A woman in New York City who was infected with Zika passed the virus to her male partner during sex, marking the first report of female-to-male sexual transmission of this virus.
Previously, all reports of sexual transmission of the Zika virushave been cases of men passing it to their sexual partners, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The new report “adds to the growing body of knowledge about the sexual transmission of Zika,” the CDC said. “Ongoing surveillance is needed to determine the risk for transmission of Zika virus infection from a female to her sexual partners,” the report said. [Zika Virus News: Complete Coverage of the 2016 Outbreak]
The woman, who is in her 20s and is not pregnant, had recently traveled to an area with ongoing Zika transmission, according to the report. (The Zika virus is currently spreading in many countries in Central and South America, as well as the Caribbean.)
The day the woman returned to New York City, she had sex with her male partner without using a condom. The next day, she had a fever, rash and joint pain, which are all symptoms of infection with Zika. The woman also started her period that day, and she reported it was heavier than usual.
She soon went to the doctor, and a test detected the Zika virus in her blood and urine samples.
Six days after having sex, the woman’s partner also developed symptoms of Zika, and he went to the same doctor that the woman had seen. Tests showed that the man also had Zika, and the doctor suspected that the man may have contracted the infection during sex.
An interview with the man confirmed that he had not been exposed to Zika in any other way; he had not traveled to a country where Zika is spreading, he had not been bitten by a mosquito (which can spread the virus), and he did not have any other recent sexual partners, the report said. The Zika virus is not known to spread through casual contact with an infected person, such as touching or hugging.
“The timing and sequence of events support female-to-male Zika-virus transmission through condomless, vaginal intercourse,” the report said. Virus in either the vaginal fluids or menstrual blood could have infected the man during sex, the report said.
The CDC currently recommends that pregnant women either use condoms or abstain from sex if their partners have traveled to areas where Zika is spreading. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a birth defect called microcephaly, or an abnormally small head and brain.
People who are not pregnant but who want to reduce their risk of contracting Zika through sex should use condoms or abstain from sex, the CDC said. The agency also said it is updating its guidelines on preventing Zika transmission through sex.
Bleeding and Spotting During Pregnancy: Symptoms & Causes
By Cari Nierenberg, Live Science Contributor | July 15, 2016 08:14pm ET
When a woman sees blood on her underpants during pregnancy, it’s typically a frightening and worrisome sign. But not all bleeding is a sign of trouble.
Bleeding or spotting can happen at any point during a pregnancy, from the time the embryo is conceived to before a woman gives birth. Some causes of vaginal bleeding or spotting during pregnancy are serious, such as possibly indicating a miscarriage or a problem with the location of the placenta, while others are not.
Although vaginal bleeding is not that unusual a symptom, especially in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, it’s a symptom that a woman should not ignore and should notify her health care provider about immediately for guidance, said Dr. Haywood Brown, chief of obstetrics and gynecology at Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina.
“Bleeding in early pregnancy is fairly common and occurs in about 20 to 30 percent of pregnancies during the first trimester,” Brown said. “Some pregnancies in which bleeding occurs continue on to have normal outcomes,” he said.
Bleeding in the later stages of pregnancy is far less common, Brown told Live Science.
This article will describe the differences between bleeding and spotting during pregnancy, describe some possible causes and discuss what to do when bleeding occurs.
Spotting vs. bleeding
Spotting differs from bleeding both in terms of the amount of blood seen and its appearance.
Spotting during pregnancy is when a few drops of blood soil a woman’s underpants, Brown said. The blood flow is light and not enough to cover a panty liner.
Spotting may typically occur in the early first trimester of pregnancy, Brown said. It can be a sign of a “threatened miscarriage,” he said, which is why a woman should call her health care provider right away, who may then request an ultrasound to determine if the pregnancy is a viable one.
In comparison, bleeding during pregnancy involves a heavier flow of blood, so much that if a woman wasn’t wearing a panty liner or pad, the blood would soak her clothes.
Describing the bleeding
A pregnant woman should be able to tell a health care provider when her bleeding began, the color of the blood she observes, such as dark red or light brown, and how frequently she is bleeding. She may also be asked whether her blood flow is getting heavier or lighter, if she sees clots or clumps of tissue passed from the vagina, how frequently she needs to change sanitary pads during the bleeding and whether she had pain with bleeding, according to the March of Dimes.
Even if bleeding stops, a pregnant woman should still call her health care provider to understand why it occurred.
Advice for heavy bleeding
If bleeding is heavy or if bleeding is accompanied by pain or cramping, a pregnant woman should call her health care provider immediately or head to the nearest hospital emergency room for evaluation, according to the March of Dimes. They also recommend that a mother-to-be seek emergency medical attention right away if she is experiencing bleeding accompanied by dizziness or bleeding along with pain in the abdomen or pelvis.
Causes of bleeding during early pregnancy
Bleeding may occur during the first trimester for the following reasons:
Implantation bleeding. Some women get “implantation bleeding,” that occurs during the first four weeks after conception. This light bleeding may take place when the fertilized egg (embryo) attaches to the lining of the uterus and begins to grow, Brown said.
Having sex. When a woman is pregnant, bleeding of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus, may occur during sex, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
Infection. A vaginal infection as well as an infection of the cervix known as cervicitis can both cause spotting or bleeding, Brown said.
Ectopic pregnancy. Bleeding or spotting in early pregnancy could be a sign that the fertilized egg is not developing in the uterus and is growing somewhere else, most often in one of the fallopian tubes, which is referred to as an ectopic pregnancy or a tubal pregnancy, Brown told Live Science.
A pregnancy outside the uterus is a medical emergency, Brown said. When bleeding occurs early in a pregnancy, a woman’s medical provider will attempt to rule out that an ectopic pregnancy is the cause by performing an ultrasound exam to see where the embryo is growing, he said. A blood test may also be given to check levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone that’s only present when a woman is pregnant. Levels of hCG may rise more slowly in an ectopic pregnancy than during a normal uterine pregnancy.
Miscarriage. Almost all women who experience a pregnancy loss have bleeding or spotting before the miscarriage, according to the March of Dimes.
Molar pregnancy. This rare condition, also called a hydatidiform mole, is when tissue that would normally develop into the placenta instead forms an abnormal growth or tumor in the uterus, according to the March of Dimes. A molar pregnancy may cause symptoms, such as seeing bright red or dark brown vaginal bleeding during the first trimester, severe nausea and vomiting and sometimes the passage of grape-like cysts through the vagina, suggests the Mayo Clinic. A woman who has these symptoms should call her health professional right away or go immediately to the hospital emergency room for a prompt evaluation.
Causes of bleeding during late pregnancy
Light bleeding in late pregnancy may result from an inflamed cervix or growths on the cervix, according to ACOG.
Hemorrhoids. As weight is gained during pregnancy, hemorrhoids, which are swollen veins in the rectum or anus can sometimes rupture and cause bleeding. But hemorrhoids would not cause vaginal bleeding. Instead, a pregnant woman might see blood in the toilet bowl after a bowel movement or on toilet paper after wiping.
Placental abruption. Heavier bleeding later in pregnancy, with blood flow comparable to a woman having her period, may indicate problems with the location of the placenta, Brown said. One common problem is a placental abruption, which is when the placenta becomes detached from the uterine wall and supplies the fetus with less oxygen. This is a serious condition that usually occurs in the third trimester, and it requires immediate medical attention.
Placental previa. Another problem that can result in vaginal bleeding is placenta previa, Brown said. This pregnancy complication is when the placenta lies too low in the uterus, and it partly or completely covers the opening to a woman’s cervix, he explained.
Preterm labor. If a pregnant woman experiences heavy bleeding at any point earlier than the 37th week of pregnancy, it may be caused by preterm labor, according to the Mayo Clinic. Besides heavy bleeding, other signs of preterm labor may include pressure in the lower abdomen or pelvis, backache, stomach cramps and regular contractions, according to ACOG. A woman with symptoms of preterm labor should call her health care practitioner immediately.
Bleeding during pregnancy can be evaluated by various tests as well as a pelvic examination. In addition to the possibility of pregnancy loss, an examination can help a health care provider rule out other potential causes of bleeding or spotting, such as infections, cervical trauma or cervical polyps(growths on the cervix that are usually not cancerous), Brown said.
One test given may be an ultrasound, a scan that uses sound waves to generate a black-and-white image of the developing fetus and placenta. Ultrasound can help doctors to detect a possible cause of a woman’s bleeding, such as a fertilized egg developing outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy), complications with the location of the placenta (placental abruption) or possible miscarriage, according to the March of Dimes.
Some women may receive a blood test to measure levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). A blood test may also check whether a woman needs treatment for Rh sensitization, a blood incompatibility between the mother and the fetus.
The treatment for bleeding during pregnancy will depend on its cause. Most of the time, treatment for bleeding or spotting is rest, according to the March of Dimes.
Methadone Mile is a stretch of Massachusetts Avenue where methadone clinics brush up against an open air drug market. This is where people come to get high and sober. Recovery, relapse, danger, grief, and hope all fill people’s daily lives. This year, Boston Globe photographer Keith Bedford and two Globe reporters spent time on Methadone Mile, gaining people’s trust and telling their stories. In Sunday’s Globe, learn more about who they met.
Kenny, who has been homeless off and on over the years, walked wrapped in a blanket on a stretch of Massachusetts Avenue nicknamed Methadone Mile. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
A man lit a cigarette while another put on a shirt as they left a homeless shelte frequented by drug users. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun (right) watched as his friend Chris injected heroin behind a house. After a night in the shelter both were feeling the symptoms of heroin withdrawal and felt the urge to get high. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
A homeless man held his prosthetic leg in his wheelchair on the corner of Mass. Ave. and Albany St. Fearing he could lose the prosthetic, he clutches it as he nods off. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun kissed his wife, Donna, in the parking lot of a mall near Mass. Ave. The two have been heroin users for several years and are working to kick their habits. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun stood on a corner near Methadone Mile. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Lexi sat under a highway overpass where she sleeps. Lexi, who had been an opioid user, has been homeless for nearly nine years. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Leonardo wore a Batman mask as he walked along the road. “I want to be able to work here,” he says. “I’m not asking for a free check; I’m not asking for SSI or any of that. I’m asking for a job and a place to live and to be part of society here.” (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Boston police and a security guard chased an alleged drug dealer on Mass. Ave. after he ran away while being questioned. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Boston police officers arrested the alleged drug dealer as a Longwood private security officer (right) watched. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
People slept wrapped in blankets on Melnea Cass Blvd. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shirley panhandles along a stretch of Methadone Mile. If there is more than one person in the same spot panhandling, members of the homeless community take turns walking along the rows of cars, asking for money. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Sherry, a homeless woman, stands on the corner of Mass. Ave. and Albany Street. The location is a place where people gather to buy or sell drugs. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Craig, who says he’s been homeless for 20 years, smoked a cigarette on the street. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Lexi reached out for her coffee one morning among her blankets. She had been out late the night before, panhandling until well past midnight. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Andrew cooled his head off in the sink at his mother’s Abington home as he deals with the effects of going a few days without heroin. Andrew has struggled with alcohol and drug addiction for several years and is trying to stay sober. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Andrew hugged his mother, Barbara, in the kitchen of her home in Abington. She regularly takes him in, feeds him, and gives him rides to work during his periods of sobriety. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun threw a used needle into a drain after shooting up heroin near Methadone Mile. He began using again after being kicked out of a methadone program. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Diane closed her eyes after talking about being abused on the streets. She said someone she shares a sleeping space with on Melnea Cass Boulevard stole her K2, synthetic marijuana. After spending an hour looking for it, she was resigned to the fact that it was gone for good. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
A man who calls himself Bodie, getting high on synthetic marijuana cigarettes. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
High on a series of drugs known as the cocktail, Lexi leaned on a shopping cart that she carries her belongings in. Lexi is a former heroin user now on methadone. The cocktail is a cheap combination of pills taken by methadone and Suboxone users to get high. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Chris hugged Diane after getting high on a synthetic marijuana cigarette in front of a gas station along Mass. Ave. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Lexi sits in the medianof a busy street as she takes a break from panhandling. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Dave sat on a corner of Mass. Ave. with a black eye he received after getting in an altercation with a security guard in Boston. Dave, who is homeless, says he uses various drugs. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
A discarded sign sat on the ground near a stretch of Mass. Ave. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun changed his shirt as he waited to board a van that takes homeless men to a shelter. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Barbara, Andrew’s mother, watched her son from the dining room of their home in Abington. She has struggled for years with Andrew’s off-and-on drug use. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Andrew sat with his girlfriend, Briana, after getting high on marijuana at Ames Nowell State Park in Abington. The two have struggled with alcohol and drug addiction for several years after meeting at a rehab program in Florida. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun and his wife, Donna, looked for warm-weather clothing in their storage unit. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun holds a needle in his teeth before shooting up heroin. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Robert Morgan handed out clothes, food, and toiletries to members of the homeless community in the area. Morgan and his wife live nearby and try to hand out donations twice a week. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun counts the change he made panhandling. He says many homeless people discard pennies, but he saves them until he has enough to bring to a Coinstar machine. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Mark, an opioid user, has been homeless for eight years. He said the first time he tried panhandling, “the lady locked the door. I was so humiliated I walked away. I said, ‘I can’t do this.’ People said, ‘Listen, it’s going to happen..’” Minutes later, a motorist gave him $5. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
People sleep along a fence on Melnea Cass Boulevard, near Mass. Ave. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
A security officer encouraged people to move along from in front of the Cumberland Farms store on Mass. Ave.. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Lexi put her hands in her jacket sleeves as she smoked a cigarette under the highway overpass where she sleeps. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Shaun hugged his wife, Donna, as she headed for a job interview. Donna has since been in recovery and living in a halfway house. Shaun is still living on the streets and has been in and out of detox. (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
Terrance, who calls himself Delicious, cried as he talked about his time living on the streets. “All I could ask for was to be loved, and I could never get it. The hardest thing you can do in this world is to live in it.” (Keith Bedford/Globe Staff)
At least 84 are dead and hundreds are wounded after a man drove a large truck into the crowd on the famous Promenade des Anglais celebrating Bastille Day in Nice, France. All around the world, people are expressing sadness and solidarity with France over the deadly attack. Editor’s note: some photos contain graphic content.–By Leanne Burden Seidel
A man walks through debris scatterd on the street the day after a truck ran into a crowd at high speed killing scores celebrating the Bastille Day July 14 national holiday on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, July 15. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
Bodies of victims are covered by sheets at the scene of a truck attack in Nice, France, July 15. (Luca Bruno/Associated Press)
French Republican guards place the French flag at half-staff at the Elysee presidential Palace, in Paris, on July 15 as the French government announced three days of national mourning after the attack in Nice. (Christophe Petit Tesson/AFP/Getty Images)
A man reacts near bouquets of flowers near the scene where a truck ran into a crowd at high speed killing scores and injuring more who were celebrating the Bastille Day national holiday, in Nice, France, July 15. (Pascal Rossignol/Reuters)
Police researchers inspect the scene where a truck crashed into the crowd during the Bastille Day celebrations in Nice, France, July 15. (Alberto Estevez/EPA)
A woman cries asking for her son as she walk near the scene of an attack after a truck drove onto the sidewalk and plowed through a crowd of revelers who’d gathered to watch the fireworks in the French resort city of Nice, southern France, July 15. (Luca Bruno/Associated Press)
French police secure the area as the investigation continues at the scene near the heavy truck that ran into a crowd who were celebrating Bastille Day July 14 national holiday on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, July 15. (Eric Gaillard/Reuters)
Relatives of victims of the Bastille Day attack confort each other as they gather in front of Pasteur Hospital in Nice, France, July 15. (Claude Paris/Associated Press)
Items lay on the pavement after a truck mowed through revelers in Nice, France July 15. (Francois Mori/Associated Press)
School children offer prayers to pay tribute to the victims of the Bastille Day truck attack in Nice, at a school in Ahmedabad, India, July 15. (Amit Dave/Reuters)
A woman reacts as she places flowers in front of the memorial set on the ‘Promenade des Anglais’ where the truck crashed into the crowd during the Bastille Day celebrations in Nice, July 15. (Ian Landsdon/EPA)
The French flag waves at half-mast on the roof of the French Embassy in Berlin, Germany, July 15. (Soeren Stache/EPA)
Crime scene investigators work on the Promenade des Anglais after a truck crashed into the crowd during the Bastille Day celebrations in Nice, July 15. (Oliver Anrigo/EPA)
A woman signs a condolences book in tribute to the victims of the Nice attack in front of the French embassy in Bucharest, Romania, July 15. (Bogdan Cristel/EPA)
People attend an event to commemorate the victims of an attack in Nice near the French embassy in Berlin, Germany, July 15. (Markus Schreiber/Associated Press)
A man sits near a French flag along the beachfront on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, July 15. (Eric Gaillard/Reuters)
A forensic police woman walks at the scene of an attack after a truck plowed through a crowd in Nice, France, July 15. (Luca Bruno/Associated Press)
The French Tricolour (L) flag flies next to the Australian national flag on top of the Sydney Harbour bridge in Sydney on July 15. The French Tricolour was hoisted on July 15 in solidarity with the French people after the attack in Nice. (Peter Parks/AFP/Getty Images)
People attend a vigil in Prague, Czech Republic to honor victims of the Bastille Day tragedy in Nice, France, July 15. (Vit Simanek/CTK via AP)
French judicial investigating police conduct a search inside a truck, the day after a heavy a truck ran into a crowd on Bastille Day in Nice, France, July 15. (Jean-Pierre Amet/Reuters)
Warren Snaider wears a French flag to honor the victims of the Nice truck attack as he walks through the Palisades neighborhood in Washington, DC, July 15. (Jim Lo Scalzo/EPA)
French fans show “Pray for Nice” banners to honor victims of the Bastille Day attack in Nice prior to the tennis Davis Cup quarterfinal match between Czech Republic and France in Trinec, Czech Republic, on July 15. (Petr Sznapka/CTK via Associated Press)
A child’s stuffed toy with the message, “Thoughts to All the Victims” is seen as people pay tribute near the scene in Nice, France, July 15. (Pascal Rossignol/Reuters)
A sign expressing solidarity with Nice sits atop a London taxi in a street in London on July 15. (Daniel Leal-Olivas/AFP/Getty Images)
A member of the French community holds up a candle and a national flag during a vigil in Sydney on July 15. (Peter Parks/)
Bullet impacts are seen on the heavy truck the day after it ran into a crowd at high speed killing scores on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, July 15. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
Discarded items are left on the beach, not far from the site of the truck attack in the French resort city of Nice, July 15. (Luca Bruno/Associated Press)
Mexican Senate building (R) is illuminated with the colors of the French national flag in solidarity following the deadly attack in Nice, France. (Yuri Cortez/AFP/Getty Images)
French police forces and forensic officers stand next to a truck July 15 that ran into a crowd celebrating the Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice,France, July 14. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
A body is seen on the ground July 15 after at least 84 people were killed in Nice, France, when a truck ran into a crowd celebrating the Bastille Day national holiday July 14. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
Emergency teams assist wounded people as they evacuate from the scene in Nice, France, July 14.. (OLIVIER ANRIGO Oliver Anrigo/EPA)
Bodies are seen on the ground July 15, after at least 80 people were killed by the truck in Nice, France. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
A body lies on the ground after a truck drove into a crowd watching a fireworks in Nice. (Valery Hache/AFP/Getty Images)
People cross the street with their hands on thier heads as a French soldier secures the area July 15, after at least 84 people were killed along the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France. (Jean-Pierre Amet/Reuters)
A man sits next to a body on the ground July 15. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
Rescue workers help injured people to get in an ambulance on July 15 after the attack in the French Riviera town of Nice. (Valery Hache/AFP/Getty Images)
An injured individual is seen on the ground after at least 84 people were killed in Nice, France, July 14. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
A man holds a child after a truck plowed through Bastille Day revelers in the French resort city of Nice, France, July 14. (Sasha Goldsmith/Associated Press)
Bodies are seen on the ground July 15 after at least 84 people were killed in Nice, France. (Eric Gaillard /Reuters)
All the biggest product brands in the world are owned by a handful of corporation. Food, cleaning products, banks, airlines, cars, media companies… everything is in the hands of these megacorporations. These graphics show how everything is connected.
In the supermarket—as you can see in the graphic at the top—Mondelez, Kraft, Coca-Cola, Nestlé, Pepsico, P&G, Johnson&Johnson, Mars, Danone, General Mills, Kellogg’s, and Unilever own everything.
This graphic is sightly outdated, but it shows Johnson&Johnson’s brand connections. The graphic on top is up to date.