 days. Deposing Kim could be even bloodier.


7Europe’s Urban Guerrilla War With ISIS


Faced with air strikes, economic turmoil, and advancing armies, ISIS is on the verge of collapse. Don’t expect them to go quietly, though. When their actual state collapses, chances are the jihadists will take the fight directly to Europe.

Returning fighters could devastate the Continent with a low-intensity yet deadly urban guerrilla war. Europe’s great cities would become charnel houses. You’d see frequent gun and bomb attacks on civilians and pitched battles between police and gun-toting jihadists in the streets.

France and Belgium would be the main targets, followed by Germany and the UK. No city would be safe. Politicians would be paralyzed. There would be bloodshed and mayhem. And this grim urban war would grind on until every last ISIS stooge was dead.

6Venezuela’s Civil War


Photo credit: The Daily Beast

The streets of Caracas are lawless. Staple items are impossible to buy. Inflation is over 500 percent and could hit 1,600 percent. There are protests, violence, rampant corruption, police brutality, and a paranoid government that refuses to read the writing on the wall.

The potential end result of this anarchy? Civil war.

With Maduro unwilling to step aside, the hungry, embattled residents of Venezuela could well take up arms. Mass defections from the police and military are possible. Neighboring right-wing governments may stick their oar in, as might left-wing groups like Colombia’s ELN. Such a toxic mix could quickly spiral into utter chaos.

Even foregoing a full-on war, a coup might be Venezuela’s best-case scenario. If Latin American history is anything to go by, such a move would likely lead to repression and bloodshed on a horrifying scale.

5China’s Second Cultural Revolution


The Cultural Revolution under Chairman Mao was eye-wateringly brutal. Approximately 1.5 million people died. Millions more were tortured and mutilated. Massive corruption, popular discontent, and a sense of betrayal boiled over into a killing spree. Fast-forward to 2016, and all those ingredients are back in place for a blood-soaked reprise.

China has a long history of peasant rebellions. Mao himself was brought to power in one which killed eight million. A few decades earlier, the Boxer Rebellion led to more than 100,000 deaths. A few decades before that, the Taiping Rebellion killed 20–30 million and possibly as many as 70 million.

In historical context, a new Cultural Revolution isn’t implausible. China is already wracked with 500 protests every day. Every year, around 100,000 riots break out. Leaders are corrupt. The young talk of a new uprising. If the next financial crisis devastates their living standards, we could see another orgy of cataclysmic bloodletting.


4Bosnia Mark II


Photo credit: ICTY

In the 1990s, the world watched in horror as Bosnia disintegrated. Around 100,000 died as civilians were ethnically cleansed from their homelands. The 1995 Dayton Accords stopped the bloodshed by creating two “states within a state”: Bosnia and Herzegovina for the Bosniaks and Croats, Republika Srpska for the Serbs.

The trouble is the new state was inherently unstable. Divided along ethnic lines, it created a world of increasing tensions, bitter grievances, and desire for vengeance. Today, everyone is poor. Youth unemployment is over 60 percent, the highest on Earth. The Serbs and Croats still want to split off. The Bosniaks still want to hold their state together.

The leader of Republika Srpska recently chucked a flaming match into this powder keg. Ethnic Serbs will hold a referendum on whether to secede from Bosnia. The result of a probable “yes” vote? An unwanted sequel to Bosnia’s horrifying civil war.

3The Saudi Arabian Revolution


Saudi Arabia got off lightly in the Arab Spring. As dictators fell in Tunisia and Egypt, as Syria burned and Libya imploded, Saudi Arabia’s royals managed to cling to power.

Or did they? According to the US-based Washington Institute, conditions in Saudi Arabia are now similar to those preceding the Egyptian revolution. The nation is ready to explode.

The oil price crash has brought the high-spending kingdom to the brink of bankruptcy. Youth unemployment is out of control in a country that’s predominantly young. The anger of educated twentysomethings is overflowing. The House of Saud is pushing through unpopular privatizations, just as Mubarak did. The minority Shia population is rioting. ISIS is attacking. The war in Yemen is going badly.

It’s easy to imagine a revolution springing from this discontent. If it does, it could be another Egypt, another Libya, or another Syria. Only time will tell.

2The Indo-Pak Nuclear War


Photo credit:

In winter 2008, the world nearly ended.

That year, a standoff between Pakistan and India over state-sponsored terrorism nearly escalated into nuclear war. In the end, urgent global diplomacy cooled things down. But the two countries have been here before and will reach this point again. If things go differently next time, we could see the end of the world.

An Indo-Pak nuclear war would see Delhi, Mumbai, Karachi, and Islamabad go up in flames. Tens of millions would perish in an inferno. The nuclear winter would destroy crops across Asia, leading to mass famines. An estimated two billion people could die.

So what could trigger such a terrifying conflict? The disputed region of Kashmir, unstable Pakistan becoming a failed state, or Pakistan-linked terror attacks on India. In short, there are too many potential triggers for comfort.

1The South China Sea/World War III


Photo credit: CNN

The only thing scarier than Pakistan and India going toe to toe would be China and the US doing the same. Especially if it was in a conflict that pulled in countries like the Philippines, South Korea, Japan, and more.

Welcome to the South China Sea, the region most likely to trigger World War III.

For the past few years, China has been aggressively expanding in the sea. It has done so at the expense of smaller countries that the US just happens to be allied with. The US has responded with warnings. China has returned with threats. Neither side is backing down.

If this does escalate into a war, all bets are off. The whole world would get involved, and millions would die. It’d be like World War II on steroids—the deadliest conflict in human history.

10 Bizarre Antique Prostheses

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10 Bizarre Antique Prostheses



The earliest prostheses were crude. Whether peg legs or hand hooks, they helped the men and women who wore them to perform the everyday tasks associated with their vocations. Over the thousands of years since prostheses first appeared, many improvements have been made regarding their materials and design. This may make the 10 antique body parts in our list seem even more bizarre than they might appear otherwise.



Photo credit: Payvand

Shahr-e Sukhteh, a Bronze Age settlement in southeastern Iran, yielded a lightweight, 2.5-centimeter (1 in) prosthetic eyeball made of bitumen paste over which was laid a thin layer of gold. Hemispherical, it bore a hole through each side, which enabled it to be secured to the eye orbit with gold wire.

The center of the eyeball was “engraved” with an iris and the golden rays of the Sun. The remains with which the prosthetic eye was found date from 2900 to 2800 BC. At a height of 1.8 meters (6 ft), the unusually tall woman was likely to have been of royal or noble blood.

In the fifth century BC, Egyptian priests also fashioned early prosthetic eyes known as ectblepharons. Constructed of painted clay or enameled metal that was attached to cloth, these prostheses were worn outside the socket.




Photo credit: NBC News

Archaeologists have unearthed two prosthetic toes. One, known as the Greville Chester toe, dates to 600 BC and is displayed in the British Museum. Made of cartonnage (ancient papier-mache) mixed with linen, “animal glue, [and] tinted plaster,” the big toe assisted its wearer in walking.

An older prosthetic big toe, the Cairo toe, found near Luxor, Egypt, and currently exhibited in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, dates from 950 to 710 BC. Made of wood and leather, the prosthesis is shaped somewhat like a gaiter but covers only the instep. Research shows that its use with sandals provided the wearer with 60–87 percent “of the flexion of the intact left toe.”



Photo credit: Chinese Archaeology via Live Science

Discovered in 2016 in a grave in Turpan, China, the 2,200-year-old remains of a 50- to 65-year-old Gushi man 170 centimeters (5’7″) tall included his prosthetic leg. Made of poplar, the leg features holes along two sides that allowed the prosthesis to be secured to the deformed leg with leather straps.

He was fitted with the artificial limb, which was equipped with a horse’s hoofrather than a foot. His kneecap, thighbone, and tibia had fused together at an 80-degree angle, possibly because of joint inflammation, rheumatism, or trauma. However, it is likely that tuberculosis caused the deformity when a “bony growth” fused the joint.

An older prosthetic limb, dating to 300 BC, was found in 1858 in Capua, Italy. The leg was made of bronze and iron surrounding a wooden core, but it was destroyed in 1941 “during an air raid on London.”


7Lip And Palate


Photo credit:

It appears that the famous Greek orator Demosthenes (384–322 BC) “may have used pebbles to obturate [fill in] a congenital cleft lip and palate.” Since then, other obturators have been designed for a variety of uses. In the mid-18th century, such a device “was inserted into the palatal defect [followed by a] pair of mechanical wings [that] were made to contact the superior surface of the palate through a turnkey mechanism operated by the patient.”

The late 18th century introduced obturators similar to those used today. One such device was inflated with water to fill the maxillary defect. In 1893, President Grover Cleveland (1837–1908) was fitted with “a vulcanite obturator to close a defect resulting from surgical resection of a malignant maxillary tumor.”



Photo credit:

Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79) wrote of a prosthetic right arm made for a general so that he could hold his shield in battle during the Second Punic War (218–200 BC). However, it wasn’t until the early 1500s that the art of making artificial arms began to reflect details such as the “nail beds and knuckles of [the] hand.” This was the case when an artificial arm of iron was fashioned for 24-year-old Gottfried von Berlichingen (1480–1562), who lost his arm to a cannonball in the siege of Landshut in 1504.

Gottfried’s artificial arm was secured by leather straps fixed to the end. Articulated fingers could move and spread apart. The hand could close in a fist. Although the limb must have been heavy, the increased mobility of its joints was an improvement over earlier prosthetic arms.



Photo credit:

The 1,600-year-old skull of a 30- to 45-year-old, upper-class woman found in Teotihuacan (50 kilometers (30 mi) north of Mexico City) shows prosthetic dental work. Her upper front teeth are surfaced with “two round pyrite stones” indicative of the Mayan regions of southern Mexico and Central America. This shows that she was a foreigner rather than a Mexican native. Her lower jaw also sports an artificial tooth made of serpentine.




Photo credit:

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus (484–425 BC) wrote of one of the world’s first prosthetic feet. Sentenced to death, a “Persian seer” escaped by cutting off his own foot and replacing it with “a wooden filler” that allowed him to walk 50 kilometers (30 mi) to the next town.

Usually, prosthetic feet were included as parts of artificial legs, largely because amputations were too crude to allow the replacement of only a foot. In 1843, this situation changed. Sir James Syme (1799–1870) “discovered a new method of ankle amputation that did not involve amputation at the thigh.” As a result, an amputee required only a prosthetic foot, rather than an artificial leg, to recover the ability to walk.



Photo credit: My Armoury

Several bizarre antique prosthetic hands of various designs were made in medieval and early modern times. In about 1580, a German prosthetic hand made of iron featured distinct fingernails and wrinkles over its knuckles. It fit like a glove over a metal framework that slipped over the forearm.

In the latter half of the 19th century, artificial Victorian hands were made of metal. They were relatively flat and decorative, but the joints of the thumbs and fingers were articulated so they could be moved. In at least one prosthetic hand, the wrist could be moved up and down to some extent.

Often, the hands attached to an armature which was connected to a sort of sleeve that slid over the arm or the remaining stub. The hand of a 16-year-old girl was made of “wood, leather, and textile” and was equipped with wooden joints that allowed the fingers to curl or extend.



Photo credit: Science Museum London

A brass nose attached to a pair of eyeglasses mounted to a metal loop that fit over the top of the head was a prosthesis for a mid-19th century syphilitic woman who lost her nose to the ravages of the disease.

A little over 300 years earlier, Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), the Dutch astronomer, lost his nose in a duel in 1566. As a result, he “wore a brass prosthesis” for the remainder of his days. Although it was noticeable up close, it covered a gap in the bridge of his nose.

1Face (1916)


Photo credit: Smithsonian Magazine

Prosthetic faces appeared after World War I when artists and sculptors working for the 3rd London General Hospital’s Masks for Facial Disfigurement Department “designed lifelike masks” for soldiers disfigured or otherwise “gravely wounded” in combat.

Program founder Francis Derwent Wood (1871–1926) used his artistic ability to create lightweight masks that bore customized prewar portraits of the wounded soldiers. Although they had aesthetic value, the prosthetic masks also benefited the men psychologically by restoring their self-reliance, self-respect, confidence, and pride in their appearance.

10 Shocking Events From The Missouri Mormon War

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10 Shocking Events From The Missouri Mormon War


Today, Mormonism is one of the most widely accepted religions in the US. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints live freely and happily among their neighbors, sharing smiles and goodwill with everyone they see.

In 1838, however, the state of Missouri entered into a full-scale war against the Mormons. People were slaughtered. Whole villages were razed. It’s the last thing you’d ever imagine to be part of the history of those nice men who go door-to-door in white shirts.

10Joseph Smith Was Tarred, Feathered, And Nearly Castrated


Photo credit:

Before Missouri, Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, lived in Ohio. The story starts with him getting chased out of the state in 1832. Smith and his family were living in the home of a man named John Johnson, enjoying all the hospitality his family had to offer.

Apparently, Smith thought that Johnson’s 16-year-old daughter was part of that hospitality because he enjoyed her, too. Smith allegedly had an affair with the young girl, and when word got out, the town was furious.

The town organized a mob that broke into Smith’s room, stripped off his clothes, beat him, and tarred and feathered him. Johnson’s son, Eli, was in the mob and wanted to castrate Joseph Smith. But a doctor in the crowd managed to calm them down before they went that far.


9The Mormon Church Threatened To Murder Members Who Dissented


Photo credit: Wikia

The Mormon Church once had its own bank. Technically, they weren’t allowed to get a bank charter, but they found a loophole that made it work. They set up an “anti-banking company”—a company that did everything a bank did except call itself a bank.

The problem was that nobody there really knew how to run a bank. Documentation wasn’t filed properly, and the bank tried to apply far more resources than it had. Members of the church who had invested in it starting going broke. Soon, Smith was hit with 17 lawsuits and members started storming out.

The church didn’t take it well. They purged the church members who complained, forcing them to leave the county—or pay the price. In one letter, called the “Danite Manifesto,” the church threatened members who did not leave the county within three days with a “more fatal calamity [that] shall befall” them. This threat was typically understood to mean that they would be killed.

8Mormons And Missourians Beat Each Other To Death With Logs


Photo credit: Mormonite Musings

The dissenters left, but they weren’t happy about it. They went to neighboring towns, complaining that their property had been stolen by the Mormons and that they had been cast out of their homes—all of which got the people of Missouri worried. The Mormon population was getting big enough that they had political power, and this seemed like proof that they were dangerous.

The first real violence came on election day in the town of Gallatin. When Mormons came out to vote, the populace got worried. One person called out that Mormons shouldn’t be allowed to vote. Soon, the town erupted into a fistfight.

It got worse. A group of Mormons found a stack of logs, picked them up, and started beating people to death. The Missourians fled, but they swore that they would kill every Mormon in the county before the week ended.


7A Missouri Mob Tried To Starve A Town Of Mormons Out


Photo credit:

At first, the government just tried to keep the peace. In some places, it even worked. The Missouri government was able to convince an anti-Mormon vigilante group in Daviess to stand down and try to make peace with the Mormons there.

It didn’t work everywhere, though. Another Missouri mob set up a siege on a Mormon town called DeWitt, blocking all food from getting into the town in hopes of starving the Mormons out. The state sent a man to calm the mob down, but the mob scared him so much that he didn’t even try to get them to leave.

With nobody stopping it, the siege worked. The Mormons surrendered the town and fled to an outpost called Far West.

6A Mormon Army Burned Two Towns To The Ground


Photo credit:

The Mormons didn’t take losing DeWitt lying down. The next day, 100 Mormons marched back into the town of Gallatin and told the people to leave. First, they robbed the stores, and then they set the town on fire. Another group went on to Millport, where they again looted the buildings. Then they burned down 12 businesses and a number of farms.

The Mormon army intended to keep their warpath going, too. They announced plans to burn down the towns of Elkhorn and Buncombe as well.

At this point, though, the government had to get more involved. A Missouri militia moved in, blocking the path to the towns in a place called Crooked River Valley, intent on stopping the Mormon army from doing any further damage.

5Mormons Ambushed A US Militia


The Mormon army, called the Danites, didn’t let the Missouri militia stop them. The Danites organized a party and ambushed the militia at Crooked River. The Danites sneaked out of the woods, fired volleys of gunfire at the militia, and then charged them with knives.

The militia was caught off guard. They panicked, and most of the troops fled before they were given the command. The few that stayed behind to fight were drastically outnumbered and didn’t have a chance. Soon, they also fled, leaving their supplies behind.

Four men died in the battle, three of whom were Mormons. However, the Mormons did manage to steal the army’s horses and supplies. The most important change, though, was that the Mormons weren’t just fighting mobs anymore. They had attacked members of the US National Guard.


4The Missouri Governor Issued An Order To Exterminate All Mormons


Photo credit: Lilburn Boggs, Wikimedia

The Battle at Crooked River changed things. Peacekeeping was over. Now it was war.

Lilburn Boggs, the governor of Missouri, issued an order called “Executive Order 44,” which labeled all Mormons as “enemy combatants.” All Mormons were to leave, “peaceable if we can, forcibly if we must.”

After the order was issued, it became legal to murder a Mormon. In the writing, it was even encouraged. Governor Boggs included a caveat that the Mormons could be simply driven out of state but only if it was “necessary for the public peace.”

Executive Order 44 and the legal right to murder a Mormon wasn’t taken out of the Missouri law books until 1976.

3A Missouri Militia Slaughtered A Mormon Town


Photo credit: BYU

The order had a major impact within three days. A Missouri militia moved on a town called Haun’s Mill, acting on a tip that the Mormon’s Danite army was planning an assault from there.

There’s no proof that they were. Even government sources suggested that the town was full of nothing but innocent civilians. The militia charged in anyway, slaughtering as many as they could. Nineteen Mormon civilians were killed, and almost every person in the village was at least injured.

Another militia laid siege on a Mormon outpost called Far West. At first, the Mormons tried to resist it. But after learning about Haun’s Mill, they gave up. The Mormons left Missouri. Joseph Smith, along with most of the religion’s major leaders, was arrested for treason, murder, and arson.

2Joseph Smith Staged A Jailbreak


Smith and the major leaders of the church were sent to Liberty Jail, awaiting trial for a list of crimes that would have guaranteed their execution. They never spent a day in court, however, because they broke out of jail.

On April 16, 1839, the prisoners were moved to another county. En route, the guards and the sheriff found their way into the whiskey, got too drunk, and passed out. Smith and his friends seized on the opportunity. The five men in chains stole two horses and rode off into the night.

1Mormons Vowed An Oath Of Vengeance Against The US


Photo credit: G.W. Fasel

Things didn’t get much more peaceful for the Mormons after they left Missouri. Treason charges continued to hound them. In 1844, Joseph Smith agreed to go to trial in Carthage under a promise of protection from the governor of Illinois. Once there, he was attacked and killed by a mob of over 100 men.

After Smith’s death, his successor, Brigham Young, introduced an oath that required all Mormons to swear vengeance upon the United States.

They did it, too. Mormons went on to fight two more wars against the US, and members of the religion continued to pray that God would “avenge the blood of the prophets upon this nation” for the next 82 years.