Trove of Roman Artifacts


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 Trove of Roman Artifacts

LiveScience Staff
Date: 24 October 2012 Time: 11:33 AM ET
Leaping dolphin
Leaping dolphin
Credit: L. McLean, © Colchester and Ipswich Museum Service. CC Attribution Sharealike license
A depiction of a “leaping dolphin.” Made out of silver its eyes, mouth and fins are gilded with gold. It would have been used as a brooch, the catchplate (now distorted) and pinhole can be seen.
Leaping dolphin
Leaping dolphin
Credit: L. McLean, © Colchester and Ipswich Museum Service. CC Attribution Sharealike license
Pictures of the leaping, gilded, dolphin from different angles. It would have been worn by a wealthy man or woman.
Finger-ring
Finger-ring
Credit: C. Burrill; © Derby City Council. CC Attribution Sharealike license
This gold finger-ring, discovered in Nottinghamshire, is made of 90-93 percent gold and has incised decorations and a tiny oval gem at center.
Gold finger
Gold finger
Credit: C. Burrill; © Derby City Council. CC Attribution Sharealike license
A view of the gold finger ring from different angles. Its diameter is tiny and it would likely have been worn by a child or woman. It may have been given as a betrothal ring.
Young lover
Young lover
Credit: A. Daubney © Lincolnshire County Council. CC Attribution Sharealike license
This copper alloy bust of a bare chested young man may be of Antinous, a male lover of Emperor Hadrian who was deified after he died. Only two other examples are known from Britain.
Rosettes
Rosettes
Credit: R. Collins, © Portable Antiquities Scheme. CC Attribution Sharealike license
This colorful enamel decorated object would have been used on a Roman rider’s harness. It depicts intricately detailed rosettes.
Enamel bowl
Enamel bowl
Credit: K. Leahy, © Portable Antiquities Scheme. CC Attribution Sharealike license
Fragments of a bowl containing Celtic motifs with enamel coloring. Enamel working was popular around 1,800 years ago in Roman Britain.
Copper knife
Copper knife
Credit: A. Downes, © West Yorkshire Archaeology Advisory Service. CC Attribution Sharealike license
This copper alloy knife handle shows a couple having sex. The man is lying on a couch while the woman straddles him, holding his feet. The man’s left hand is on her left buttock. Researchers hypothesize that a knife handle like this might be used to ward off the evil eye.
Exchange measure
Exchange measure
Credit: A. Daubney © Lincolnshire County Council. CC Attribution Sharealike license
A grotesque head that would likely have been used as a measuring weight. Its appearance may have helped ward off the evil eye, aiding in economic transactions.
Copper handle
Copper handle
Credit: M. Lodwick, © National Museum of Wales. CC Attribution Sharealike license
A hollow copper alloy handle, shown from different angles. The youthful face, with wings coming out from the hair, has been interpreted as the god Mercury. The older face on the other side, with mustache and beard, is believed to be a satyr or the god Pan. A boar’s head can be seen on the piece at top.
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In Photos: A Look Inside an Egyptian Mummy


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In Photos: A Look Inside an Egyptian Mummy

Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor
Suffering Mummy
Suffering Mummy
Credit: Dr. Mislav Cavka
Researchers examined a 2,900-year-old mummy using X-rays, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. They found that he suffered from Hand-Schuller-Christian’s disease, a very rare condition that left him with lesions in his skull and spine. A large hole on his frontal-parietal bone can be readily seen in this image. His brain appears to have been removed through his nose during the mummification process.
Hole in Head
Hole in Head
Credit: Dr. Mislav Cavka
Normally MRI scans can’t be used on mummies, because mummy bodies don’t have any water in them. A recently developed technique, however, let the researchers use it to study the mummy of an Egyptian man who likely died in his 20s. In this scan it can be seen that the embalmers filled the back of the mummy’s head with a resinlike fluid.
Spinal Dislocation
Spinal Dislocation
Credit: Image courtesy Dr. Mislav Cavka
An image of the mummy’s spine in a CT scan. The researchers think spinal dislocation was caused by the embalmers during mummification. Resinlike fluid can be seen in his pelvic area.
Spine Disks
Spine Disks
Credit: Image courtesy Dr. Mislav Cavka
The recently developed MRI technique allowed the researchers to get an up-close look at the inter-vertebral disks of the mummy’s spine.
Preserved Penis
Preserved Penis
Credit: Image courtesy Dr. Mislav Cavka
Curiously the sarcophagus the mummy was put in belonged to that of a woman named Kareset who lived about 2,300 years ago. The tests showed that the mummy is a man and definitely not Kareset. This image shows the mummy’s preserved penis on a CT scan.
Pelvic Picture
Pelvic Picture
Credit: Image courtesy Dr. Mislav Cavka
An image of the mummy’s pelvic area using the new MRI technique. The researchers think the man also suffered from a type of diabetes that would have left his kidneys unable to conserve water. The result would have been that he was thirsty, hungry and urinating all the time.
Bone Replacement
Bone Replacement
Credit: Image courtesy Dr. Mislav Cavka
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease causes so-called Langerhans cells, a type of immune cell found in the skin, to multiply rapidly. These cells tend to replace the normal structure of the bone and other soft tissue in the body. Shown here, an MRI scan of the mummy’s knees.

Colorful But Deadly: Images of Brain Cancer


Post 3338

Colorful But Deadly: Images of Brain Cancer

Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience Senior Writer
Spreading Cancer
Spreading Cancer
Credit: Eric Bushong
Cancer (green) spreads through a mouse brain. Researchers reporting in the journal Science on Oct. 18 have found that genetic changes to the cancer cells reverts them to stem cells, which can divide continuously.
Green Glioma
Green Glioma
Credit: Eric Bushong
A glioma, a cancer arising from glial cells, grows in the brain of a mouse.
Cancer Cells
Cancer Cells
Credit: Eric Bushong
A glioma (green) grows in a mouse brain. The glioma cells express a biological marker (in red) indicating their transformation into stem cells.
Tumor in a Mouse Brain
Tumor in a Mouse
BrainCredit: Eric Bushong
A tumor (green) grows in a mouse brain. Researchers found that any type of brain cell can give rise to these tumors.
Glioma
Glioma
Credit: Eric Bushrong
Glioblastomas are the most aggressive and common brain tumors, with an average survival of 14 months after diagnosis. Here, cancer spreads in a mouse brain.

Grisly Ancient Practice: Photos Reveal ‘Gold of Valor’


Post 3337

Grisly Ancient Practice: Photos Reveal ‘Gold of Valor’

Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor
The Right Hand
The Right Hand
Credit: Photo by Axel Krause
A severed right hand discovered in front of a Hyksos palace at Avaris (modern-day Tell el-Daba). It would have been chopped off and presented to the king (or a subordinate) in exchange for gold. This discovery is the first archaeological evidence of the practice. At the time they were buried, about 3,600 years ago, the palace was being used by King Khayan. The Hyksos were a people believed to be from northern Canaan, they controlled part of Egypt and made their capital at Avaris on the Nile Delta.
Whose Hands?
Whose Hands?
Credit: Photo by Axel Krause
In two of the pits 14 right hands were discovered, while two other pits were found holding one right hand each. It’s not known whom these hands belonged to, they could have been from Egyptians or people in the Levant.
Gruesome Practice
Gruesome Practice
Credit: Photo by Axel Krause
Two right hands found in a pit. It’s not known who started this gruesome practice of cutting off right hands in exchange for gold. There are no records of it being done in northern Canaan, where the Hyksos are believed to be from. It could have been an Egyptian practice that the Hyksos picked up, it could be vice-versa, or both sides could have gotten it from somewhere else entirely.
Hand of Hyksos
Hand of Hyksos
Credit: (Photo by Olaf Tausch CC Attribution 3.0 Unported
Ahmose, son of Ibana, was an Egyptian soldier who fought under several pharaohs, participating in campaigns against the Hyksos and Nubians. His tomb records that he received the “gold of valor” for chopping off the hand of a Hyksos soldier and presenting it as a trophy.
Gift for Ramses III
Gift for Ramses III
Credit: Photo by Karen Green, CC Attribution share-alike 2.0 generic
This image was created about 400 years after the Avaris hands were deposited. It shows the chopped-off hands of enemy soldiers being prepared for Ramses III, a pharaoh of Egypt, after a successful campaign.
Egypt Prisoners
Egypt Prisoners
Credit: Image courtesy wikimedia, CC universal public domain
The Narmer palette, dating back about 5,000 years to the time of Egyptian unification, shows decapitated prisoners and a pharaoh about to smash a man’s head. Although it predates the new Avaris evidence by more than a millennium, it shows, in graphic detail, the poor treatment of prisoners in ancient Egypt.

Image Gallery: Pile of Turtle Fossils Unearthed


Post 3336

Image Gallery: Pile of Turtle Fossils Unearthed

LiveScience Staff
Date: 30 October 2012 Time: 09:54 AM ET
Tons of Turtles
Tons of Turtles
Credit: Copyright Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
Scientists have discovered some 1,800 fossilized mesa chelonia turtles from the Jurassic era in China’s northwest province of Xinjiang. Shown here, a side view of the site near Shanshan in Xinjiang.
Bone Bed
Bone Bed
Credit: Copyright Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
“This site has probably more than doubled the known number of individual turtles from the Jurassic,” said University of Tübingen turtle expert Walter Joyce. “Some of the shells were stacked up on top of one another in the rock.” Joyce added that this pile-up is called a bone bed.
Washed Out
Washed Out
Credit: Copyright Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
Some 160 million years ago, these turtles had gathered in one of the remaining waterholes during a very dry period, awaiting rain (which came too late). When the water arrived, it came with a vengeance: a river of mud, washing the turtles and sediments along with it and dumping them in one place, as the paleontologists read the site and its layers of stone. Here, researchers Oliver Wings and Walter Joyce cutting into turtle layer.
Tough Turtle Work
Tough Turtle Work
Credit: Copyright Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
Researcher Oliver Wings cuts into the turtle layer, where he and colleagues have found 1,800 fossilized mesa chelonia turtles from the Jurassic era in Xinjiang, in China. Wings is a paleontologist and guest researcher at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.
In Plaster
In Plaster
Credit: Copyright Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
Here, a block of the turtle layer in plaster for stabilization

Wallpapers


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Wallpapers

Eta Carinae

Eta Carinae

This new image of the luminous blue variable Eta Carinae was taken with the NACO near-infrared adaptive optics instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, yielding an incredible amount of detail. The images clearly shows a bipolar structure as well as the jets coming out from the central star. The image was obtained by the Paranal Science team and processed by Yuri Beletsky (ESO) and Hännes Heyer (ESO). It is based on data obtained through broad (J, H, and K; 90 second exposure time per filters) and narrow-bands (1.64, 2.12, and 2.17 microns; probing iron, molecular and atomic hydrogen, respectively; 4 min per filter).
Credit: ESO
Dramatic Moonset on Cerro Paranal
Dramatic Moonset on Cerro Paranal
The Moon appears large because it is seen close to the horizon and our perception is deceived by the proximity of references on the ground. In order to get this spectacular close view, a 500-mm lens was necessary. The very long focal length reduces the depth of field making the objects in focus appear as if they were at the same distance. ESO staff member Gordon Gillet welcomed the new day by capturing this stunning image from 14 km away, on the road to the nearby Cerro Armazones, the peak recently chosen by the ESO Council as the preferred location for the planned 40-metre-class European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT).

This effect, combined with the extraordinary quality of this picture, gives the impression that the Moon lies on the VLT platform, just behind the telescopes, even though it is in fact about 30 000 times further away.

Credit: ESO
South Pole Telescope
South Pole Telescope
New findings about an extraordinary galaxy cluster discovered by the National Science Foundation’s 10-meter South Pole Telescope (pictured here), and later followed-up by eight other world-class observatories, appear in the Aug. 16 issue of the journal Nature.
Credit: Daniel Luong-Van
Star-Forming Region NGC 346
This portrait of the bright star-forming region NGC 346, in which different wavelengths of light swirl together like watercolours, reveals new information about how stars form. NGC 346 is located 210,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud, a neighbouring dwarf galaxy of the Milky Way. The image is based on data from ESA XMM-Newton (X-rays; blue), ESO’s New Technology Telescope (visible light; green), and NASA’s Spitzer (infrared; red). The infrared light shows cold dust, while the visible light denotes glowing gas, and the X-rays represent very hot gas. Ordinary stars appear as blue spots with white centres, while young stars enshrouded in dust appear as red spots with white centres.
Credit: ESO/ESA/ JPL-Caltech/NASA/ D. Gouliermis (MPIA) et al.
The Sombrero Galaxy
The Sombrero Galaxy
A brilliant white core is encircled by thick dust lanes in this spiral galaxy, seen edge-on. The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and 28 million light years from Earth.
Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
Beta Pictoris as Seen in Infrared Light
Beta Pictoris as Seen in Infrared Light
About this Image
This composite image represents the close environment of Beta Pictoris as seen in near infrared light. This very faint environment is revealed after a very careful subtraction of the much brighter stellar halo. The outer part of the image shows the reflected light on the dust disc, as observed in 1996 with the ADONIS instrument on ESO’s 3.6 m telescope; the inner part is the innermost part of the system, as seen at 3.6 microns with NACO on the Very Large Telescope.
Credit: ESO/A.-M. Lagrange et al.
The Caterpillar, a Bok Globule in the Carina Nebula
The Caterpillar,  a Bok Globule in the Carina Nebula
About this Image
A Bok globule nicknamed the “caterpillar” appears at the right. Its glowing edge indicates that it is being photoionized by the hottest stars in the cluster. It has been hypothesized that stars may form inside such dusty cocoons. The top of the Keyhole Nebula, the most prominent feature embedded inside Carina, is on the left. Another Bok globule is in the foreground.
Credit: NASA, ESA, N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley), and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
N44 in the Large Magellanic Cloud
About this Image
Southern part of the spectacular N44 H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The green colour indicates areas that are particularly hot. The field measures 27.5 x 26.5 square arcminutes. North is up and East is left.
Credit: ESO
Messier 83 – Central region
Messier 83 - Central region
About this Image
This photo shows the central region of a beautiful spiral galaxy, Messier 83, as observed with the FORS1 instrument at VLT ANTU. This galaxy is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water-Snake) and is also known as NGC 5236; the distance is about 15 million light-years. The spiral structure resembles that of the Milky Way Galaxy in which we live, but Messier 83 also possesses a bar-like structure at the centre.
Credit: ESO
Aerial Shot of the London Olympic Park
About this Image
The London Olympic Park including Olympic Stadium is visible towards the base of this Proba-1 High Resolution Camera image of East London, acquired on Aug.11, 2012. The 5-m resolution black and white image covers 25 sq km.
Credit: ESA
Artist’s Impression of Phoenix Cluster Galaxy

About this Image
An extraordinary cluster of faraway galaxies is shattering or challenging a number of cosmic records, weighing in as potentially the most massive cluster known. The colossal galaxy cluster is also the brightest in X-ray light, and the galaxy at its heart apparently gives birth to more than 700 stars per year – hundreds of times as fast as our Milky Way forms stars, researchers say.
Credit: Chandra X-ray Observatory
Panorama of the Southern Sky
Panorama of the Southern Sky
About this Image
The Milky Way arches across this rare 360-degree panorama of the night sky above the Paranal platform, home of ESO’s Very Large Telescope. The image was made from 37 individual frames with a total exposure time of about 30 minutes, taken in the early morning hours. The Moon is just rising and the zodiacal light shines above it, while the Milky Way stretches across the sky opposite the observatory.
Credit: ESO/H.H.Heyer
Helix Nebula – Unraveling at the Seams
Helix Nebula 1600
About this Image
A dying star is throwing a cosmic tantrum in this combined image from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which NASA has lent to the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. In death, the star’s dusty outer layers are unraveling into space, glowing from the intense ultraviolet radiation being pumped out by the hot stellar core.

This object, called the Helix nebula, lies 650 light-years away, in the constellation of Aquarius. Also known by the catalog number NGC 7293, it is a typical example of a class of objects called planetary nebulae. Discovered in the 18th century, these cosmic works of art were erroneously named for their resemblance to gas-giant planets.

Credit: NASA/ JPL-Caltech

Ancient Tsunami Swept Through Swiss Lake


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Ancient Tsunami Swept Through Swiss Lake

Charles Q. Choi, OurAmazingPlanet Contributor – Oct 28, 2012 02:06 PM ET
This astronaut photograph shows the city of Geneva, Switzerland, and the southern end of Lake Geneva. The photo was taken in November 2006.
CREDIT: NASA

An ancient tsunami in a Swiss lake triggered by an Alpine landslide suggests that cities now on the lake’s shore may face dangers more commonly associated with large oceans, researchers say.

Tsunamis are monster waves reaching more than 100 feet (30 meters) high. Earthquakes often generate them, but landslides can as well — for instance, those occurring in submarine canyons. So, landlocked tsunamis are possible, if lakes get hit by landslides or collapses of the flanks of volcanoes.

“People think that, to be affected by a tsunami, you have to live on seacoasts and in a region not too far away from major seismic activity,” said researcher Guy Simpson, a geologist at the University of Geneva. “We think we have a counterexample.”

Ancient tsunami

Scientists analyzed Lake Geneva in Switzerland. More than 1 million people live on the shores of this lake, with 200,000 of them in Geneva, the second-most populous city in Switzerland.

In 563 A.D., a rock fall took place in the mountains more than 45 miles (70 kilometers) from Geneva, according to two historical accounts — one from St. Gregory of Tours, the other from Marius, bishop of Avenches. The rock fall, known as the Tauredunum event after a nearby fort, brought down boulders near where the Rhone River enters Lake Geneva. The falling boulders destroyed several villages. [50 Amazing Facts About Earth]

The disaster then went on to generate a tsunami in Lake Geneva that drenched everything on the lake’s shore, devastated villages, demolished the Geneva bridge and mills, and even crashed over the city walls of Geneva, killing several people inside.

To investigate these accounts, researchers surveyed the deepest part of Lake Geneva seismically. This revealed a giant deposit of sediment on the lakebed more than 6 miles (10 km) long and 3 miles (5 km) wide, encompassing a volume of at least 8.8 billion cubic feet (250 million cubic meters). This deposit is about 15 feet (5 m) deep on average, and is thickest near the Rhone delta, suggesting that this is where it originated.

Core samples of lake sediment revealed this giant deposit was created between 381 and 612 A.D., suggesting the Tauredunum event was responsible. The researchers say the rock fall’s impact on soft sediments near the lakeshore caused part of the Rhone delta to collapse, triggering a tsunami.

The scientists calculate that a wave about 25 feet (8 m) high could have reached Geneva approximately 70 minutes after the rock fall, traveling at about 45 mph (70 kph).

“It moved very fast, faster than you can run,” Simpson told OurAmazingPlanet.

Vulnerable city

Geneva is especially vulnerable to such a disaster because of both its low elevation compared to the current lake level and its location at the tip of the funnel-shaped lake, an arrangement that stronglyamplifies the height of waves. If such a tsunami happened today, it would completely inundate large parts of the inner city of Geneva, researchers said.

“Geneva is also the furthest distance from where we think this event was triggered. For people living closer to it, the arrival time of the tsunami could’ve been 10 or 15 minutes, giving almost no chance for a warning,” Simpson said.

Given that river sediment is still building up on the slopes of the Rhone delta, the investigators said tsunamis may well occur in Lake Geneva in the future, perhaps triggered by rock falls, earthquakes or even large storms.

“Tsunamis have happened in Lake Geneva in the past, and in all likelihood, will probably happen at some stage in the future,” Simpson said.

Future researchers can drill deeper into Lake Geneva’s sediments to see how many other times such tsunamis might have occurred, and to get a picture of how often they happen and when another might strike.

Simpson and his colleagues Katrina Kremer and Stéphanie Girardclos detailed their findings online Oct. 28 in the journal Nature Geoscience.