While climate change for most of us is an abstract concept, the people who live in these low-lying countries are already being forced from their homes. They’re often called environmental migrants, or climate refugees–new terms to describe the millions who will have no choice but to relocate over the next few decades.
In fact, there are whole organizations devoted to relocation, like TransRe, orDisplacement Solutions, a UN partner group that helps climate change refugees find new homes, which it calls “one of the largest human rights challenges of the modern era.” All of this is complicated by the fact that climate refugees don’t have the same protection that, say, political refugees do under international law (as the ambassador from the Maldives discussed in a COP21 interview this week).
Kiribati —> Fiji
Kiribati in 2004. AP Photo/Richard Vogel.
On Monday at COP21, the president of the small Pacific nation of Kiribati gave an unusual speech. As The Guardian
reported, he thanked Fiji–a country more than 1,150 miles away!–for agreeing “to accommodate our people of Kiribati in the event that climate change renders our homes uninhabitable.”
Why should Kiribati thank Fiji? Well, Kiribati is facing imminent inundation by the sea. “The science is clear,” reads Kiribati’s website for relocation policies. “The Kiribati Government acknowledges that relocation of our people may be inevitable.” According to the Climate Institute, that will happen “by mid- to late-century.”
So last year, Kiribati’s government bought about 8 square miles of land in Fiji in an effort to create a place where its people can go, if and when the sea finally makes the country unlivable. The government calls this a “whole nation” approach to the idea of relocating, coordinating a comprehensive strategy for the future of the small nation.
A fisher on the Tarawa atoll, Kiribati. AP Photo/Richard Vogel, File.
In addition to buying land in Fiji, the government is actively helping people who want to migrate now develop communities in other countries, which will make relocation easier for other immigrants in the future. That includes bolstering education and skill development.
The nation of Kiribati is a string of 30 or so tiny islands in the Pacific, each just a few feet above the sea. Thanks to climate change and rising seas, it’s officially screwed. So Kiribati’s government has come up with a drastic and unprecedented decision: buy 5,460 acres of land that is 1,200 miles away in a whole other country.
For years now, Kiribati has looked at Fiji for its future. It finalized the purchase of a parcel of arable land on Fiji’s second-largest island for $8.77 million earlier this year. Because encroaching seawater has ruined crops on the low-laying islands, the land will, for now, be used to grow food for Kiribati.
In the future, all of Kiribati’s 100,000 plus residents will also need somewhere to go. The islands are expected to become uninhabitable in 30 years or so, as the rising seas reclaim land and contaminate fresh groundwater. As such, Kiribati has also worked with New Zealand to allow its people to migrate there.
Kiribati won’t be alone is seeking to relocate its population. Other low-lying island nations like the Maldives, Tuvalu, and the Marshall Islands are feeling the outsized impacts of climate change. “Entire populations of affected states could become stateless,” says a UN report. Yup, climate change couldn’t care less about national boundaries. [Inter Press Service via Al Jazeera]
Top image: One of the small, uninhabited islands of Kiribati. AP Photo/NASA
Sea walls construction on the Marshall Islands. AP Photo/Rob Griffith.
Yesterday at COP21, President Obama had a special meeting with the leaders of several island nations being overwhelmed by flooding, including the Marshall Islands: a small nation in Micronesia that has been fighting tooth and nail for major polluting countries to address climate change, as The New York Times explains today.
“Everything I know–and everyone I love–is in the hands of all of us gathered here in Paris,” said President Christopher Loeak after the meeting, according to Al Jazeera.
Loeak and his peers want to strengthen their infrastructure and raise up their communities so that they don’t have to relocate. But increasingly, thousands of Marshallese have immigrated to the small town of Springdale, Arkansas, thanks to an agreement that dates back to the Cold War, when the US tested almost 70 nuclear warheads on the islands.
Time zone clocks in Springdale, Arkansas. AP Photo/Eric Gay
The migration has been going on for years, but it’s speeding up as more and more Marshallese are forced from their homes. According to the AP, some people even call the town “Springdale Atoll.”
Still, Marshallese leaders hope that the climate talk and greater visibility amongst world leaders will help them invest in the systems and construction needed to survive the rising tides without relocating completely.
The Maldives —> Australia, India, or Sri Lanka?
AP Photo/ Kelly Shannon
This small archipelago in the Indian Ocean is also one of the most at-risk nations for ocean inundation: it’s expected that more than 75 percent of its landmass will be underwater by the end of the century.
Starting in the 1990s, the government sought to develop a strategy for adaption and possible relocation. Then-president Mohamed Nasheed rose to international fame in the 2000s when he became a prominent figure in the fight against climate change, telling The New York Times that “we can do nothing to stop climate change on our own, and so we have to buy land elsewhere,” and arguing that the country should begin finding a permanent place to relocate in countries like Australia or India.
Nasheed even organized underwater cabinet meetings to demonstrate the perils of climate change in 2009. AP Photo/Mohammed Seeneen.
But the issues heralded by Nasheed have been clouded by political turmoil in the Maldives. As the The Guardian’s Bill McKibben wrote this week, COP21 is missing one key figure because he’s currently in jail after a political coup.
These are far from the only countries affected by sea level rise, of course. But they’re a stark reminder of the reality that more and more of us will soon face–and an example of the ways that our environment will begin to reshape not only our cities and infrastructure, but the geopolitical world as we know it.
Lead image: AP Photo/Rob Griffith.