The 5 Worst Jobs in America

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The 5 Worst Jobs in America

By Alex Planes  April 28, 2013

Few decisions will have as lasting an impact on your life as your choice of profession. You can pour your life into a career, only to see it taken away as technology and business attitudes render your specialty obsolete. On the other hand, if you discover that you happen to be great at a job that looks to be in high demand for decades to come, you can practically write your own meal ticket., a targeted career site, recently put together its list of the best and worst jobs in America, which it ranks using a proprietary formula based on the general categories inherent to every job: environment, income, outlook, and stress level. The worst jobs in America combine an unpleasant physical and mental environment with high stress, low (or negative) growth, and weak earning potential to create a job that leaves you overworked, underpaid, and just plain burned out. The five jobs you’re about to see offer the worst overall combinations of these four general factors, which makes them the worst jobs in America (ranked from fifth-worst to the very worst), according to CareerCast.

5: Oil rig worker


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook.

  • Median pay: $37,640 per year 
  • Entry-level education: Less than high school
  • Number of jobs: 134,800
  • Expected new jobs by 2020: 11,200 (8% growth)

Forget about what you hear of the Bakken boom or the huge paydays offered to men (nearly all of the oil industry’s front-line work is done by men) willing to leave family and friends behind to work on the oily frontier. This is hard, tiring, dangerous work. Despite the perception of high pay, many rig employees don’t actually make all that much. The risk of death, though remote, is very real — just think back to the 11 dead men who went down with the Deepwater Horizon. While the payoff can be great in the near term, there isn’t often a lot of long-term job security working on rigs. If you don’t get burned out from the grinding schedule and the job’s physicality, you might find yourself unemployed when the well’s production drops to a trickle.

4: Actor 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook.

  • Median pay: $17.44 per hour (regular schedules are nearly impossible to find)
  • Entry-level education: Some college, no degree
  • Number of jobs: 66,500
  • Expected new jobs by 2020: 2,600 (4% growth)

If you can make it to the top of the acting profession, you can command fantastic paydays and gain worldwide renown. However, very few actors will ever make it that far, and competition is absolutely brutal in this entertainment profession that has long drawn starry-eyed dreamers from around the world. The Bureau of Labor Statistics may not count the number of people who work as actors on a part-time basis, as the Screen Actors Guild has more than 160,000 members. A number of actors wind up working other low-paying, stressful jobs to supplement their income. The intense competition, low pay, and persistent uncertainty over the next job can create a great deal of stress. Try waiting patiently for a callback from that audition where you poured out your soul. It’s not easy!

3: Enlisted military personnel 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook.

  • Median pay: $42,000 per year (classification E-7 with eight-plus years of experience)
  • Entry-level education: High school diploma
  • Number of jobs: 1,211,575
  • Expected new jobs by 2020: Varies by branch and occupation

The United States’ armed forces enjoy wide public acclaim but are treated rather poorly at work. Most enlisted personnel don’t stay for more than four years, which makes a $42,000 annual payday (which comes with bonuses like housing and food allowances as well as medical care) a pipe dream for many. Enlisted life is the most stressful of any job in the country, and few enlisted specialties offer the scheduling stability of a traditional 9-to-5. Barring some huge new war — which can never be ruled out — the size of the military is expected to decline over the coming years as long-standing war-on-terror operations draw down, leading to fewer opportunities for advancement.

2: Lumberjack 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook.

  • Median pay: $32,870 per year
  • Entry-level education: High school diploma
  • Number of jobs: 53,200
  • Expected new jobs by 2020: 2,300 (4% growth)

“I’m a lumberjack and I’m OK,” goes the old Monty Python song — but that might not be such an accurate assessment. Many of those 53,000 lumberjacks are not OK with their dangerous and low-paying career choices, which leave them little free time to skip and jump and press wildflowers. In fact, only fishermen have a more dangerous profession — lumberjacks and other logging workers suffer approximately 54 deaths per year . There aren’t a lot of opportunities for professional growth, either. Have you ever heard of an ex-lumberjack CEO or executive vice president? I’m sure such individuals exist, but they must be extremely rare.

1: Newspaper reporter 

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook.

  • Median pay: $36,000 per year 
  • Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree
  • Number of jobs: 58,500
  • Expected new jobs by 2020: -3,200 (6% decline)

CareerCast focuses on print news, but there isn’t a lot of good news for any sort of reporter in the United States. Long hours, constant deadline pressure, intense competition, and low pay add up to a lot of stress in a career that allows very few to ever make it big. Online newsrooms are quick to aggregate the content slaved over by print journalists, and the shift to the Internet has devastated print media. Over the past decade, print ad revenues have collapsed from $45 billion to $19 billion, and newsroom employment is at its lowest level since 1978. The print business is dying, and the reporters on the vanguard are among those most hurt in the carnage.

The best of the rest
CareerCast has a deep list of jobs, ranked from 1 (the best) all the way to 200 (the worst). You can see the bottom 20 here, and you can continue browsing to see where your job ranks. Are you unlucky enough to be part of these unpleasant professions? Do you disagree with CareerCast’s analysis? Let the world know how you feel about these rankings by leaving a comment below.

Making the right financial decisions today makes a world of difference in your golden years, but with most people chronically under-saving for retirement, it’s clear not enough is being done. It doesn’t matter whether you’ve got the best job in America or the worst — there are some vital steps you can take at any income level to assure that you’ll be secure after you leave the job market behind. Learn about The Shocking Can’t-Miss Truth About Your Retirement by clicking that link now. It won’t cost you a thing, but don’t wait, because your free report won’t be available forever.


Album: The World’s Most Beautiful Equations

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Album: The World’s Most Beautiful Equations

by Clara Moskowitz, LiveScience Senior Writer
Numerical beauty
Numerical beauty
Credit: Shutterstock/Fedorov Oleksiy
Mathematical equations aren’t just useful — many are quite beautiful. And many scientists admit they are often fond of particular formulas not just for their function, but for their form, and the simple, poetic truths they contain.

While certain famous equations, such as Albert Einstein’s E = mc^2, hog most of the public glory, many less familiar formulas have their champions among scientists. LiveScience asked physicists, astronomers and mathematicians for their favorite equations; here’s what we found:

General relativity
General relativity
Credit: Shutterstock/R.T. Wohlstadter
The equation above was formulated by Einstein as part of his groundbreakinggeneral theory of relativity in 1915. The theory revolutionized how scientists understood gravity by describing the force as a warping of the fabric of space and time.
Standard model
Standard model
Credit: Shutterstock/R.T. Wohlstadter
Another of physics’ reigning theories, the standard model describes the collection of fundamental particles currently thought to make up our universe.

The theory can be encapsulated in a main equation called the standard model Lagrangian (named after the 18th-century French mathematician and astronomer Joseph Louis Lagrange), which was chosen by theoretical physicist Lance Dixon of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California as his favorite formula.

“It has successfully described all elementary particles and forces that we’ve observed in the laboratory to date — except gravity,” Dixon told LiveScience. “That includes, of course, the recently discovered Higgs(like) boson, phi in the formula. It is fully self-consistent with quantum mechanics and special relativity.”

The standard model theory has not yet, however, been united with general relativity, which is why it cannot describe gravity. [Infographic: The Standard Model Explained]

Credit: Shutterstock/agsandrew
While the first two equations describe particular aspects of our universe, another favorite equation can be applied to all manner of situations. The fundamental theorem of calculus forms the backbone of the mathematical method known as calculus, and links its two main ideas, the concept of the integral and the concept of the derivative.

“In simple words, [it] says that the net change of a smooth and continuous quantity, such as a distance travelled, over a given time interval (i.e. the difference in the values of the quantity at the end points of the time interval) is equal to the integral of the rate of change of that quantity, i.e. the integral of the velocity,” said Melkana Brakalova-Trevithick, chair of the math department at Fordham University, who chose this equation as her favorite. “The fundamental theorem of calculus (FTC) allows us to determine the net change over an interval based on the rate of change over the entire interval.”

Pythagorean theorem
Pythagorean theorem
Credit: Shutterstock/ igor.stevanovic
An “oldie but goodie” equation is the famous Pythagorean theorem, which every beginning geometry student learns.

This formula describes how, for any right-angled triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse (the longest side of a right triangle) equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.

“The very first mathematical fact that amazed me was Pythagorean theorem,” said mathematician Daina Taimina of Cornell University. “I was a child then and it seemed to me so amazing that it works in geometry and it works with numbers!” [5 Seriously Mind-Boggling Math Facts]

Euler's equation

Euler’s equation

Credit: Shutterstock/Jezper
This simple formula encapsulates something pure about the nature of spheres:

“It says that if you cut the surface of a sphere up into faces, edges and vertices, and let F be the number of faces, E the number of edges and V the number of vertices, you will always get V – E + F = 2,” said Colin Adams, a mathematician at Williams College in Massachusetts.

“So, for example, take a tetrahedron, consisting of four triangles, six edges and four vertices,” Adams explained. “If you blew hard into a tetrahedron with flexible faces, you could round it off into a sphere, so in that sense, a sphere can be cut into four faces, six edges and four vertices. And we see that V – E + F = 2. Same holds for a pyramid with five faces — four triangular, and one square — eight edges and five vertices,” and any other combination of faces, edges and vertices.

“A very cool fact! The combinatorics of the vertices, edges and faces is capturing something very fundamental about the shape of a sphere,” Adams said.

 Special relativity

Special relativity

Credit: Shutterstock/optimarc
Einstein makes the list again with his formulas for special relativity, which describes how time and space aren’t absolute concepts, but rather are relative depending on the speed of the observer. The equation above shows how time dilates, or slows down, the faster a person is moving in any direction.

“The point is it’s really very simple,” said Bill Murray, a particle physicist at the CERN laboratory in Geneva. “There is nothing there an A-level student cannot do, no complex derivatives and trace algebras. But what it embodies is a whole new way of looking at the world, a whole attitude to reality and our relationship to it. Suddenly, the rigid unchanging cosmos is swept away and replaced with a personal world, related to what you observe. You move from being outside the universe, looking down, to one of the components inside it. But the concepts and the maths can be grasped by anyone that wants to.”

Murray said he preferred the special relativity equations to the more complicated formulas in Einstein’s later theory. “I could never follow the maths of general relativity,” he said.

 1 = 0.999999999….

1 = 0.999999999….

Credit: Shutterstock/Tursunbaev Ruslan
This simple equation, which states that the quantity 0.999, followed by an infinite string of nines, is equivalent to one, is the favorite of mathematician Steven Strogatz of Cornell University.

“I love how simple it is — everyone understands what it says — yet how provocative it is,” Strogatz said. “Many people don’t believe it could be true. It’s also beautifully balanced. The left side represents the beginning of mathematics; the right side represents the mysteries of infinity.”

 Euler–Lagrange equations and Noether's theorem
Euler–Lagrange equations and Noether’s theorem
Credit: Shutterstock/Marc Pinter
“These are pretty abstract, but amazingly powerful,” NYU’s Cranmer said. “The cool thing is that this way of thinking about physics has survived some major revolutions in physics, like quantum mechanics, relativity, etc.”

Here, L stands for the Lagrangian, which is a measure of energy in a physical system, such as springs, or levers or fundamental particles. “Solving this equation tells you how the system will evolve with time,” Cranmer said.

A spinoff of the Lagrangian equation is called Noether’s theorem, after the 20th-century German mathematician Emmy Noether. “This theorem is really fundamental to physics and the role of symmetry,” Cranmer said. “Informally, the theorem is that if your system has a symmetry, then there is a corresponding conservation law. For example, the idea that the fundamental laws of physics are the same today as tomorrow (time symmetry) implies that energy is conserved. The idea that the laws of physics are the same here as they are in outer space implies that momentum is conserved. Symmetry is perhaps the driving concept in fundamental physics, primarily due to [Noether’s] contribution.”

Callan-Symanzik Equation
Callan-Symanzik Equation
Credit: Shutterstock/R.T. Wohlstadter
“The Callan-Symanzik equation is a vital first-principles equation from 1970, essential for describing how naive expectations will fail in a quantum world,” said theoretical physicist Matt Strassler of Rutgers University.

The equation has numerous applications, including allowing physicists to estimate the mass and size of the proton and neutron, which make up the nuclei of atoms.

Basic physics tells us that the gravitational force, and the electrical force, between two objects is proportional to the inverse of the distance between them squared. On a simple level, the same is true for the strong nuclear force that binds protons and neutrons together to form the nuclei of atoms, and that binds quarks together to form protons and neutrons. However, tiny quantum fluctuations can slightly alter a force’s dependence on distance, which has dramatic consequences for the strong nuclear force.

“It prevents this force from decreasing at long distances, and causes it to trap quarks and to combine them to form the protons and neutrons of our world,” Strassler said. “What the Callan-Symanzik equation does is relate this dramatic and difficult-to-calculate effect, important when [the distance] is roughly the size of a proton, to more subtle but easier-to-calculate effects that can be measured when [the distance] is much smaller than a proton.”

The minimal surface equation
The minimal surface equation
Credit: Shutterstock/MarcelClemens
“The minimal surface equation somehow encodes the beautiful soap films that form on wire boundaries when you dip them in soapy water,” said mathematician Frank Morgan of Williams College. “The fact that the equation is ‘nonlinear,’ involving powers and products of derivatives, is the coded mathematical hint for the surprising behavior of soap films. This is in contrast with more familiar linear partial differential equations, such as the heat equation, the wave equation, and the Schrödinger equation of quantum physics.”
The Euler line
The Euler line
Credit: Patrick Ion/Mathematical Reviews/AMS
Glen Whitney, founder of the Museum of Math in New York, chose another geometrical theorem, this one having to do with the Euler line, named after 18th-century Swiss mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler.

“Start with any triangle,” Whitney explained. “Draw the smallest circle that contains the triangle and find its center. Find the center of mass of the triangle — the point where the triangle, if cut out of a piece of paper, would balance on a pin. Draw the three altitudes of the triangle (the lines from each corner perpendicular to the opposite side), and find the point where they all meet. The theorem is that all three of the points you just found always lie on a single straight line, called the ‘Euler line’ of the triangle.”

Whitney said the theorem encapsulates the beauty and power of mathematics, which often reveals surprising patterns in simple, familiar shapes.

Controversially, Physicist Argues Time Is Real

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Controversially, Physicist Argues Time Is Real

Clara Moskowitz, LiveScience Senior Writer
Date: 26 April 2013 Time: 03:25 PM ET
Most physicists think time is a subjective illusion, but what if time is real?
CREDIT: Shutterstock/Kim D. French

NEW YORK — Is time real, or the ultimate illusion?

Most physicists would say the latter, but Lee Smolin challenges this orthodoxy in his new book, “Time Reborn” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, April 2013), which he discussed here Wednesday (April 24) at the Rubin Museum of Art.

In a conversation with Duke University neuroscientist Warren Meck, theoretical physicist Smolin, who’s based at Canada’s Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, argued for the controversial idea that time is real. “Time is paramount,” he said, “and the experience we all have of reality being in the present moment is not an illusion, but the deepest clue we have to the fundamental nature of reality.”

Smolin said he hadn’t come to this concept lightly. He started out thinking, as most physicists do, that time is subjective and illusory. According to Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, time is just another dimension in space, traversable in either direction, and our human perception of moments passing steadily and sequentially is all in our heads.

Over time, though, Smolin became convinced not only that time was real, but that this notion could be the key to understanding the laws of nature.

“If laws are outside of time, then they’re inexplicable,” he said. “If law just simply is, there’s no explanation. If we want to understand law … then law must evolve, law must change, law must be subject to time. Law then emerges from time and is subject to time rather than the reverse.”

Smolin admitted there are objections to this idea, especially what he calls “the meta-law dilemma:” If physical laws are subject to time, and evolve over time, then there must be some larger law that guides their evolution. But wouldn’t this law, then, have to be beyond time, to determine how the other laws change with time? Other physicists have cited this objection in reaction to Smolin’s work.

“The problem I see with the argument for laws that evolve in time is one that you yourself identify in the book: what you call the ‘meta-laws dilemma,'” Columbia University physicist Peter Woit wrote on his blogNot Even Wrong. “You speculate a bit in the book on ways to resolve this, but I don’t see a convincing answer to the criticism that whatever explanation you come up with for what determines how laws evolve, I’m free to characterize that as just another law.”

Smolin admitted this is currently a sticking point, but maintained that there are possible solutions.

“I believe you can resolve the meta-law dilemma,” Smolin said at the Rubin event. “I think the direction of 21st-century cosmology will depend on the right way to resolve the meta-law dilemma.”

Smolin and Meck discussed the consequences of his idea, including what it means for our understanding of human consciousness and free will. One implication of the idea that time is an illusion is the notion that the future is just as decided as the past.

“If I think the future’s already written, then the things that are most valuable about being human are illusions along with time,” Smolin said. “We still aspire to make choices in life. That is a precious part of our humanity. If the real metaphysical picture is that there are just atoms moving in the void, then nothing is ever new and nothing’s ever surprising — it’s just the rearrangement of atoms. There’s a loss of responsibility as well as a loss of human dignity.”

This story was provided by LiveScience, a sister site to Follow Clara Moskowitz onTwitter and Google+. Follow us @livescienceFacebook & Google+. Original article on


How Asteroid 2012 DA14 Will Give Earth Close Shave (Infographic)

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How Asteroid 2012 DA14 Will Give Earth Close Shave (Infographic)

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
Date: 12 February 2013 Time: 07:00 PM ET
Infographic: On Feb. 15, 2013, a 150-foot asteroid will fly past Earth at an altitude of 17,200 miles - closer than our own communications satellites

At 2:26 p.m. EST (1926 GMT) on Feb. 15, the asteroid 2012 DA14 will fly within 17,200 miles (27,680 kilo- meters) of Earth. This is lower than the communications satellites that orbit 22,000 miles (35,800 km) above the equator.

The asteroid will not hit the Earth on this orbital pass, but asteroid 2012 DA14 is about the size of the object that hit Siberia in 1908 (the “Tunguska Event“). The asteroid was discovered on Feb. 23, 2012, by the La Sagra Sky Survey. [Asteroid 2012 DA14 Flyby: Fact vs. Fiction (Video)]

At 150 feet wide (49 meters), the asteroid is less than half the length of the International Space Station (356 feet wide, or 109 meters). It is about half the size of a football field.

From Earth’s Northern Hemisphere, the asteroid will be below the horizon for most of its approach, but will be well-placed for observing after closest approach. The asteroid passes at a sharp angle to the path of the satellites and is not expected to hit any of them. [Asteroid 2012 DA14 Photos: Earth Flyby of Feb. 15, 2013]

The asteroid’s current orbit is similar to the Earth’s, but tilted. Asteroid 2012 DA14 passes Earth twice per orbit, but February’s pass is the closest approach for many decades. As it whips by at a relative velocity of 4.8 miles per second (7.82 kilometers per second), the Earth’s gravity will slingshot the asteroid into a slightly different orbit.


How Lunar Eclipses Work (Infographic)

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How Lunar Eclipses Work (Infographic)

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
What makes the moon turn dark and red? Find out in this infographic.
A total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes completely beneath Earth’s shadow. On Dec. 10, 2011, the second of this year’s two total lunar eclipses will occur, and will be visible in Asia, Australia, and will rise and set over Europe and North America, respectively. The first total lunar eclipse of the year occured June 15.

Inside Some Planets

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Inside Planet Mercury

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and has a thin atmosphere, no air pressure and an extremely high temperature.

Inside Gas Giant Saturn

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
Saturn, the sixth planet from the Sun, was named after the Roman God Saturn. The planet Saturn is a gas giant and one of the Jovian planets.

Inside Earth’s Moon

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
The moon is about 1/4 the diameter of Earth. Learn more about Earth’s natural satellite at

Inside Planet Mars

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
The planet Mars, also called the ‘Red Planet,’ is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere and surface features similar to Earth.

Inside Gas Giant Jupiter

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
Jupiter is the largest planet in Earth’s solar system and has 63 moons encircling it. The planet is a giant ball of gas and liquid.

Find out what makes Jupiter tick, from its crushing atmospheric pressures to the Great Red Spot in this infographic above.

Jupiter has dozens of moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by famed astronomer Galileo Galilei. NASA’s Galileo probe was the first mission to study the planet in-depth, and a new mission – Juno – is en route to the gas giant. The European Space Agency also approved a new mission, the Jupiter Icy moons Explorer probe, to launch toward Jupiter in 2022.

Inside Dwarf Planet Pluto

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
Dwarf planet Pluto was discovered in 1930 and was once considered to be the ninth planet from the sun in Earth’s solar system.

Inside Gas Giant Uranus

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
The planet Uranus, seventh planet from the sun, is a giant ball of gas and liquid and was the first planet discovered with a telescope.
The planet Uranus is an oddball in our solar system, with its wild tilt and gossamer rings. See what makes Uranus tick in the infographic above.

Inside Gas Giant Neptune

by Karl Tate, Infographics Artist
The planet Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun and has a thick atmosphere and the fastest winds in the solar system.