Leptis Magna


Post 3018

Leptis Magna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leptis Magna (Arabic: لَبْدَة‎) also known as Lectis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called LpqyNeapolisLebida orLebda to modern-day residents of Libya, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. Its ruins are located in Khoms, Libya, 130 km (81 mi) east of Tripoli, on the coast where the Wadi Lebda meets the sea. The site is one of the most spectacular and unspoiled Roman ruins in the Mediterranean.
Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna *
File:Leptis Magna Arch of Septimus Severus.jpg
The Arch of Septimius Severus


Country Libya
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii
Reference 183
Region ** Arab States
Inscription history
Inscription 1982 (6th Session)

History as a city

The city appears to have been founded by Phoenician colonists sometime around 1100 BC, who gave it the Lybico-Berber name Lpqy. The town did not achieve prominence until Carthage became a major power in theMediterranean Sea in the 4th century BC. It nominally remained part of Carthage’s dominions until the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC and then became part of the Roman Republic, although from about 200 BC onward, it was for all intents and purposes an independent city.

File:LY-Leptis Magna.png

Map of Leptis Magna

File:Leptis Magna B2.jpg
Severan Basilica

Leptis Magna remained as such until the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius, when the city and the surrounding area were formally incorporated into the empire as part of the province of Africa. It soon became one of the leading cities of Roman Africa and a major trading post.

Tiberius
2nd Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of the Emperor Tiberius
Reign 18 September 14 AD – 16 March 37 AD
Full name Birth to adoption: Tiberius Claudius Nero
Adoption to accession: Tiberius Julius Caesar
As Emperor: Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus
Imperial name: Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus
Born 16 November 42 BC
Birthplace Rome
Died 16 March AD 37 (aged 77)
Place of death Misenum
Buried Mausoleum of AugustusRome
Predecessor Augustus
Successor Caligula
Consort to Vipsania Agrippina
Julia the Elder
Offspring Drusus Julius Caesar
Tiberillus
Germanicus (adoptive)
Father Tiberius Claudius Nero
Mother Livia Drusilla

File:Leptis Magna market place April 2004.jpg

Photograph of the ancient market place of Leptis Magna, Libya.Photographer: Robert Bamler

Leptis achieved its greatest prominence beginning in 193, when a native son, Lucius Septimius Severus, became emperor. He favored his hometown above all other provincial cities, and the buildings and wealth he lavished on it made Leptis Magna the third-most important city in Africa, rivaling Carthage andAlexandria. In 205, he and the imperial family visited the city and received great honors.

Septimius Severus
21st Emperor of the Roman Empire

Alabaster bust of Septimius Severus
at Musei CapitoliniRome
Reign 14 April 193 – 4 February 211
Full name Lucius Septimius Severus
(from birth to accession);
Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Eusebes Pertinax Augustus[1]
(as emperor)
Born 11 April 145[2]
Birthplace Lepcis Magna (Khoms, Libya)
Died 4 February 211 (aged 65)[3]
Place of death Eboracum (YorkUK)
Predecessor Didius Julianus
Successor Caracalla and Geta
Consort Paccia Marciana (c. 175 – c. 186)
Julia Domna
Offspring Caracalla and Publius Septimius Geta
(both by Julia Domna)
Dynasty Severan
Father Publius Septimius Geta
Mother Fulvia Pia

File:Severan dynasty - tondo.png

Tondo, probably from the year 199, Septimius Severus with Julia Domna, Caracalla and Geta, whose face is smeared out.

File:Aureus Septimius Severus-193-leg XIIII GMV.jpg

Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus, to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclaimed him emperor.

Among the changes that Severus introduced were to create a magnificent new forum and to rebuild the docks. The natural harbour had a tendency to silt up, but the Severan changes made this worse, and the eastern wharves are extremely well preserved, since they were hardly used.

Leptis over-extended itself at this period. During the Crisis of the Third Century, when trade declined precipitously, Leptis Magna’s importance also fell into a decline, and by the middle of the fourth century, large parts of the city had been abandoned. Ammianus Marcellinus recounts that the crisis was worsened by a corrupt Roman governor named Romanus during a major tribal raid who demanded bribes to protect the city. The ruined city could not pay these and complained to the emperor Valentianian. Romanus then bribed people at court and arranged for the Leptan envoys to be punished “for bringing false accusations”. It enjoyed a minor renaissance beginning in the reign of the emperor Theodosius I.

Theodosius I
67th Emperor of the Roman Empire

Theodosius
Reign 19 January 379 – 15 May 392 (emperor in the East;
15 May 392 – 17 January 395 (whole empire)
Full name Flavius Theodosius (from birth to accession);
Flavius Theodosius Augustus (as emperor)
Born 11 January 347
Birthplace Cauca, or Italica, near Seville, modern Spain
Died 17 January 395 (aged 48)
Place of death Mediolanum
Buried Constantinople, Modern DayIstanbul
Predecessor Valens in the East
Gratian in the West
Valentinian II in the West
Successor Arcadius in the East;
Honorius in the West
Consort to 1) Aelia Flaccilla (?-385)
2) Galla (?-394)
Offspring Arcadius
Honorius
Pulcheria
Galla Placidia
Dynasty Theodosian
Father Theodosius the Elder
Mother Thermantia
Religious beliefs Catholic Orthodoxy

File:TheodosiusISolidus.jpg

Solidus of emperor Theodosius.

File:Missorium Theodosius whole.jpg

Missorium of Theodosius I, flanked by Valentinian II and Arcadius, 388

In 439, Leptis Magna and the rest of the cities of Tripolitania fell under the control of the Vandals when their king, Gaiseric, captured Carthage from the Romans and made it his capital. Unfortunately for the future of Leptis Magna, Gaiseric ordered the city’s walls demolished so as to dissuade its people from rebelling against Vandal rule. The people of Leptis and the Vandals both paid a heavy price for this in 523 when a group of Berber raiders sacked the city.

Belisarius recaptured Leptis Magna in the name of Rome ten years later, and in 534, he destroyed the kingdom of the Vandals. Leptis became a provincial capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (see Byzantine Empire) but never recovered from the destruction wreaked upon it by the Berbers. It was the site of a massacre of Berber chiefs of the Leuathae tribal confederation by the Roman authorities in 543. By the time of the Arab conquest of Tripolitania in the 650s, the city was abandoned except for a Byzantine garrison force.

Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San VitaleRavenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by theByzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius

History as a historical site

Today, the site of Leptis Magna is the site of some of the most impressive ruins of the Roman period.

Part of an ancient temple was brought from Leptis Magna to the Fort Belvedere royal residence in England in 1818. It now lies in part ofWindsor Great Park. The ruins are located between the south shore of Virginia Water and Blacknest Road close to the junction with the A30 London Road and Wentworth Drive.

File:Leptis magna pillar.jpg

This pillar is off the tourist trail, outside the west gate.

2005 discoveries

In June 2005, it was revealed that archaeologists from the University of Hamburg had been working along the coast of Libya when they uncovered a 30 ft length of five colourful mosaics created during the 1st or 2nd century. The mosaics show with exceptional clarity depictions of a warrior in combat with a deer, four young men wrestling a wild bull to the ground, and a gladiator resting in a state of fatigue and staring at his slain opponent. The mosaics decorated the walls of a cold plunge pool in a bath house within a Roman villa atWadi Lebda in Leptis Magna. The gladiator mosaic is noted by scholars as one of the finest examples of representational mosaic art ever seen—a “masterpiece comparable in quality with the Alexander Mosaic in Pompeii.” The mosaics were originally discovered in the year 2000 but were kept secret in order to avoid looting. They are currently on display in the Leptis Magna Museum.

File:Theater Leptis Magna 03.JPG

One of the entrance to theater (outside view), Leptis Magna 2nd century A.D. (Libya)
Русский: Один из входов в театр (вид снаружи), Лептис Магна 2й век Н.Э. (Ливия)

In the 2011 civil war

There were reports that Leptis Magna was used as a cover for tanks and military vehicles by pro-Gaddafi forces during the 2011 Libyan civil war.When asked about the possibility of conducting an air-strike on the historic site, NATO refused to rule out the possibility of such an action saying that it had not been able to confirm the rebels’ report that weapons were being hidden at the location.

File:Leptis Magna view.JPG
View on Leptis Magna from theater wall
File:Leptis Magna Street.JPG
Sreet view,(from Septimius Severusarch to Trajan Arch) Leptis Magna 2nd century A.D. (Libya)
File:Market Leptis Magna.JPG
Market view, Leptis Magna 2nd century A.D. (Libya)
File:Market Leptis Magna 01.JPG
Market place
File:Market Leptis Magna 03.JPG
Measure converter, Market (founded 8–9 B.C.) (Phoenician colony)
File:Severan Basilica.JPG
Severan Basilica, Leptis Magna 2nd century A.D.
File:Severan Basilica 01.JPG
Stairs inside Septimius Severus Basilica
File:Severan Basilica 02.JPG
Decoration columns inside Basilica of Septimius Severus
File:Severan Basilica 03.JPG
Severan Basilica
File:Forum leptis magna.JPG
Forum in Leptis Magna, 2nd A.D.
File:Forum wall.JPG
 Outside wall of Leptis Magna forum, 2nd century A.D. (Libya)
File:Forum Leptis Magna 04.JPG
 One of the Medusa heads, forum in Leptis Magna, 2nd A.D.
File:Latrines Leptis Magna.JPG
Latrines, Leptis Magna 2nd century A.D.
File:LeptisMagna3.jpg
Ruins of Leptis Magna, Tepidarium (in baths)
File:Bas-relief of fascinus.jpg
 Bas-relief of fascinus or fascinum (amulet for protecting of “Evil eye”in Leptis Magna, 2nd century A.D. (Libya)
Русский: Барельеф – оберег от сглаза Фасцин (лат. Fascinus), Лептис Магна, 2й век Н.Э. (Ливия).
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Amer Fort


Post 3017

Amer Fort

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Type Fort and Palace
Coordinates 26.9859°N 75.8507°E
26.9859°N 75.8507°ECoordinates26.9859°N 75.8507°E
Built 1592
Built by Raja Man Singh I with additions bySawai Jai Singh
Construction
materials
Red Sandstone Stones and Marble
Current
condition
Good
Open to
the public
Yes
Controlled by Government of Rajasthan
File:Amber Fort, Jaipur, c1858.jpg
Amer Fort, Jaipur, c. 1858

Amer Fort (Hindi: आमेर क़िला, also spelled and pronounced as Amber Fort) is located in Amer (a town with an area of 4 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi), 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from JaipurRajasthan stateIndia. It is one of the principal tourist attractions in the Jaipur area, located high on a hill.Amer Fort was built by Raja Man Singh I. Amer Fort is known for its artistic style, blending both Hindu and Rajput elements. With its large ramparts, series of gates and cobbled paths, the fort overlooks the Maota Lake, at its forefront.

The aesthetic ambiance of this formidable fort is seen within its walls on a four level layout plan (each with a courtyard) in a well turned out opulent palace complex built with red sandstone and marble consisting of the Diwan-e-Aam or the “Hall of Public Audience”, the Diwan-e-Khas or the “Hall of Private Audience”, the Sheesh Mahal (mirror palace) or Jai Mandir, and the Sukh Niwas where a cool climate is artificially created by winds that blow over the water cascade within the palace. Hence, the Amer Fort is also popularly known as the Amer Palace. The palace was lived in by theRajput Maharajas and their families. At the entrance to the palace near the fort’s Ganesh Gate, there is also a temple dedicated to Sila Devi, a goddess of the Chaitanya cult which was given to Raja Man Singh when he had defeated the Raja of Jessore, Bengal in 1604. (Jessore is now inBangladesh).

This fort, along with Jaigarh Fort, located immediately above on the Cheel ka Teela (Hill of Eagles) of the same Aravalli range of hills, is considered as one complex, as the two are well connected by a subterranean passage. This passage was meant as an escape route in times of war for the royal family members and others in the Amer Fort to shift to the more redoubtable Jaigarh Fort.

Annual tourist visitation to the Amer Palace in Amer town was reported by the Superintendent of Department of Archaeology and Museums to the Amer Palace as 5000 visitors a day, and 1.4 million visitors were reported during 2007.

Etymology

Amber or Amer Fort’s name is derived from Amba, the Mother Goddess.

Geography

File:Amber Fort - Mahota Lake and Garden 2.jpg

Maota Lake and Garden below the Amer Fort

Amer Fort is situated on a forested hill premonitory, above the Maota Lake near Amer village, about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Jaipur city, the Capital of Rajasthan. It currently sits near the National Highway, which goes to Delhi.A narrow jeepable road leads up to the entrance gate, known as the Suraj Pol or the Sun Gate, of the fort. Elephant rides are also taken through narrow passage through the Sun Gate.

History

File:Amber1860.jpg

A view of the fort at Amber in Rajasthan; a watercolor by William Simpson, c.1860

Amer was known in the medieval period asDhundar (meaning attributed to a sacrificial mount in the western frontiers) and ruled by the Kachwahas from the 11th century onwards – between 1037 and 1727 AD, till the capital was moved from Amer to Jaipur. The history of Amer is indelibly linked to these rulers as they founded their empire at Amer.

Earlier to the Kachwahas, Amer was a small place built by the Meenas in the town they consecrated to Amba, the Mother Goddess, whom they knew as `Gatta Rani’ or `Queen of the Pass’. The Amer Fort, as it stands now, was built over the remnants of this earlier structure during the reign of Raja Man Singh, Commander in Chief of Akbar’s army and a member of the Emperor’s inner circle of nine courtiers, in 1592. The structure was fully expanded by his descendant, Jai Singh I. Even later, Amer Fort underwent improvements and additions by successive rulers over the next 150 years, until the Kachwahas shifted their capital to Jaipur during the time of Sawai Jai Singh II, in 1727.

Many of the ancient structures of the medieval period of the Meenas have been either destroyed or replaced. However, the 16th century impressive edifice of the Amer Fort and the palace complex within it built by the Rajput Maharajas are very well preserved.

Layout

The fort is divided into four main sections each with its own entry gate and courtyard.

File:Amberjpr.jpg

View of the Amer fort.

Main entry is through the Suraj Pole (Sun Gate) which leads to Jaleb Chowk, which is the first main courtyard. This was the place where armies would hold victory parades with their war bounty on their return from battles, which were also witnessed by the Royal family women folk through the latticed windows. This gate was built exclusively and was provided with guards as it was the main entry into the palace. It faced the eastern direction towards the rising Sun and hence the name. Royal cavalcades and dignitaries entered the palace through this gate.

Jaleb Chowk is an Arabic usage, which means a place for soldiers to assemble. This is one of the four courtyards of the Amer Palace, which was built during Sawai Jai Singh’s reign (1693–1743 AD). The Maharaja’s personal bodyguards held parades here under the command of the army commander or Fauj Bakshi. The Maharaja used to inspect the Guards contingent. At this location, the horse stables were also located where its upper level rooms were occupied by the guards.

First courtyard

File:Amber Fort - Marble Screens above Ganesh Pol.jpg

Latticed screens above Ganesh Pol.

File:Amber Fort-Jaipur-India0006.JPG
 View of Ganesh Pol.

An impressive stairway from the Jaleb Chowk leads into the main palace grounds. Here, at the entrance itself to the right of the stairway steps is the Sila Devi temple where the Rajput Maharajas offered worship, starting with Maharaja Mansingh in the 16th century till the 1980s, when the animal sacrifice ritual (sacrifice of a buffalo) practiced by the royalty was stopped .

Ganesh Pol or the Ganesh Gate, named after the Hindu godLord Ganesh who removes all obstacles in life, is the entry into the private palaces of the Maharajas. It is a three level structure which has many frescoes and was also built at the orders of the Mirza Raja Jai Singh(1621–1627) and leads to the private quarters of the royal family. Above this gate is the Suhag Mandir where ladies of the royal family used to watch through the latticed windows functions held in the Diwan-i-Am.

Sila Devi temple
File:Silver door in Amber Fort, Rajasthan.jpg

Embossed double leaf silver door entry in to the Sila Devi temple

On the right side of the Jaleb Chowk there is a small but an elegant temple called the Sila Devi (an incarnation of Kali or Durga) temple. The entrance to the temple is through silver sheet covered double leaf gate with raised relief. The main deity inside the sanctum is flanked by two lions made in silver. The legend attributed to the installation of this deity is that Maharaja Man Singh sought blessings of Kali for victory in the battle against the Raja of Jessore in Bengal. The goddess instructed the Raja, in a dream, to retrieve her image from the sea bed and install and worship it. The Raja, after he won the battle of Bengal in 1604, retrieved the idol from the sea and installed it in the temple and called it as Sila Devi as it was carved out of one single piece of a stone slab. At the entrance to the temple, there is also a carving of Lord Ganesha, which is made out of a single piece of coral stone.

Another version of the Sila Devi installation is that Raja Man Singh, after defeating the Raja of Jessore, received a gift of a black stone slab which was credited with link to theMahabharata epic story in which Kansa had killed older siblings of Lord Krishna on this stone. In exchange for this gift Man Singh returned the kingdom he had won to the Raja of Bengal. This stone was then used to carve the image of Durga Mahishasuramardiniwho had slain the demon king Mahishasura, and installed it in the fort temple as Sila Devi. The Sila Devi was worshiped from then onwards as the lineage deity of the Rajput family of Jaipur. However, their family deity continued to be Jamva Mata of Ramgarh.

Another practice that is associated with this temple is the religious rites of animal sacrifice during the festival days of Navrathri (Nine days festival celebrated twice in a year). The practice was to sacrifice a buffalo and also goats on the eighth day of the festival in front of the temple, which would be done in the presence of the royal family, watched by a large gathering of devotees. This practice was banned under law from 1975, where after the sacrifice is being held within the palace grounds in Jaipur, strictly as a private event with only the close kin of the royal family watching the event. However, the practice of animal sacrifice has been totally stopped at the temple premises and offerings made to the goddess are only of the vegetarian type.

Second courtyard

The second courtyard, up the main stairway of the first level courtyard, houses the Diwan-i-Am or the Public Audience Hall. Built with double row of columns, the Diwan-i-Am is a raised platform with 27 colonnades, each of which is mounted with elephant shaped capital with galleries above it. As the name suggests, the Raja held audience here to hear and receive petitions from the public.

Third courtyard

File:Amber Fort interior.jpg

Mirrored ceiling in the Mirror Palace.

File:Amber Fort - Sheesh Mahal Interior.jpg
Interior of Sheesh Mahal. Diwan-i Khas of Amber Fort is also known as Sheesh Mahal (Glass palace).
മലയാളം: ശീഷ് മഹലിന്റെ ഉള്ളിലെ ദൃശ്യം. ആംബർ കോട്ടയിലെ ദിവാൻ ഇ ഖാസ്, ശീഷ് മഹൽ (കണ്ണാടിമന്ദിരം) എന്ന പേരിലും അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു.

The third courtyard is where the private quarters of the Maharaja, his family and attendants were built. This courtyard is entered through the Ganesh Pol or Ganesh Gate, which is embellished with mosaics and sculptures. The courtyard has two buildings, one opposite to the other, separated by a garden laid in the fashion of the Mughal Gardens. The building to the left of the entrance gate is called the Jai Mandir, which is exquisitely beautified with glass inlaid panels and multi-mirrored ceilings. The mirrors are of convex shape and designed with coloured foil and paint which would glitter bright under candle nights at the time it was in use. Also known as Sheesh Mahal (mirror palace), the mirror mosaics and coloured glasses were “glittering jewel box in flickering candle light”. However, most of this work was allowed to deteriorate during the period 1970–80 but has since then been subjected to a process of restoration and renovation. Carved marble relief panels are placed on walls around the hall. The hall provides enchanting vistas of the Maota Lake.

The other building seen in the courtyard is opposite to the Jai Mandir and is known as the Sukh Niwas or Sukh Mahal (Hall of Pleasure). This hall is approached through a sandalwood door with marble inlay work with perforations. A piped water supply flows through an open channel that runs through this edifice keeping the environs cool, as in an air conditioned environment. The water from this channel was led into the garden.

Magic flower

A particular attraction here is the “magic flower” fresco carved in marble at the base of one of the pillars around the mirror palace which is identified by two hovering butterflies depiction; the flower has seven unique designs of fish tail, a lotus, a hooded cobra, an elephant trunk, a lion’s tail, a cob of corn and a scorpion, each is viewed by a particular way of partial hiding of the panel with hands.

Palace of Man Singh I
File:Amber Fort Jaipur Rajasthan India (13).JPG
The magic flower fresco
File:Amber Fort - Baradhari pavlion at Man Singh Palace Square .jpg
The pavlion named Baradhari at the centre of courtyard of Man Singh Palace at Amber Fort
മലയാളം: ആംബർ കോട്ടയിലെ മാൻ സിങ് കൊട്ടാരത്തിന്റെ നടുമുറ്റത്തുള്ള ബാരാധാരി എന്ന മണ്ഡപം.

South of this courtyard lies the Palace of Man Singh I, which is the oldest part of the palace fort. The palace took 25 years to build and was completed in 1599 during the reign of Raja Man Singh I (1589–1614). It is the main palace. In the central courtyard of the palace is the pillaredbaradari or pavilion; frescoes and coloured tiles decorate the ground and upper floor rooms in this palace. This pavilion (which used to be curtained for privacy) was used as the meeting venue by the maharanis (queens of the royal family). All sides of this pavilion are connected to several small rooms with open balconies. The exit from this palace leads to the Amer village, a heritage town with many temples, palatial houses and mosques.

Garden

The garden, located between the Jai Mandir on the east and the Sukh Niwas on the west, both built on high platforms in the third courtyard, was built by Mriza Raja Jai Singh (1623–68). It is patterned on the lines of the Chahar Bagh or Mughal Garden. It is in sunken bed, shaped in a hexagonal design. It is laid out with narrow channels lined with marble around a star shape pool with a fountain at the centre. Water for the garden is led from the Sukh Niwas cascades of water channel and also from the cascade channels called the “chini khana niches” that originate from terrace of the Jai Mandir.

File:R38567157430 Amber Fort overlooking Maotha lake.jpg

Amer Fort overlooking Maota Lake

Tripolia gate

Tripolia gate means three gates. It is an access to the palace from the west. It opens in three directions, one to the Jaleb Chowk, another to the Man Singh Palace and the third one to the Zenana Deorhi on the south.

File:Amber Fort - Tunnel.jpg

Tunnel connecting Amber Fort to Jaigarh Fort

Lion gate

The Lion gate, the premier gate, was once a guarded gate, leads in to the private quarters in the palace premises and is titled ‘Lion Gate’ indicative of strength. It was built during the reign of Sawai Jai Singh (1699–1743 AD). It is covered with frescoes and its alignment is zigzag, probably made so from security considerations to attack intruders.

Fourth courtyard

The fourth courtyard is where the Zenana (Royal family women, including concubines or mistresses) lived. This courtyard has many living rooms where the queens resided and who were visited by the king at his choice without being found out as to which queen he was visiting, as all the rooms open into a common corridor.

File:Amber Fort Diwan-i-Aam 20080213-7.jpg

  • Double collanade of Diwan-i-Aam

The queen mothers and the Raja’s consorts lived in this part of the palace in Zanani Deorhi, which also housed their female attendants. The queen mothers took deep interest in building temples in Amer town.

Jas Mandir, a hall of private audience with floral glass inlays and alabaster relief work is also located in this courtyard

Conservation

The Amer town itself, which is an integral and inevitable entry point to the Amer Palace is now a heritage town with its economy dependent on the large influx of tourists (4000 to 5000 a day during peak tourist season). This town is spread over an area of 4 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi) and has 18 temples, 3 Jain mandirs and three mosques. It has been listed by the World Monument Fund (WMF) as one of the 100 endangered sites in the world; funds for conservation are provided by the Roberts Willson Challenge Grant. As of 2005, some 87 elephants lived within the fort grounds, but several were said to be suffering from malnutrition.

File:Amber Fort-Jaipur-India0007.JPG

Toshkhana or 27 Kacheris (27 offices) of Amber Fort, Jaipur, India

Conservation works have been undertaken at the Amer Palace grounds at a cost of Rs 40 crores (US$8.88 million) by the Amer Development and Management Authority (ADMA). However, these renovation works have been a subject of intense debate and criticism with respect to their suitability to maintain and retain the historicity and architectural features of the ancient structures. Another issue which has been raised is the commercialization of the place.

A film unit shooting for a film at the Amer Fort damaged a 500-year-old canopy, demolished the old limestone roof of Chand Mahal, drilled holes to fix sets and spread large quantities of sand in Jaleb Chowk in utter disregard and violation of the Rajasthan Monuments, Archaeological Sites and Antique Act (1961).

File:Ceiling painting Amber Fort.jpg

Ceiling painting in Amber Fort, Amber India

The Jaipur Bench of the Rajasthan High Court intervened and stopped the film shooting with the observation that “Unfortunately, not only the public but especially the concerned (sic) authorities have become blind, deaf and dumb by the glitter of money. Such historical protected monuments have become a source of income.”

Bright morning vista of the Amer Fort from across the road

Panorama of Amer Fort at dusk
File:Mirror Palace details Amber Fort.jpg
 Mirror Palace details Amber Fort
File:Side Panel Ganesh Pol Amber Fort.jpg
: Side Panel Ganesh Pol Amber Fort
File:Second floor view Fourth Courtyard Amber Fort.jpg
Second floor view Fourth Courtyard Amber Fort
File:Amber Fort Second Courtyard Mirror Palace view.jpg
 Amber Fort Mirror Palace in the Second Courtyard
File:Amber Fort-1.jpg
View of dome Amber Fort

Nahargarh Fort


Post 3016

Nahargarh Fort

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
File:Nahargarh 13.jpg
RoofTerrace of the Fort
File:Nahargarh.jpg

Jaipur city from Nahargarh Fort

Nahargarh Fort stands on the edge of the Aravalli Hills, overlooking the pink city of Jaipur in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The view of the city from the fort is breath-taking.

Along with  Amber Fortand ,Jaigarh Fort, Nahargarh once formed a strong defence ring for the city. The fort was originally named Sudarshangarh, but it became known as Nahargarh, which means ‘abode of tigers’. The popular belief is that Nahar here stands for Nahar Singh Bhomia, whose spirit haunted the place and obstructed construction of the fort. Nahar’s spirit was pacified by building a temple in his memory within the fort, which thus became known by his name.

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Stone Railing at Nahargarh Fort, Jaipur

Built mainly in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur, the fort was constructed as a place of retreat on the summit of the ridge above the city. Walls extended over the surrounding hills, forming fortifications that connected this fort to Jaigarh, the fort above the old capital of Amber. Though the fort never came under attack during the course of its history, it did see some historical events, notably the treaties with the Maratha forces who warred with Jaipur in the 18th century. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Europeans of the region, including the British Resident’s wife, were moved to Nahargarh fort by the king of Jaipur, Sawai Ram Singh, for their protection

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Nahargarh Fort compound Jaipur, Rajasthan

The fort was extended in 1868 during the reign of Sawai Ram Singh. In 1883-92, a range of palaces was built at Nahargarh by Sawai Madho Singh at a cost of nearly three and a half lakh rupees. The Madhavendra Bhawan, built by Sawai Madho Singh had suites for the queens of Jaipur and at the head was a suite for the king himself. The rooms are linked by corridors and still have some delicate frescos. Nahargarh was also a hunting residence of the Maharajas. 

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Until April 1944, the Jaipur State government used for its official purposes solar time read from the Samrat Yantra in the Jantar Mantar Observatory, with a gun fired from Nahargarh Fort as the time signal.

Some scenes of the movie Rang De Basanti were shot at Nahargarh fort.

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Jaipur, Madhvendra Palace