Iguazu Falls

Post 5463

Iguazu Falls

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia                                                                                                                                                                                                     

Iguazu Falls
View of Iguazu Falls
Location ArgentinaMisiones Province.BrazilParaná State.
Coordinates 25°41′12″S 54°26′41″WCoordinates25°41′12″S 54°26′41″W
Type Cataract
Total height 60–82 metres (197–269 ft)
Number of drops 275
Longest drop 82 metres (269 ft)
Total width 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi)
Watercourse Iguazu River
flow rate
1,756 m3/s (62,010 cu ft/s)

Iguazu FallsIguazú FallsIguassu Falls or Iguaçu Falls (PortugueseCataratas do Iguaçu [kataˈɾatɐʒ du iɡwaˈsu]; Spanish: Cataratas del Iguazú [kataˈɾatas ðel iɣwaˈsu]GuaraniChororo Yguasu [ɕoɾoɾo ɨɣʷasu]) are waterfalls of theIguazu River on the border of the Argentina province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná. The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu. The Iguazu River rises near the city of Curitiba. The river flows through Brazil for most of its course, although most of the falls are on the Argentine side. Below its confluence with the San Antonio River, the Iguazu River forms the boundary between Argentina and Brazil.

The name “Iguazu” comes from the Guarani or Tupi words “y” , meaning “water”, and “ûasú “[waˈsu], meaning “big”.Legend has it that a god planned to marry a beautiful woman named Naipí, who fled with her mortal lover Tarobá in acanoe. In rage, the god sliced the river, creating the waterfalls and condemning the lovers to an eternal fall. The first European to “find” the falls was the Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1541.    



Iguazu Falls is located where the Iguazu River tumbles over the edge of the Paraná Plateau, 23 kilometres (14 mi) upriver from the Iguazu’s confluence with the Paraná River. Numerous islands along the 2.7-kilometre-long (1.7 mi) edge divide the falls into numerous separate waterfalls and cataracts, varying between 60 to 82 metres (197 to 269 ft) high. The number of these smaller waterfalls fluctuates from 150 to 300, depending on the water level. About half of the river’s flow falls into a long and narrow chasm called the Devil’s Throat (Garganta del Diabloin Spanish or Garganta do Diabo in Portuguese). The Devil’s Throat is U-shaped, 82 metres high, 150 m wide, and 700 m long (269×492×2,297 ft). Placenames have been given also to many other smaller falls, such as San Martín Falls, Bossetti Falls and many others.

Iguazú Falls from the Argentine side

About 900 metres (2,950 ft) of the 2.7-kilometre (1.7 mi) length does not have water flowing over it. The edge of the basalt cap recedes by 3 mm (0.1 in) per year. The water of the lower Iguazu collects in a canyon that drains into the Paraná River, a short distance downstream from theItaipu Dam. The junction of the water flows marks the border between Brazil, Argentina, andParaguay. There are points in the cities of Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, andCiudad del Este, Paraguay, which have access to the Iguazu River, where the borders of all three nations can be seen, a popular tourist attraction for visitors to the three cities.

Distribution of the Falls between Argentina and Brazil

The Iguazu Falls are arranged in a way that seems like a reverse letter “J”. The border between Brazil and Argentina runs through the Devil’s Throat. On the right bank is the Brazilian territory, which has just over 20% of the jumps of these falls, and the left side jumps are Argentine, which make up almost 80% of the falls.


Panorama of the falls

Cataratas do Iguaçu

There are two international airports close to Iguazú Falls: the Argentine Cataratas del Iguazú International Airport (IGR) and the Brazilian Foz do Iguaçu International Airport (IGU). Argentina’s airport is 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the city of Iguazu but closer to the Falls hotels than its Brazilian counterpart. There is bus and taxi service from and to the Airport-Falls. Brazil’s airport is between Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil and the falls. LAN Airlines and Aerolíneas Argentinas have direct flights from Buenos Aires to Iguazu International Airport Krause. Several Brazilian airlines, such as TAM AirlinesGOLAzulWebJet, offer service from the main Brazilian cities to Foz do Iguaçu.


Walkways allow close views of the falls from both Argentina and Brazil.

The falls can be reached from the two main towns on either side of the falls: Puerto Iguazú in Argentina and Foz do Iguaçu in Brazil, as well as from Ciudad del EsteParaguay, on the other side of the Paraná river from Foz do Iguaçu. The falls are shared by the Iguazú National Park (Argentina) and Iguaçu National Park (Brazil). The two parks were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1984 and 1987, respectively.

The first proposal for a Brazilian national park aimed at providing a pristine environment to “future generations”, just as “it had been created by God” and endowed with “all possible preservation, from the beautiful to the sublime, from the picturesque to the awesome” and “an unmatched flora” located in the “magnificent Iguaçú waterfalls”. These were the words used by André Rebouças, an engineer, in his book “Provinces of Paraná, Railways to Mato Grosso and Bolivia”, which started up the campaign aimed at preserving the Iguaçu Falls in 1876, when Yellowstone National Park, the first national park in the world, was four years old.                                                                     supercoolpics.com

On the Brazilian side, there is a walkway along the canyon with an extension to the lower base of the Devil’s Throat. Helicopterrides offering aerial views of the falls have been available. However, Argentina has prohibited such helicopter tours because of the environmental impact on the flora and fauna of the falls. From Foz do Iguaçu airport, the park can be reached by taxi or bus to entrance of the park. There is an entrance fee to the park on both sides. Free frequent buses have been provided to various points within the park. The town of Foz do Iguaçu is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) away, and the airport is in between the park and the town.                      www.geraldbrimacombe.com

The Argentine access, across the forest, is by a Rainforest Ecological Train very similar to the one in Disney’s Animal Kingdom.[citation needed] The train brings visitors to the entrance of Devil’s Throat, as well as the upper and lower trails. ThePaseo Garganta del Diablo is a 1-kilometre-long (0.6 mi) trail that brings the visitor directly over the falls of the Devil’s Throat, the highest and deepest of the falls. Other walkways allow access to the elongated stretch of falls across the forest on the Argentine side and to the boats that connect to San Martin Island. Also on the Argentine side, there have been inflatable boat services that take visitors right under the falls.                              www.holidayspots4u.com

The Brazilian transportation system aims at allowing the increase in the number of visitors, while reducing the environmental impact, through the increase in the average number of passengers per vehicle inside the park. The new transportation system has 72-passenger, panoramic-view, double-deck buses. The upper deck is open, which enables visitors a broad view of the flora and fauna during the trip to the Falls. The buses’ combustion systems are in compliance with the CONAMA (phase IV) and EURO (phase II) emissions and noise requirements. The reduction in the number of vehicles, of noise levels and speed, is enabling tourists to observe increasing numbers of wild animals along the route. Each bus has had an exclusive paint scheme, representing some of the most common wild animals found in the Iguaçú National Park, including the spotted jaguars, butterflies, raccoons, prego monkeyscoral snakestoucans, parrots and yellow breasted caimans.

Comparisons to other famous falls

Aerial view, from the Argentine side

Iguazu Falls

Falls and Brazilian tourist complex

Satellite image of the falls

Upon seeing Iguazu, the United States’ First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt reportedly exclaimed “Poor Niagara!” (which, at 50 m or 165 feet, are a third shorter). Iguazu is also often compared with Southern Africa’s Victoria Falls which separates Zambiaand Zimbabwe. Iguazu is wider, but because it is split into about 275 discrete falls and large islands, Victoria is the largest curtain of water in the world, at over 1,600 m (5,249 ft) wide and over 100 m (328 ft) in height (in low flow Victoria is split into five by islands; in high flow it can be uninterrupted). The only wider falls are extremely large rapid-like falls such as theBoyoma Falls.

With the flooding of the Guaíra Falls in 1982, Iguazu currently has the second-greatest average annual flow of any waterfall in the world, after Niagara, with an average rate of 1,746 m3/s (61,660 cu ft/s). Its maximum recorded flow was 12,800 m3/s (452,000 cu ft/s). By comparison, the average flow of Niagara Falls is 2,400 m3/s (85,000 cu ft/s), with a maximum recorded flow of 8,300 m3/s (293,000 cu ft/s). The average flow at Victoria Falls is 1,088 m3/s (38,420 cu ft/s), with a maximum recorded flow of 7,100 m3/s (250,000 cu ft/s).

Mist rises between 30 and 150 metres (100 and 490 ft) from Iguazu’s Devil’s Throat, and over 300 m (984 ft) above Victoria. However, Iguazu affords better views and walkways and its shape allows for spectacular vistas. At one point a person can stand and be surrounded by 260 degrees of waterfalls. The Devil’s Throat in Argentina has water pouring into it from three sides. Likewise, because Iguazu is split into many relatively small falls, one can view these a portion at a time. Victoria does not allow this, as it is essentially one waterfall that falls into a canyon and is too immense to appreciate all at once (except from the air).                                                                                   travelbloggings.blogspot.co


Iguazu Falls experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa, according to the Köppen climate classification) with abundant precipitation and high temperatures year-round.

During the summer of 2006, a severe drought caused the Iguazu River to become diminished, reducing the amount of water flowing over the falls to 300 cubic metres per second (11,000 cu ft/s) until early December. This was unusual, as dry periods normally last only a few weeks.2006 drought

Portrayals in film

Iguazu Falls have been featured in several movies, including:




Volcanic Evidence Opens New Maya Mystery

Post 5462

Volcanic Evidence Opens New Maya Mystery

Post 5461     http://www.webdesigndegreecenter.org/mobile-gaming/

The Evolution of Mobile Gaming                                                                                           Mobile Games

The Evolution of Mobile Gaming

With the average smartphone user spending nearly an hour a day playing games on their phone, it’s little wonder why the mobile game industry is massive and growing and why mobile game developers are in increasing demand. But mobile games weren’t always so slick and immersive; let’s take a look at the history of mobile games.


Launched: 1994

Gameplay: Manipulate shapes and try to create straight lines across the screen


Launched: 1997

Gameplay: Steer a “snake” (really, a line of blocks) without hitting the wall or having the line cross itself

It’s estimated that more than 350 million mobile phones have the game.

Snake II

Launched: 2000

Gameplay: Expanded upon original by adding some obstacles and mazes


Launched: 2001

Gameplay: Simple life simulator

2002: First commercial phones using Java technology, enabling faster gameplay

Space Invaders

Launched: 2002

Gameplay: Almost seamless conversion from iconic arcade game

JAMDAT Bowling

Launched: 2002

Gameplay: A simple bowling game; most noteworthy because of the technology it used (BREW)

2003: Phones with color screens become widely popular.


Launched: 2003

Gameplay: Intended as a rival to Game Boy systems, the device offered good gaming but poor phone capabilities


Launched: 2003

Gameplay: Match colors to clear spaces, place bombs to disrupt your opponent

Asphalt Urban GT

Launched: 2004

Gameplay: Topdown racer

The Fast and the Furious

Launched: 2004

Gameplay: Topdown racer

Tower Bloxx

Launched: 2005

Gameplay: Stack blocks to create towers

Downtown Texas Hold ’Em

Launched: 2005

Gameplay: Poker game

Doom RPG

Launched: 2005

Gameplay: First-person shooter with some role-playing game elements

2007: Apple introduces the iPhone, a touchscreen smartphone; later that year, Apple introduces the iPod Touch, which allows for data access over WiFi networks.

Tap Tap Revenge

Launched: 2008

Gameplay: Tap areas on the screen in rhythm to the beat; most-downloaded free iPhone game in 2008

2008: Apple launches its App Store. Within a few days, 10 million apps had been downloaded by users around the world.

2009: Touchscreen smartphones become more common, as Samsung introduces the first Galaxy model on the Android platform, challenging Apple’s iPhone, which was introduced a couple of years earlier.

Doodle Jump

Launched: 2009

Gameplay: Guide your character up a series of platforms without falling

Angry Birds

Launched: 2009

Gameplay: Launch a bird from a slingshot to kill pigs

1.7 billion+

Total Angry Birds series downloads

Words With Friends

Launched: 2009

Gameplay: A Scrabble clone, the game was famously addictive, even helping lead to actor Alec Baldwin being removed from a flight for refusing to turn off his phone

Interestingly enough, Words With Friends has spawned three real-life board games.

Candy Crush Saga

Launched: 2012

Gameplay: Puzzle matching game; game has been downloaded more than 500 million times

1 billion

Games played per day


Launched: 2012

Gameplay: Real-time augmented reality game for Android

2014: In-app purchase revenue expected to be close to $8 billion and climbing fast; game items include 99 cents for a new life in Candy Crush to $600 for the Apathy Bear in Gun Bros.

What will be the next major step in the evolution of mobile gaming? And who will be the innovator to come up with it?