NASA’s Next Mars Rover to Land at Huge Gale Crater


NASA’s Next Mars Rover to Land at Huge Gale Crater

by Denise Chow, SPACE.com Staff Writer
Date: 22 July 2011 Time: 12:00 PM ET

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Denise was an intern at the New York Daily News and GQ magazine. She has a masters degree in journalism from New York University and a bachelor’s degree from the University of Toronto.

Oblique View of Gale Crater from the Northwest

This computer-generated view based on multiple orbital observations shows Mars’ Gale crater as if seen from an aircraft northwest of the crater.
CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/UA

“We are going to the mountain at Gale crater,” Michael Watkins, project engineer for the Mars Science Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., revealed in a press conference today (July 22). “It exhibits three different kinds of environmental settings, perhaps the trilogy of Mars history. It’s a worthy goal, a worthy challenge for such a capable rover.”

Gale crater is about 96 miles (154 kilometers) wide and has a mountain at its center that rises higher, from the crater floor up, than Mount Rainer near Seattle. The crater, which is named after Australian astronomer Walter F. Gale, is so large that the U.S. states of Connecticut and Rhode Island could fit inside it, NASA officials said. [Video: Fly Over Gale Crater on Mars]

“Mars is firmly in our sights,” NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said in a statement. “Curiosity not only will return a wealth of important science data, but it will serve as a precursor mission for human exploration to the Red Planet.”

Gale Crater: Future Home of Mars Rover Curiosity

NASA has selected Gale crater as the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory mission.
CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU

Gale crater is also thought to harbor clues of ancient water activity on the Martian surface, and one of Curiosity’s primary tasks will be to root around for evidence that Mars is, or was, capable of supporting microbial life. [Gale Crater FAQ: Mars Landing Spot for Next Rover Explained]

“Scientists identified Gale as their top choice to pursue the ambitious goals of this new rover mission,” said Jim Green, director for the planetary science division at NASA Headquarters in Washington, in a statement. “The site offers a visually dramatic landscape and also great potential for significant science findings.”

The agency revealed the landing site today (July 22) in a briefing hosted by the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. The announcement coincides with the museum’s celebration of Mars Day, which commemorates the 35th anniversary of NASA’s Viking 1 Mars landing on July 20, 1976.

The next Mars landing

During a series of worldwide workshops, members of the science community proposed 60 potential landing sites, said John Grant, a geologist at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.  [Best (And Worst) Mars Landings in History]

In 2008, four primary candidates were selected, and eventually two finalists were identified: Eberswalde crater and Gale crater.

Eberswalde is largely considered one of the best deltas on Mars, and at some point, the crater was likely filled with water, Grant said. Each of the candidate sites “represent an incredible opportunity for MSL. It was a very difficult decision to arrive at a final one,” he said.

Targeted images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which has been circling the Red Planet since 2006, provided detailed imagery of the potential landing sites that enabled scientists and engineers to evaluate safety concerns and the scientific benefits of each candidate location.

A team of senior NASA officials, principal investigators and co-investigators then conducted a thorough review and unanimously selected Gale crater as the official landing site.

“All four of the final sites were really great candidates,” Grant told SPACE.com. “Early on in the process, I had a favorite. I can honestly say that that went away. They’re really different. With Gale crater, there’re still questions about how this mountain of material is in place. All of them have very attractive attributes and some unknowns, so you really have to say, ‘Which one offers us the broadest benefits to the objectives of MSL?'”

This artist concept features NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life. Curiosity is being tested in preparation for launch in the fall of 2011.

This artist concept features NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, a mobile robot for investigating Mars’ past or present ability to sustain microbial life. Curiosity is being tested in preparation for launch in the fall of 2011.
CREDIT: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Meet Mars’ Gale crater

In the end, the program scientists found the broadest benefits in Gale crater’s diverse environmental settings.

“The Gale site represents an incredibly rich suite of scientific investigations that we can do,” said Dawn Sumner, a geologist at the University of California, Davis.

At the base of the mountain, there are signatures of clays and sulfate salts, which are both known to form in water, and are both key classes of minerals that will reveal clues about the environment on Mars, Sumner said.

By moving toward Gale’s mountain, the layering will help scientists understand how the Martian environment changed through time. From these observations, project scientists are hoping to glean information about Mars’ potential habitability.

The Curiosity rover will expand on previous Mars exploration with its sophisticated onboard instruments. The rover’s science payload has the potential to identify organic carbon and other ingredients and compounds that make up the building blocks of biology.

Scientists are hoping that Curiosity will find minerals in the clay and sulfate-rich layers near the base of Gale crater’s mountain.

“Gale gives us attractive possibilities for finding organics, but that is still a long shot,” said Michael Meyer, lead scientist for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program at NASA Headquarters. “What adds to Gale’s appeal is that, organics or not, the site holds a diversity of features and layers for investigating changing environmental conditions, some of which could inform a broader understanding of habitability on ancient Mars.”

And while Curiosity’s mission does not include life detection, the rover is expected to unearth clues about the habitability of the environments on the Red Planet, said John Grotzinger, MSL project scientist at JPL.

“This is a very, very difficult challenge that we have for us,” Grotzinger said. “We hope to be able to be able to look for organic carbon. What we can promise and deliver with MSL is an understanding of the environmental history of Mars.”

NASA revealed the landing site today (July 22) in a briefing hosted by the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. The announcement coincides with the museum’s celebration of Mars Day honoring the 35th anniversary of NASA’s Viking 1 Mars landing on July 20, 1976.

NASA’s Curiosity rover will be the largest rover ever sent to Mars. After launching from Florida later this year, the rover will spend several months cruising toward Mars for a planned August 2012 landing.

The spacecraft weighs a ton and is roughly comparable in size to a Mini Cooper car. The sophisticated rover is designed to study aspects of the Martian surface in greater detail than ever before, boasting a suite of 10 different science instruments.

Photos: Curiosity Rover, NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory

SPACE.com Staff
Date: 21 June 2011 Time: 05:09 PM ET
Photos : Curiosity Rover, Nasa’s Mars Science Laboratory

Curiosity, the Newest Mars Rover

 Curiosity, the Newest Mars RoverCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechThis artist concept features NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, a mobile robot for investigating Mars’ past or present ability to sustain microbial life. Curiosity is being tested in preparation for launch in the fall of 2011.
NASA Mars Rover Curiosity Lands in Florida
NASA Mars Rover Curiosity Lands in FloridaCredit: NASANASA’s next Mars rover, known as Curiosity, landed at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on June 22, 2011, aboard a U.S. Air Force C-17 transport plane.
Final testing of NASA's Curiosity rover at JPL

Final testing of NASA’s Curiosity rover at JPLCredit: NASA/JPLNASA’s Curiosity rover is shown here during final testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It will be shipped to its Florida launch site in late June 2011.

 Next Mars Rover Gets Huge Heat Shield

Next Mars Rover Gets Huge Heat ShieldCredit: Lockheed Martin.This massive heat shield is covered in an ablative material that will help protect NASA’s new Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity – a robot the size of a car – from the searing temperatures of atmospheric entry when it lands on Mars. Built by Lockheed Martin, the shield is 15 feet wide, the biggest ever bound for Mars.

 Mars Science Laboratory Landing Diagram

Mars Science Laboratory Landing DiagramCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechThis graphic portrays the sequence of key events in August 2012 from the time the NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft — with its rover Curiosity — enters the Martian atmosphere to a moment after it touches down on the surface.

 NASA's Mars Rover Curiosity
NASA’s Mars Rover CuriosityCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechAn artist’s concept illustrates what the Mars rover Curiosity will look like on the Red Planet

James Cameron with Curosity Mast

James Cameron with Curosity MastCredit: NASA/JPLAcademy Award-winning director James Cameron (right) inspects engineering model of camera mast for NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover. Cameron is a member of the camera team for the Red Planet mission.
New Mars Rover Takes First Drive ... On Earth
New Mars Rover Takes First Drive … On EarthCredit: NASA/JPL/UstreamNASA’s next-generation Mars rover, Curiosity, took its first baby steps on Earth today, making two slow drives forward and back on the floor of the clean room where it is being constructed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
NASA's Next Mars Rover, Curiosity, Is an Internet Star
NASA’s Next Mars Rover, Curiosity, Is an Internet StarCredit: NASA/JPL-CalTechNASA’s Curiosity Cam allows the public to watch technicians assemble and test NASA’s next Mars rover in a clean room at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
Inside a 'Clean Room': NASA Puts Mars Rover Together
Inside a ‘Clean Room’: NASA Puts Mars Rover TogetherCredit: Andrea ThompsonThe bodies of the flight model (left) and engineering model (right) of Curiosity. The flight model will be the rover launched into space, with the engineering model serving as a back-up.
Earth Microbes Not Likely to Contaminate Mars, Scientists Say
Earth Microbes Not Likely to Contaminate Mars, Scientists SayCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechThis image shows the Mars rover Curiosity being assembled in one of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s ‘clean rooms.’ The team members are all dressed in special head-to-toe white suits.
Mars Science Laboratory: Big Wheels on A Red Planet
Mars Science Laboratory: Big Wheels on A Red PlanetCredit: NASA/JPLThe Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be much larger than NASA’s two Mars Exploration Rovers that began exploring the red planet in early 2004. Image
Future Mars Rover Gets New Set of Wheels

Future Mars Rover Gets New Set of WheelsCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechMars rover Curiosity, the centerpiece of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission, is coming together for extensive testing prior to its late 2011 launch. This image taken June 29, 2010, shows the rover with the mobility system — wheels and suspension — in place after installation on June 28 and 29.

Testing the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Curiosity
Testing the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, CuriosityCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechTesting of the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. Evaluations during March included use of a space-simulation chamber designed to put the rover through operational sequences in environmental conditions similar to what it will experience on the surface of Mars.
Landing Sites Debated for Next Mars Rover
Landing Sites Debated for Next Mars RoverCredit: NASA/JPL/Corby WasteNASA’s Mars Science Laboratory plans to launch in 2009. The rover is to be powered by nuclear generator (not shown) and will have extensive mobility across the red planet. Image
Four Finalist Landing Site Candidates for Mars Science Laboratory
Four Finalist Landing Site Candidates for Mars Science LaboratoryCredit: NASA/JPL-CaltechOut of more than 30 sites considered as possible landing targets for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission, by November 2008 four of the most intriguing places on Mars rose to the final round of the site-selection process.
Eberswalde Delta
Eberswalde DeltaCredit: NASA/JPL/MSSSAt this site in Mars’ southern hemisphere, an ancient river once flowed into a lake. The area abounds with phyllosilicates, clay-like minerals that preserve a record of long-term contact with water. Here on Earth, oil geologists have built up a store of knowledge about how to look for organic materials in river deltas. Mission scientists and Curiosity may be able to tap into that knowledge in operations at Eberswalde.
Gale Crater

Gale CraterCredit: NASA/JPL/MSSSGale Crater, which is near the Martian equator, offers access to a wide range of rock strata, including sulfates and phyllosilicates in a mountain three miles (5 kilometers) high. Curiosity could probably drive partway up this mountain, checking out layers deposited during wet periods with changing environmental conditions.

 New Images Used to Pick Mars Lander Site
New Images Used to Pick Mars Lander SiteCredit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaThe Nili Fossae region of Mars is one of the largest exposures of clay minerals discovered. In this HiRISE false-color image, dark blue regions are volcanic minerals. Light-toned areas are clay-rich material and may contain water and organic materials–a possible place where life can be supported.
Mawrth Vallis

Mawrth VallisCredit: JPL-Caltech/ASUThis apparent flood channel in the Martian southern hemisphere is one of the oldest valleys known on the Red Planet. Its layered terrain contains several different types of clays, giving Curiosity the chance to study changes in wet conditions over the eons. This is the only one of the four landing sites that possesses interesting geology for the rover to check out. At the other three, the study areas are outside the landing zone, requiring the rover to make more of a drive before starting its science work.

Pieces of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission at JPL

Pieces of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission at JPLCredit: Mike WallPieces of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in May 2011. From left: the Curiosity rover (along rear wall; its tires are on a table to the rover’s right), the entry-descent-landing stage, the cruise stage and the backshell.

 Mars Science Laboratory entry-descent-landing system and cruise stage
Mars Science Laboratory entry-descent-landing system and cruise stageCredit: Mike WallA close-up of the Mars Science Laboratory mission’s entry-descent-landing system (foreground) and cruise stage, in a clean room at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in May 2011.
MEDLI instruments installed on MSL heat shield

MEDLI instruments installed on MSL heat shieldCredit: Lockheed MartinTechnicians at Lockheed Martin in Denver finalize the installation of the MEDLI instrument package on the backside of the Mars Science Laboratory’s heat shield.

Readying the aeroshell for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission
Readying the aeroshell for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory missionCredit: Lockheed MartinThe huge aeroshell for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission is readied at Lockheed Martin Space Systems near Denver.
 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project manager Pete Theisinger
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project manager Pete TheisingerCredit: NASA/JPLMars Science Laboratory (MSL) project manager Pete Theisinger, of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Heavy-Lift Helicopter Inspires NASA’s New Mars Lander
Heavy-Lift Helicopter Inspires NASA’s New Mars LanderCredit: NASA/JPL, Corby WasteSky Crane illustrated lowering Mars Sample Return spacecraft. Image
NASA Advised to Revamp Mars Plans
NASA Advised to Revamp Mars PlansCredit: NASA/JPLA National Academies study group recommends delaying an Astrobiology Field Laboratory until 2018. Doing so would allow more time to consider the output from prior Mars missions, including the Mars Science Laboratory now being readied for 2009 liftoff.
Once-Habitable Lake Found on Mars

Once-Habitable Lake Found on MarsCredit: NASA/JPL/University of ArizonaScientists on the HiRISE team have discovered what mighe be a once-habitable ancient lake on Mars at Holden crater. This shows part of the outside rim of Holden crater.

Giant Mars Rover Parachute Passes Key Test

Giant Mars Rover Parachute Passes Key TestCredit: NASA/Ames Research Center/JPLThe parachute for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory passed flight-qualification testing in March and April 2009 inside the world’s largest wind tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.

NASA Adds Video Camera To Next Mars Rover

NASA Adds Video Camera To Next Mars RoverCredit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science SystemsThis Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) camera will fly on the Curiosity rover of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission. The downward-looking camera will take about four frames per second at nearly 1,600 by 1,200 pixels per frame for about the final two minutes before Curiosity touches down on Mars in August 2012. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, Calif., supplied MARDI and two other camera instruments for the mission. A pocketknife provides scale for the image.

 Preparing Mars Science Laboratory Heat Shield
Preparing Mars Science Laboratory Heat ShieldCredit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Lockheed MartinTechnicians at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, prepare the heat shield for NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, in this April 2011 photo.
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