Ögedei Khan- (c. 1186 – December 11, 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan(Khagan)


Ögedei Khan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ögedei Khan
Khagan of the Mongol Empire
(Supreme
Khan of the Mongols)
King of Kings
YuanEmperorAlbumOgedeiPortrait.jpg 

A portrait of Ögedei during the Great Yuan.

Reign September 13, 1229 – December 11, 1241
Coronation September 13, 1229
Born c. 1186
Died 11 December 1241 (aged 55)
Place of death Mongolia
Predecessor Tolui (Regent)
Successor Güyük Khan
Consort Töregene
Royal House Borjigin
Father Temüjin (Genghis Khan)
Mother Borte Ujin

Ögedei Khan (Mongolian: Өгэдэй, Ögedei; also Ogotai or OktayOgodei) (c. 1186 – December 11, 1241) was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan(Khagan) of the Mongol Empire by succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the invasions of Europe and Asia.[1]Like all of Genghis’ primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in China,Iran and Central Asia.

Background

Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and Börte Ujin. He participated in the turbulent events of his father’s rise. When he was 17 years old, Genghis Khan experienced the disastrous defeat of Khalakhaljid Sands. Ögedei was heavily wounded and lost on the battlefield.[2] His father’s adopted brother and companion Borokhula rescued him. Although already married, in 1204 his father gave him Toregene, the wife of a defeated Merkit chief.

File:Genghis Khan and three of his four sons.jpg

Genghis Khan and three of his four sons.

After Genghis was proclaimed Emperor or Khagan in 1206, myangans (1000’s) of theJalayir, Besud, SuldusKhongqatan clans were given to him as his appanage. Ögedei’s territory occupied the Emil and Hobok rivers. According to his father’s wish, Ilugei, the commander of the Jalayir, became Ögedei’s tutor.

Ögedei, along with his brothers, campaigned independently for the first time in November, 1211 against the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234). He was sent to ravage the land south through Hebei and then north through Shanxi in 1213. Ögedei’s force drove the Jin garrison out of the Ordos and he rode to the juncture of the Xi Xia, Jin and Song domains.[3]

During the Mongol conquest of Eastern Persia, Ögedei and Chagatai massacred the residents of Otrar after a five-month siege in 1219-20 and joined Jochi who was outside the walls of Urganch.[4] Because Jochi and Chagatai were quarreling over the military strategy, Ögedei was appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the siege of Urganch.[5] They captured the city in 1221. When the rebellion broke out in south east Persia and Afghanistan, Ögedei also pacified Ghazni.[6]

Ascendancy to Supreme Khan

File:CoronationOfOgodei1229.jpg

Coronation of Ögedei in 1229. Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.

The Empress Yisui and Borte,(Genghis’ first wife) insisted that Genghis Khan designate an heir before the invasion of Khwarezmid Empire in 1219. After the terrible brawl between Jochi and Chagatai, they agreed that Ögedei was to be chosen as heir. Genghis confirmed their decision.

Genghis Khan died in 1227, and Jochi had died a year or two year earlier. Ögedei’s younger brother held the regency until 1229.

He was elected supreme khan in 1229, according to the kurultai held at Kodoe Aral on theKherlen River after Genghis’ death, although this was never really in doubt as it was Genghis’ clear wish that he be succeeded by Ögedei. After ritually declining three times, Ögedei was proclaimed Khagan of the Mongols on September 13, 1229.[7] Chagatai continued to support his younger brother’s claim.

Genghis Khan saw Ögedei’s characteristic as courtesy and generosity.[8] His charisma is partially credited for his success in keeping the Empire on his father’s path. Thanks mostly to the organization left behind by Genghis Khan, and the personal charisma of Ögedei, the affairs of the Mongol Empire remained for the most part stable during his reign. To this it must again be added that Ögedei was an extremely pragmatic man, however, he made some mistakes during his reign. He had no delusions that he was his father’s equal as a military commander or organizer, and used the abilities of those he found most capable.

World conquests

Expansion in the Middle East

Main article: Mongol conquest of Persia

After destroying the Khwarazmian empire, Genghis Khan was free to move against Hsi Hsia in 1226. In 1226, however, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last of the Khwarizm monarchs, returned to Persia to revive the empire lost by his father, Muhammad ‘Ala al-Din II. The Mongol forces sent against him in 1227 were defeated at Dameghan. Another army that marched against Jalal al-Din scored a pyrrhic victory in the vicinity of Isfahan, but was unable to follow up that success.

With Ögedei’s consent to launch a campaign at last, Chormaqan left Bukhara at the head of 30 to 50,000 Mongol soldiers. He occupied Persia and Khorasan, two long-standing bases of Khwarazmian support. Crossing the Amu Darya River in 1230 and entering Khorasan without encountering any opposition, Chormaqan passed through it quickly. He left a sizable contingent behind under the command of Dayir Noyan, who had further instructions to invade western Afghanistan. Chormaqan and the majority of his army then entered the northern section of Persia known as Mazandaran in the autumn of 1230. In doing so, he avoided the mountainous area south of theCaspian Sea. That region was controlled by the Ismailis.

Upon reaching the city of Rai, Chormaqan made his winter camp there and dispatched his armies to pacify the rest of northern Persia. In 1231, he led his army southward and quickly captured the cities of Qum and Hamadan. From there, he sent armies into the regions ofFars and Kirman, whose rulers quickly submitted, preferring to pay tribute to their Mongol overlords rather than to see their states ravaged. Meanwhile further east, Dayir steadily achieved his goals in capturing Kabul, Ghazni, and Zawulistan. With the Mongols already in control of Persia, Jalal al-Din was isolated in Transcaucasia where he was banished. Thus all of Persia was added to the Mongol Empire.

The fall of the Jin Dynasty

Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Jin Dynasty (1115-1234))

This article is about the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115–1234). For other Chinese dynasties whose names are also rendered “Jin” inpinyin, see Jin Dynasty (disambiguation).


Jin
 

1115–1234
 

Location of Jin

Capital Huining
(1122-1153)
Zhongdu
(1153-1214)
Kaifeng
(1214-1233)
Religion BuddhismDaoism,ConfucianismChinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
– 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu
– 1234 Emperor Modi
History
– Established 1115 1115
– Ended Liao‘s rule 1125
– CapturedBianliang January 9, 1127
– Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 1234
Currency Chinese coinChinese cash

File:Departure Herald-Detail.jpg

 

History of China

ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
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IMPERIAL
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Western Han
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Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
Wei, Shu & Wu
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304–439
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420–589
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Tang Dynasty 618–907
Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
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907–960
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907–1125
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960–1279
Northern Song W. Xia
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The Jīn Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu, Aisin Gurun; Chinese: 金朝; pinyinJīn CháoWade–Giles: Chin Dynasty, IPA: [tɕîn tʂʰɑ̌ʊ̯]); Khitan language: Nik, Niku;[1][2] Mongolian: Altan Ulus; 1115–1234), also known as the Jurchen Dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchens, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Jinn to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn Dynasty of China whose name is spelled identically in the Roman alphabet.

History

File:Premongol.png

Map of Asia and parts of Europe andAfrica circa 1200

The Jin Dynasty was founded in what would become northern Manchuria by theJurchen tribal chieftain Wanyan Aguda (完顏阿骨打) in 1115. The Jurchens’ early rival was the Liao Dynasty, which had held sway over northern China, including Manchuria and part of the Mongol region for several centuries. In 1121, the Jurchens entered into the Alliance on the Sea with the Song Dynasty and agreed to jointly invade the Liao. While the Song armies faltered, the Jurchens succeeded in driving the Liao to Central Asia. Also at this time, the Jin made overtures to the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which Emperor Yejong refused.[3]

In 1125, after the death of Aguda, the Jin broke the alliance with the Song and invaded North China. On January 9, 1127, Jin forces ransacked Kaifeng, capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, capturing both Emperor Qinzong, and his father,Emperor Huizong, who had abdicated in panic in the face of Jin forces. Following the fall of Kaifeng, Song forces under the leadership of the succeedingSouthern Song Dynasty continued to fight for over a decade with Jin forces, eventually signing the Treaty of Shaoxing in 1141, calling for the cessation of all Song land north of the Huai River to the Jin and the execution of Song GeneralYue Fei in return for peace.

The migration south

File:Jade ornament grapes jin dynasty shanghai museum 2004 07 22.jpg

Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty, Shanghai Museum.

After taking over Northern China, the Jin Dynasty became increasingly Sinicized. About three million people, half of them Jurchens, migrated south into northern China over two decades, and this minority governed about thirty million people. The Jurchens were given land grants and organized society into 1,000 households (猛安 – meng’an) and 100 households (謀克 – mouke). Many married Hans, although the ban on Jurchen nobles marrying Hans was not lifted until 1191. After Jin Emperor Tàizōng (太宗) died in 1135, the next three Jin emperors were grandsons of Wányán Āgǔdǎby three different princes. Young Jin Emperor Xīzōng (熙宗) (r. 1135-1149) studied the classics and wrote Chinese poetry. He adopted Han cultural traditions, but the Jurchen nobles had the top positions.

Later in life, Emperor Xīzōng became an alcoholic and executed many officials for criticizing him. He also had Jurchen leaders who opposed him murdered, even those in his own Wanyan family clan. In 1149 he was murdered by a cabal of relatives and nobles, who made his cousin Wányán Liàng (完顏亮) the next Jin emperor. Because of the brutality of both his domestic and foreign policy, Wanyan Liang was posthumously demoted from the position of emperor. Consequently, historians have commonly referred to him by the posthumous name of Prince Hǎilíng (海陵王).[4]

Rebellions in the north

File:Luohan.jpg

marble statue of a Buddhist monk, 1180 AD, Jin Dynasty.

Having usurped the throne, Wanyan Liang embarked on the program of legitimizing his rule as an emperor of China. In 1153, he moved the empire’s main capital fromHuining Fu in northern Manchuria (south of present-dayHarbin) to the former Liao capital, Yanjing (nowBeijing).[4][5] Four years later, in 1157, to emphasize the permanence of the move, he razed the nobles’ residences in Huining.[4][5] Hǎilíng also reconstructed the former Song capital, Bianjing (now Kaifeng), which had been sacked in 1127, making it the Jin’s southern capital.[4]

Prince Hǎilíng also tried to suppress dissent by killing Jurchen nobles, executing 155 princes.[4]

To fulfill his dream of becoming the ruler of all China, Prince Hǎilíng attacked the Southern Song in 1161. Meanwhile, two simultaneous rebellions erupted inManchuria: one of Jurchen nobles, led by Hǎilíng’s cousin, soon-to-be crowned Wányán Yōng (完顏雍), and the other of Khitan tribesmen. Hǎilíng had to withdraw Jin troops from southern China to quell the uprisings. The Jin were defeated in the Battle of Caishi and Battle of Tangdao. With a depleted military force, Prince Hǎilíng failed to make headway in his attempted invasion of the Southern Song. Finally he was assassinated by his own generals in December of 1161, due to his defeats. His son and heir was also assassinated in the capital.[4]

Although crowned in October, Wányán Yōng was not officially recognized as Jin Emperor Shìzōng (世宗) until the murder of Prince Hǎilíng’s heir.[4] The Khitan uprising was not suppressed until 1164; their horses were confiscated so that the rebels had to take up farming. Other Khitan and Xi cavalry units had been incorporated into the Jin army. Because these internal uprisings had severely weakened the Jin’s capacity to confront the Southern Song militarily, the Jin court under Emperor Shizong began negotiating for peace. The Treaty of Lóngxīng (隆興和議) was signed in 1164 and ushered over 40 years of peace between the two empires.

File:Wood Bodhisattva 2.jpg

A wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin Dynasty, Shanghai Museum.

In the early 1180s Emperor Shìzōng instituted a restructuring of 200 meng’an units to remove tax abuses and help Jurchens. Communal farming was encouraged. The Jin empire prospered and had a large surplus of grain in reserve. Although learned in Chinese classics, Shizong was also known as a promoter of Jurchen language and culture; during his reign, a number of Chinese classics were translated into Jurchen, the Imperial Jurchen Academy was founded, and theImperial examinations started to be offered in the Jurchen language.[6] Shizong’s reign (1163–1188) was remembered by the posterity as the time of comparative peace and prosperity, and the emperor himself was compared to the legendary Yao and Shun[6]

Shìzōng’s grandson, Emperor Zhāngzōng (章宗) (r. 1189-1208) venerated Jurchen values, but he also immersed himself in Chinese culture and married an ethnic Han woman. The Taihe Code of law was promulgated in 1201 and was based mostly on the Tang Code. In 1207 the Song tried to invade, but the Jin forces effectively repulsed them. In the peace agreement the Song had to pay higher annual indemnities and behead Hán Tūozhòu (韩侂胄), the leader of their war party.[7]

Fall of Jin

Main article: Mongol-Jin War

History of Manchuria 

v • d • e

Not based on timeline
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Starting from the early 13th century the Jin Dynasty began to feel the pressure of Mongols from the north. Genghis Khan first led the Mongols into Western Xia territory in 1205 and ravaged them four years later. In 1211 about 50,000 Mongols on horses invaded the Jin Empire and began absorbing Khitan and Jurchen rebels. The Jin army had a half million men with 150,000 cavalry but abandoned the “western capital” Datong (see also Badger’s Mount Campaign). The next year the Mongols went north and looted the Jin “eastern capital”, and in 1213 they besieged the “central capital”. In 1214 the Jin made a humiliating treaty but retained the capital. That summer, Jin Emperor Xuānzōng (宣宗) abandoned the central capital and moved the government to the “southern capital” of Kaifeng, making it the official seat of Jin Dynasty power. In 1216 a war faction persuaded Xuānzōng to attack the Song, but in 1219 they were defeated at the same place by the Yangtze River, where Prince Hǎilíng had been defeated in 1161. The Jin now faced a two front war which they could not afford. Furthermore, the Jin Emperor Āizōng (哀宗) won a succession struggle against his brother and then quickly ended the war and went back to the capital. He made peace with the Tanguts, who had been allied with the Mongols. Genghis Khan died in 1227 while his armies were conquering the Western Xia Dynasty. His son Ögedei Khaninvaded the Jin Empire in 1232 with assistance from the Southern Song. The Jurchens tried to resist; but when Kaifeng was attacked, Āizōng fled south. An allied army of Song and Mongols looted the capital in 1233, and the next year Āizōng committed suicide to avoid being captured, ending the Jin dynasty in 1234.[4] The territory of the Jin was to be divided between the Mongols and the Song. However, due to descrepancies, the Song and the Mongols eventually went to war with one another over these territories.

File:Chenglingpagodazhengding.jpg

The Chengling Pagoda of Zhengding,Hebei province, built between 1161 and 1189 AD.

In his book Empire of The Steppes, Grousset reports that the Mongols were always amazed at the valor of the Jin warriors, who held out until seven years after the death of Genghis Khan.[clarification needed]

The Jin military

Contemporary Chinese writers ascribed Jurchen success in overwhelming the Liao and Northern Song mainly to their cavalry. Already duringAguda‘s rebellion against the Liao, all Jurchen fighters were mounted. It was said that the Jurchen cavalry tactics were a carryover from their hunting skills.[8] Jurchen horsemen were provided with heavy armor; on occasions, they would use a team of horses attached to each other with chains (拐子马, guaizi ma)[8]

As the Liao Empire fell apart and the Song retreated beyond the Yangtze, the army of the new Jin Dynasty absorbed many soldiers who formerly fought for the Liao or Song.[8] The new Jin empire adopted many of the Song’s weapons, including various machines for siege warfare and artillery. In fact, the Jin use of cannons, grenades, and even rockets to defend besieged Kaifeng against the Mongols in 1233 is considered the first ever battle in human history in which gunpowder was used effectively, even though it failed to prevent the eventual Jin defeat.[8]

On the other hand, Jin Empire was not particularly good at naval warfare. Both in 1129-30 and in 1161 Jin forces were defeated by theSouthern Song navies when trying to cross the Yangtze River into the core Southern Song territory (see Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi), even though for the latter campaign the Jin had equipped a large navy of their own, using Chinese shipbuildiers and even Chinese captains who had defected from the Southern Song.[8]

Rise of the Manchus

This section requires expansion.

After thirty years of struggle, the Jurchen chief Nurhaci (努爾哈赤) combined the three Jurchen tribes and founded the Later Jin Dynasty(1616–1636). Nurhaci’s eighth son and heir, Huáng Tàijí (皇太極), later changed the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu in 1635. The next year, he changed the name of the Later Jin to Qing in 1636.

[edit]List of Jin Dynasty Emperors

Sovereigns of Jin Dynasty 1115-1234
Temple Name
Miao Hao
廟號
miàohào
Posthumous Name
Shi Hao
諡號
shìhào
Birth Name 

姓名
xìngmíng

Years of
Reign
Era Name
Nian Hao
年號
niánhào
and Years
Convention: “Jin” + temple name or posthumous name
Tàizǔ
太祖
(1) Wányán Āgǔdǎ
完顏阿骨打
or
Wányán Min
完顏旻
1115–1123 Shōuguó (收國, 1115–1116)
Tiānfǔ (天輔, 1117–1123)
Tàizōng
太宗
(1) Wányán Wúqǐmǎi
完顏吳乞買
or
Wányán Shèng
完顏晟
1123–1134 Tiānhuì (天會, 1123–1134)
Xīzōng
熙宗
(1) Wányán Hélá
完顏合剌
or
Wányán Dǎn
完顏亶
1135–1149 Tiānhuì (天會, 1135–1138)
Tiānjuàn (天眷, 1138–1141)
Huángtǒng (皇統, 1141–1149)
(2) Hǎilíngwáng
海陵王
Wányán Dígǔnǎi
完顏迪古乃
or
Wányán Liàng
完顏亮
1149–1161 Tiāndé (天德, 1149–1153)
Zhènyuán (貞元, 1153–1156)
Zhènglóng (正隆, 1156–1161)
Shìzōng
世宗
(1) Wányán Wūlù
完顏烏祿
or
Wányán Yōng
完顏雍
1161–1189 Dàdìng (大定, 1161–1189)
Zhāngzōng
章宗
(1) Wányán Jǐng
完顏璟
1189–1208 Míngchāng (明昌, 1190–1196) 

Chéng’ān (承安, 1196–1200)
Tàihé (泰和, 1200–1208)

(2) Wèishàowáng
衛紹王
or
Wèiwáng
衛王
Wányán Yǒngjì
完顏永濟
1208–1213 Dà’ān
大安
1209-1212 

Chóngqìng
崇慶
1212-1213

Zhìníng
至寧
1213

Xuānzōng
宣宗
(1) Wányán Xún
完顏珣
1213–1224 Zhēnyòu
貞祐
1213-1217 

Xīngdìng
興定
1217-1222

Yuánguāng
元光
1222-1224

Āizōng
哀宗
(1) Wányán Shǒuxù
完顏守緒
1224–1234 Zhèngdà
正大
1224-1232 

Kāixīng
開興
1232

Tiānxīng
天興
1232-1234

(2) Mòdì
末帝
Wányán Chénglín
完顏承麟
1234 (2)

See also: Mongol-Jin War

At the end of 1230, responding to the Jin’s unexpected defeat of the Mongol general Doqulkhu, the Khagan went south to Shanxiprovince with Tolui, clearing the area of the Jin forces and taking the city of Fengxiang. After passing the summer in the north, they again campaigned against the Jin in Henan, cutting through territory of South China to assault the Jin’s rear. By 1232 the Jin Emperor was besieged in his capital of Kaifeng. Ögedei soon departed, leaving the final conquest to his generals. After taking several cities, the Mongols, with the belated assistance of the Song Dynasty, destroyed the Jin in February 1234. However, a viceroy of the Song murdered a Mongol ambassador and the Song armies recaptured the former imperial capitals of Kaifeng, Luoyang, and Chang’an which were now ruled by the Mongols.

In addition to the Mongol-Jin War, Ögedei crushed the Eastern Xia Dynasty in 1233, pacifying southern Manchuria. Ögedei subdued theWater Tatars in northern part of the region and suppressed their rebellion in 1237.

Conquest of Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia

Main article: Mongol invasion of Georgia and Armenia

File:Geor tamro aandersen.GIF

Ögedei conquered the Kingdom of Georgia(including its subordinate Armenia) and Azerbaijan

The Mongols under Chormaqan returned to Caucasus in 1232. Ganjak’s walls were breached by catapult and battering ram in 1235. The Mongols eventually withdrew after the citizens of Irbil agreed to send a yearly tribute to the court of the khagan. Chormaqan waited until 1238, when the force of Mongke was also active to the north Caucasus.[9] After subduing Azerbaijan and Greater Armenia, Chormaqan took Tiflis. In 1238, the Mongols captured Lorhe whose ruler, Shahanshah, fled with his family before the Mongols arrived, leaving the rich city to its fate. After a putting up a spirited defense at Hohanaberd, the city’s ruler, Hasan Jalal, submitted to the Mongols. Another column then advanced against Gaian, ruled by Prince Avak. The Mongol commander Tokhta ruled out a direct assault and had his men construct a wall around it and its prince Avak surrendered soon. By 1240, Chormaqan had completed the conquest of Transcaucasia, forcing the Georgian nobles to surrender.

Invasion of Korea

Main article: Mongol invasions of Korea

File:高丽油画.jpg

A drawing of Battle of Choein at theWar Memorial of Korea.

In 1224 a Mongol envoy was killed in obscure circumstances and Korea stopped paying tribute.[10] Ögedei dispatched Saritai (Sartaq) to subdue Korea and avenge the dead envoy in 1231. Thus, Mongol armies began to invade Korea in order to subdue the kingdom. TheGoryeo King temporarily submitted and agreed to accept Mongol overseers. When they withdrew for the summer, however, Choe Umoved the capital from Kaesong to Ganghwa Island. Saritai was hit with a stray arrow and died as he campaigned against them.

Korea-Gyeongju-Bulguksa (Below)

File:Korea-Gyeongju-Bulguksa-33.jpg

Ögedei announced plans for the conquest of the Koreans, the Southern Song, the Kipchaks and their European allies, all of whom killed Mongol envoys at the kurultai in Mongolia in 1234. Ögedei appointed Danqu commander of the Mongol army and made Bog Wong, the defected Korean general, governor of 40 cities with their subjects. When the court of Goryeo asked the peace treaty in 1238, Ögedei demanded the king to summon before him in person. The Goryeo king finally sent his relative Yeong Nong-gun Sung with 10 noble boys to Mongolia as hostages, temporarily ending the war in 1241.[11] It is said that Ögedei recruited his kheshig with Koreans.

Europe

Main article: Mongol invasion of Europe

File:Сapture of the Mongol-Tatars Russian city.jpg

The Mongol army captures a Rus’ city

The Mongol Empire expanded westward under the command of Batu Khan to subdue the Russian steppe and the rest of Europe. Their western conquests included almost all ofRussia (save Novgorod, which became a vassal), Hungary, and Poland. During the siege ofKolomna, the Khagan’s half brother Khulgen[12] was killed by an arrow.

After the conquest of Volga-BulgariaAlania, and Rus principalties, Ögedei’s son Güyükand Chagatai’s grandson Buri ridiculed Batu and the Mongol camp suffered dissention. The Khagan harshly criticized Guyuk that “You broke the spirit of every man in your army…Do you think that the Russians surrendered because of how mean you were to your own men”.Then he sent Guyuk back to continue the conquest of Europe. Ögedei’s sons Kadanand Güyük attacked Poland and Transylvania, respectively.

Ögedei Khan had granted permission to invade the remainder of Europe, all the way to the “Great Sea,” the Atlantic Ocean, and only his death prevented the possible invasions ofAustriaGermanyItalyFrance, and Spain, and the remaining small European principalities. Indeed, Mongol forces were moving on Vienna, launching a fierce winter campaign against Austria and Germany in the first wave into Western Europe, when Ögedei died. Some historians believe only his death prevented the complete conquest of Europe.[13]

Conflict with the Song China

Main article: Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty

In a series of razzias from 1235 to 1245, the Mongols commanded by Ögedei’s sons penetrated deep into the Song Dynasty and reached ChengduXiangyang and Yangtze River. But they could not succeed in completing their conquest due to climate and number of the Song troops. However, Ögedei’s son Khochu died in the process. In 1240, Ögedei’s another son Khuden dispatched a subsidiary expedition to Tibet. The situation between the two nations worsened when the Song officers murdered Ögedei’s envoys headed by Selmus.[14]

The Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent under the leadership of Ögedei helped bring political stability and re-establish theSilk Road, the primary trading route between East and West.

India

Main article: Mongol invasion of India

Ögedei appointed Dayir commander of Ghazni and Menggetu commander in Qonduz. In winter 1241 the Mongol force invaded the Indus valley and besieged Lahore. Dayir died storming the town, however, on December 30, 1241, and the Mongols butchered the town before withdrawing from the Delhi Sultanate.[15]

Some time after 1235 another Mongol force invaded Kashmir, stationing a darughachi there for several years. Soon Kashmir became a Mongolian dependency.[16] Around the same time, a Kashmiri Buddhist master, Otochi, and his brother Namo arrived at the court of Ögedei.

Administration

File:Ogadai Khan.jpg

Portrait of Ögedei Khagan (the 14th century). Recreation of a Yuan portrait in the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

Ögedei began bureaucratization of Mongol administration. Three culture constituted his administration:

Mahamud Yalavach promoted a system in which the government would delegate tax collection to tax farmers who collect payments in silver. Yelu Chucai encouraged Ögedei to institute a traditional Chinese system of government, with taxation in the hands of government agents, and payment in a government issued currency. The Muslim merchants, working with capital supplied by the Mongol aristocrats, loaned at higher interest the silver needed for tax payments. At the same time the Mongols began circulating paper currencybacked by silver reserves.

Ögedei abolished the branch departments of state affairs and divided the areas of the Mongol ruled China into 10 routes according to the suggestion of Yelü Chucai. He also divided the empire into Beshbalik administration, Yanjing administration while the Headquarter in Karakorum directly dealt with Manchuria, Mongolia and Siberia. Late in his reign, Amu Daryaadministration was established. Turkestan was administered by Mahamud Yalavach while Yelu Chucai administered North China from 1229 to 1240. Ögedei appointed Shigi Khutugh chief judge in China. In Iran, Ögedei appointed first Chin-temur, a Kara-kitai, and thenKorguz, an Uyghur who proved to be honest administrator. Later, some of Yelu Chucai’s duties were transferred to Mahamud Yalavach and taxes were handed over to Abd-ur-Rahman, who promised to double the annual payments of silver.[17] The Ortoq or partner merchants lent Ögedei’s money at exorbitant rates of interest to the peasants, however, Ögedei considerably banned higher rates. Despite it proved profitable, many people fled their homes to avoid the tax collectors and their strong-arm gangs.

Ögedei had imperial princes tutored by the Christian scribe Qadaq and the Taoist priest Li Zhichang and built schools and academy. Ögedei Khan also decreed to issue paper currency backed by silk reserves and founded a Department which was responsible for destroying old notes. Yelu Chucai protested to Ögedei that his large-scale distribution of appanages in Iran, Western and North China, and Khorazm, could lead to a disintegration of the Empire.[18] Ögedei thus decreed that the Mongol nobles could appoint overseers in the appanages, but the court would appoint other officials and collect taxes.

The Khagan proclaimed the Great Yassa as integral body of precedents, confirming the continuing validity of his father’s commands and ordinances, while adding his own. Ögedei codified rules of dress, conduct during the kurultais. Throughout the Empire, in 1234, he created postroad stations (Yam) with a permanent staff who would supply post riders’ needs.[19] Relay stations were set up every 25 miles and the yam staff supplied remounts to the envoys and served specified rations on them. The attached households were exempt from other taxes but they had to pay a qubchuri tax to supply the goods. Ögedei ordered Chagatai and Batu to control their yams separately. The Khagan prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas (tablet that gave the bearer authority to demand goods and services from civilian populations) and jarliqs. Ögedei decreed that within decimal units one out of every 100 sheep of the well-off should be levied for the poor of the unit, and that one sheep and one mare from every herd should be forwarded to form a herd for the imperial table.[20]

Karakorum

File:Karakorum - Tortue Sud.jpg

Stone tortoise of Karakorum

Main article: Karakorum

From 1235-38 Ögedei constructed a series of palaces and pavilions at stopping places in his annual nomadic route through central Mongolia. The first palace Wanangong was constructed by North Chinese artisans. The Emperor urged his relatives build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site. The construction of the city,Karakorum (Хархорум), was finished in 1235, assigning different quarters to Islamic and North Chinese craftsmen, who competed to win Ögedei’s favor. Earthen walls with 4 gates surrounded a city. Attached were private apartments, while in front of stood a giant stone tortoise bearing an engraved pillar, like those that were commonly used in East Asia. There was a castle with doors like the gates of the garden and a series of lakes where many water fowl gathered. Ögedei erected several houses of worship for his Buddhist, Muslim, Taoist, and Christian followers. In the Chinese ward, there was a Confucian temple where Yelu Chucai used to create or regulate a calendar on the Chinese model.

Character

File:Ögedei Khan Statue.JPG

Statue of Ögedei Khagan inMongolia

He was considered to be his father’s favorite son, ever since his childhood. As an adult Ögedei was known for his ability to sway doubters in any debate in which he was involved, simply by the force of his personality. He was a physically big, jovial and very charismatic man, who seemed mostly to be interested in enjoying good times. He was intelligent and steady in character. His charisma was partially credited for his success in keeping the Mongol Empire on the path that his father had set.

To encourage trade caravans he paid extremely high prices for all manner of goods whether he needed them or not. Ögedei squandered much of his wealth, passing out pearls, golds, coins and other precious stones to the people. The constant outflow from the Imperial treasury had to be made up by taxes, principally on North China.

Ögedei kept peace among his family, criticizing his son and Chagatai’s grandson. The sudden death of Tolui seems to have affected him deeply. According to some sources, Tolui sacrificed his own life, having a drink in shamanist ritual in order to save Ögedei who was suffering from illness.[21] Ögedei fell victim to alcoholism. Chagatai entrusted an official to watch his habit, but Ögedei managed to drink anyway. When he died at dawn on December 11, 1241, after a late-night drinking bout with Abd-ur-Rahman, the people blamed the sister of Tolui’s widow and Abd-ur-Rahman. The Mongol aristocrats recognized, however, that the Khagan’s own lack of self control had killed him.

Ögedei was also known to be a humble man, who did not believe himself to be a genius, and was willing to listen and use the great generals that his father left him, as well as those he himself found to be most capable. He was the Emperor (Khagan) but not adictator.[22] Like all Mongols at his time, he was raised and educated as a warrior from childhood, and as the son of Genghis Khan he was a part of his father’s plan to establish a world empire. His military experience was notable for his willingness to listen to his generals, and adapt to the circumstances. He was an extremely pragmatic person, much like his father, and looked at the end, rather than the means. His steadiness of character and dependability were the traits that his father most valued, and that gained him the role of successor to his father, despite his two older brothers.

However, he used violence to strengthen his authority. In 1237 Ögedei dispatched his imperial army to punish the Oirat and seize their lands after the forest people refused to give tributes. Around 4,000 young girls became subject to war violence.[23]

Aftermath of Ögedei’s death

Ögedei had nominated his grandson Shiremun as his heir, but Güyük eventually succeeded him after the five-year regency of his widow Töregene Khatun. However, Batu, the Khan of the Kipchak Khanate (the Ulus of Jochi) in Russia, nominally accepted Guyuk, who died on the way to confront Batu. It was not until 1255, well into the reign of Mongke Khan, that Batu felt secure enough to again prepare to invade Europe. Fortunately for the Europeans, he died before his plans could be implemented.

When Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, he had Ögedei Khan placed on the official record as Taizong (Chinese: 太宗).

Children

Ögedei had many khatuns and concubines. Ögedei married first Borakchin and then Toregene. Other wives included Mukha and Jachin.

He had 7 sons:

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On Veterans Day, Navajo Code Talkers honored


Thu Nov 11, 3:58 pm ET

On Veterans Day, Navajo Code Talkers honored

By Zachary Roth

Navajo Code Talkers

During World War II, Navajo members of the Marine Corps used a code based on their native language to allow platoons to communicate without Japanese intelligence agents being able to decipher what they were saying. This Veterans Day marks official recognition of the Navajo “Code Talkers” and their crucial part in the war effort.

A group of Code Talkers rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange this morning, and the state of New Mexico dedicated a stretch of highway to them yesterday, reports USA Today.

The idea for the Code Talkers is said to have come from Philip Johnston, the son of a Protestant missionary who grew up on the Navajo reservation, which spans parts of New Mexico, Arizona and Utah, in the “four corners” region of the Southwest. Johnston, who spoke the language, convinced the Marines to enlist Navajo recruits, and to use the language  — for which no books exist — as a secure communications tool.

In 1942, a group of 29 Navajo devised the complex code, assigning Navajo words for each letter of the English alphabet; they also adapted the Navajo vocabulary to describe weapons and form combat-related phrases. The Navajo word for tortoise, for instance, “chay-da-gahi,” meant tank, and “ne-he-mah,” which means our mother, meant America.

In the Pacific Theater, where platoons often lacked sophisticated communications equipment and made hard landings on beaches, the code was especially useful, Geoffrey Wawro, a military historian, told the paper. The Japanese never cracked it.

“It helped reduce Marine casualties,” said Wawro.

The military trained 400 Navajo Code Talkers, but fewer than 100 are believed to be alive today. Two of them, Keith Little and Frank Chee Willetto, are now working with a foundation to raise money for a Code Talkers museum and veterans center.

The Code Talker initiative didn’t mark the only Navajo contribution to the war effort. War planners used uranium from Navajo mines to build the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the same uranium reserves went into the postwar arms buildup against the Soviet Union’s nuclear arsenal. Years after the mines closed, rates of cancer and other deadly diseases shot up among the tribe — something that researchers have linked to radioactive contamination on large parts of the reservation. Only in the last few years has the government begun to make significant reparations to the Navajo.

(Photo: AP/Seth Wenig)

Picture of two Navajo code talkers in Australia during World War II.

Navajo code talkers (and cousins), Preston and Frank Toledo at Ballarat, Australia. (July 7, 1943)

Picture from the Smithsonian, courtesy of the National Archives.
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Code talker

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Code talkers was a term used to describe people who talk using a coded language. It is frequently used to describe Native Americanswho served in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted these messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formal or informally developed codes built upon their native languages. Their service was very valuable because it enhanced the communications security of vital front line operations during World War II.

The name code talkers is strongly associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the Marines to serve in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater. Code talking, however, was pioneered by Choctaw Indians serving in the U.S. Army during World War I. These soldiers are referred to as Choctaw Code Talkers.

Other Native American code talkers were used by the United States Army during World War II, using CherokeeChoctawLakota[1]Meskwaki, and Comanche soldiers. Soldiers of Basque ancestry were used for code talking by the US Marines during World War II in areas where other Basque speakers were not expected to be operating.

Use of Cherokee

The first known use of Native Americans in the American military to transmit messages under fire was a group of Cherokee troops utilized by the American 30th Infantry Division serving alongside the British during the Second Battle of the Somme. According to the Division Signal Officer, this took place in September 1918. Their outfit was under British command at the time.[2]

Use of Choctaw

File:ChoctawCoders.jpg

Choctaws in training in World War I for coded radio and telephone transmissions.

In the days of World War I, company commander Captain Lawrence of the U. S. Army overheard Solomon Louis and Mitchell Bobb conversing in the Choctaw language. He found eight Choctaw men in the battalion.[3] Eventually, fourteen Choctaw men in the Army’s 36th Infantry Division trained to use their language in code. They helped the American Expeditionary Force win several key battles in the Meuse-Argonne Campaign in France, during the final big German push of the war. Within 24 hours after the Choctaw language was pressed into service, the tide of the battle had turned. In less than 72 hours the Germans were retreating and the Allies were in full attack.[3]

These soldiers are now known as the Choctaw Code Talkers.

Use of Comanche

File:Comanche Code Talkers.jpg

Comanche code-talkers of the 4th Signal Company (U.S. Army Signal Center and Ft. Gordon)

File:Comanche codebook 2.jpg

Hugh F. Foster Jr.‘s Comanche code book

Adolf Hitler knew about the successful use of code talkers during World War I. He sent a team of some thirty anthropologists to learn Native American languages before the outbreak of World War II.[4] However, it proved too difficult for them to learn the many languages and dialects that existed. Because of Nazi German anthropologists’ attempts to learn the languages, the U.S. Army did not implement a large-scale code talker program in the European Theater. FourteenComanche code talkers took part in the Invasion of Normandy, and continued to serve in the 4th Infantry Division during further European operations.[5] Comanches of the 4th Signal Company compiled a vocabulary of over 100 code terms using words or phrases in their own language. Using a substitution method similar to the Navajo, the Comanche code word for tank was “turtle”, bomber was “pregnant airplane”, machine gun was “sewing machine” and Adolf Hitler became “crazy white man.”[6]

Two Comanche code-talkers were assigned to each regiment, the rest to 4th Infantry Division headquarters. Shortly after landing on Utah Beach on June 6, 1944, the Comanches began transmitting messages. Some were wounded but none killed.[6]

In 1989, the French government awarded the Comanche code-talkers the Chevalier of theNational Order of Merit. On 30 November 1999, the United States Department of Defensepresented Charles Chibitty with the Knowlton Award.[6][7]

Use of Meskwaki

Meskwaki men used their language against the Germans in North Africa. Twenty-seven Meskwaki, then 16% of Iowa’s Meskwaki population, enlisted in the U.S. Army together in January 1941.[8]

Use of Basque

Captain Frank D. Carranza conceived the idea of using the Basque language for codes in May 1942 upon meeting about 60 US Marinesof Basque ancestry in a San Francisco camp.[9][10][11] His superiors were justifiably wary. There were 35 Basque Jesuits in Hiroshima, led by Pedro Arrupe. In China and the Philippines, there was a colony of Basque jai alai players and there were Basque supporters ofFalange in Asia. The American Basque code talkers were kept from these theaters; they were initially used in tests and in transmitting logistic information for Hawaii and Australia.

On August 1, 1942, Lieutenants Nemesio Aguirre, Fernández Bakaicoa and Juanna received a Basque-coded message from San Diego for Admiral Chester Nimitz warning him of the upcoming Operation Apple to remove the Japanese from the Solomon Islands. They also translated the start date, August 7, for the attack on Guadalcanal. As the war extended over the Pacific, there was a shortage of Basque speakers and the parallel Navajo program came to be preferred.

Use of Navajo


File:General douglas macarthur meets american indian troops wwii military pacific navajo pima island hopping.JPG

General Douglas MacArthur met withNative American code talkers in late 1943. Pictured: one man each from the Pima,Pawnee and Chitimacha peoples, and twoNavajo men.

File:Navaho-enlistment-letter-page01.jpg

Page one of Navajo recommendation letter, 1942.

File:Navaho-enlistment-letter-page02.jpg

Page two of Navajo recommendation letter, 1942.

Philip Johnston proposed the use of Navajo to the United States Marine Corps at the beginning of World War II. Johnston, a World War I veteran, was raised on the Navajo reservation as the son of a missionary to the Navajos, and was one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language fluently. Because Navajo has a complex grammar, it is not nearly mutually intelligible enough with even its closest relatives within the Na-Dene family to provide meaningful information, and was an unwritten language, Johnston saw Navajo as answering the military requirement for an undecipherable code. Navajo was spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest, and its syntax and tonal qualities, not to mention dialects, make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. One estimate indicates that at the outbreak of World War II fewer than 30 non-Navajos, none of them Japanese, could understand the language.[citation needed]

Early in 1942, Johnston met with Major General Clayton B. Vogel, the commanding general of Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet, and his staff. Johnston staged tests under simulated combat conditions which demonstrated that Navajos could encode, transmit, and decode a three-line English message in 20 seconds, versus the 30 minutes required by machines at that time. The idea was accepted, with Vogel recommending that the Marines recruit 200 Navajos. The first 29 Navajo recruits attended boot camp in May 1942. This first group then created the Navajo code at Camp PendletonOceanside, California.[12] The Navajo code was formally developed and modeled on the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet that uses agreed-upon English words to represent letters. As it was determined that phonetically spelling out all military terms letter by letter into words—while in combat—would be too time consuming, some termsconceptstactics and instruments of modern warfare were given uniquely formal descriptive nomenclatures in Navajo (the word for “potato” being used to refer to a hand grenade, or “tortoise” to a tank, for example). Several of these portmanteaus (such as gofasters referring to running shoes, ink sticks for pens) entered Marine corps vocabulary and are commonly used today to refer to the appropriate objects.

A codebook was developed to teach the many relevant words and concepts to new initiates. The text was for classroom purposes only, and was never to be taken into the field. The code talkers memorized all these variations and practiced their rapid use under stressful conditions during training. Uninitiated Navajo speakers would have no idea what the code talkers’ messages meant; they would hear only truncated and disjointed strings of individual, unrelated nouns and verbs.

File:Code Talkers.jpg

Code Talkers Monument Ocala, FloridaMemorial Park.

The Navajo code talkers were commended for their skill, speed and accuracy accrued throughout the war. At Iwo Jima, Major Howard Connor, 5th Marine Division signal officer, had six Navajo code talkers working around the clock during the first two days of the battle. These six sent and received over 800 messages, all without error. Connor later stated, “Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima.”[12]

As the war progressed, additional code words were added on and incorporated program-wide. In other instances, informal short-cut code words were devised for a particular campaign and not disseminated beyond the area of operation. To ensure a consistent use of code terminologies throughout the Pacific Theater, representative code talkers of each of the U.S. Marine divisions met in Hawaii to discuss shortcomings in the code, incorporate new terms into the system, and update their codebooks. These representatives in turn trained other code talkers who could not attend the meeting.

The deployment of the Navajo code talkers continued through the Korean War and after, until it was ended early in the Vietnam War.

Cryptographic properties

This section duplicates, in whole or part, the scope of other article(s) or section(s).
Please discuss this issue on the talk page and conform with Wikipedia’s Manual of Style by replacing the section with a link and a summary of the repeated material, or by spinning off the repeated text into an article in its own right. (September 2010)



Navajo code talkers, Saipan, June 1944

Non-speakers would find it extremely difficult to accurately distinguish unfamiliar sounds used in these languages. Additionally, a speaker who has acquired a language during their childhood sounds distinctly different from a person who acquired the same language in later life, thus reducing the chance of successful impostors sending false messages. Finally, the additional layer of an alphabet cypher was added to prevent interception by native speakers not trained as code talkers, in the event of their capture by the Japanese. A similar system employing Welsh was used by British forces, but not to any great extent during World War II. Welsh was used more recently in theBalkan peace-keeping efforts for non-vital messages.

Navajo was an attractive choice for code use because few people outside the Navajo themselves had ever learned to speak the language. Virtually no books in Navajo had ever been published. Outside of the language itself, the Navajo spoken code was not very complex by cryptographic standards and would likely have been broken if a native speaker and trained cryptographers worked together effectively. The Japanese had an opportunity to attempt this when they captured Joe Kieyoomia in the Philippines in 1942 during the Bataan Death March. Kieyoomia, a Navajo Sergeant in the U.S. Army, but not a code talker, was ordered to interpret the radio messages later in the war. However, since Kieyoomia had not participated in the code training, the messages made no sense to him. When he reported that he could not understand the messages, his captors tortured him.[13] Given the simplicity of the alphabet code involved, it is probable that the code could have been broken easily if Kieyoomia’s knowledge of the language had been exploited more effectively by Japanese cryptographers. The Japanese Imperial Army and Navy never cracked the spoken code.

Post-war recognition

File:CodetTakerMedal.jpg

Congressional Gold Medal awarded to Navajo code talkers in 2000

File:Navajo Code Talker Monument.JPG

Monument to Navajo code talkers in Window Rock, AZ

The code talkers received no recognition until the declassification of the operation in 1968.[14] In 1982, the code talkers were given a Certificate of Recognition by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who also named August 14, 1982 “Navajo Code Talkers Day”.[15][16]

On December 21, 2000 the U.S. Congress passed, and President Bill Clinton signed, Public Law 106-554, 114 Statute 2763, which awarded the Congressional Gold Medal to twenty-nine World War II Navajo code talkers. In July 2001, U.S. President George W. Bush personally presented the Medal to four surviving code talkers (the fifth living code talker was not able to attend) at a ceremony held in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, DC. Gold medals were presented to the families of the 24 code talkers no longer living.[17]

On September 17, 2007, 18 Choctaw code talkers were posthumously awarded the Texas Medal of Valor from the Adjutant General of the State of Texas for their World War I service.[18] On December 13, 2007, H.R. 4544, the Code Talker Recognition Act, was introduced to the House of Representatives. The Code Talker Recognition Act recognizes every code talker who served in the United States military with a Congressional Gold Medal for his tribe, and a silver medal duplicate to each code talker, including eight Meskwakis.[19]

Popular culture

The 2002 movie Windtalkers was a fictional story based on Navajo code talkers who were enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps in World War II. The movie was criticized for featuring the Navajo characters only in supporting roles, not as the primary focus of the film.[20] The film’s plot was fabricated about white bodyguards being ordered to kill them should they fall into enemy hands.[21] It was further criticized for its use of stereotypes of both Native Americans and east Asians.[22]

The 1959 movie Never So Few features Charles Bronson as Sgt. John Danforth, a Navajo code talker.

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A historical fictional book,”Code Talker”, portrays a Navajo boy serving in the USMC with some of his Navajo friends in the Pacific Theater in World War II.

Private First Class Preston Toledo (left) and Private First Class Frank Toledo, cousins and Navajos, attached to a Marine Artillery Regiment in the South Pacific will relay orders over a field radio in their native tongue.

Guadalcanal
Aug 1943

GUADALCANAL WASHDAY — On the banks of the famous Tenaru River, where some of the bloodiest fighting of the South Pacific War took place last year, Private First Class LeRoy John, 20, a member of U.S. Marine Corps, presents an incongruously placid picture as he goes through that domestic task of washing clothes with a hand operated “state-side” washing machine. This photo was taken a year after the first Marines landed here and is indicative of the completeness with which Marines have secured this island against any possible Japanese threat to retake it. John is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Eticitty Begay of Shiprock, New Mexico.

June 1943 Photog: Howard
Private First Class Peter Nahaidinae (left), Private First Class Joseph P. Gatewood and Corporal Lloyd Oliver, Navajo Indians, attached with the 1st Marine Division in the Southwest Pacific, study a night problem at the Amphibious Scout School conducted by the Intelligence Section. The Indians are considered particularly valuable in their work as members of a signal company.

Noumea
Aug 17, 1943
Photog: Salvatore Gatto, 1st Raider

JAPANESE COULDN’T DECIPHER THEIR “CODE”
Three of the Navajo Marines who served with the Marine Raiders on New Georgia as communicators, sending battlefront messages in the Navajo language, which the Japanese found impossible to decode. Left to right, they are: Private First Class Edmond John of Shiprock, New Mexico; Private First Class Wilsie H. Bitsie, Mexican Springs, New Mexico, and Private First Class Eugene R. Crawford of Chinle, Arizona.

DEFENSE DEPT. PHOTO (MARINE CORPS) #61431

Bougainville
Dec 1943 Photog: Hanks

NAVAJO MARINES – (Front Row) Privates Earl Johnny, Kee Etsicitty, John V. Goodluck and Private First Class David Jordan. (Back row) Privates Jack C. Morgan, George H. Kirk, Tom H. Jones and Corporal Henry Bahe, Jr., Navajo Indians, are serving with a Marine Signal Unit.

OFFICIAL U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO

Two Indian Marine observers on hill overlooking Garapan while manning their observation post. Pfc. Jack Nez of Fort Defiance, Ariz. and Pfc. Carl Gorman of Chinle, Ariz.

Saipan
27 Jun 44 Photog: Szarka
Two Indian Marine observers on hill overlooking Garapan while manning their observation post. Pfc. Jack Nez of Fort Defiance, Ariz. and Pfc. Carl Gorman of Chinle, Ariz.

DEFENSE DEPT. PHOTO (MARINE CORPS) #83714

June 27, 1944
Pfc. Carl Gorman of Chinle, Arizona, who manned an observation post on a hill overlooking the city of Garapan while the Marines were consolidating their positions on the island of Saipan, Marianas.

OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH

Marine Pfc. Cecil G. Trosip of Oraibi, Arizona at communication system on Saipan.

U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO

NEW MEXICAN MARINE INDIANS. These New Mexicans, serving with the veteran First Marine Division, played an important part in maintaining communications during the Peleliu campaign. Front row, left to right: Pfc. James T. Nahkai, of Ship Rock; Pfc. John H. Bowman, of Tohatchi; Pfc. Ira Manuelito, of Tohatchi; Pfc. Jimmy King, of Ship Rock; Pfc. Andrew Calleditto, of Crownpoint; Pfc. Lloyd Betone, of Crownpoint; Cpl. Lloyd Oliver, of Ship Rock. Rear row, left to right: Pfc. Preston Toledo, of Crownpoint’ Cpl. John Chee, of Ship Rock; Pfd. Sandy Burr of Ship Rock; Pfc. Ben Manuelito, of Tohatchi; Pfc. Dan Daiya, of Gallup; Pfc. Edward Lueppe, of Tohatchi; Pfc. Del Cayedito, of Crownpoint; and Pfc. Ralph Cayedito, of Crownpoint. Lueppe, the Cayedito brothers and Manuelito, played football and basketball together at the Fort Wingate, N.M. Indian School. King held the Colorado State boxing championship at 118 lbs in 1940. In the foreground, commending them for their work is Lieutenant Colonel James G. Smith, signal officer for the First Marine Division.

Hdqtrs. No 101511
DEFENSE DEPT. PHOTO (MARINE CORPS)
Saunders

1st MarDiv
Okinawa
4/6/1945 Photog: McElroy

Private Jimmy D. Benallie stands in front of a shop beneath a Japanese sign.

OFFICIAL U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO
USMC #117725

6/14/45
Pvt. Leslie Hemstreet of Crystal, New Mexico, a Navajo Marine, is shown beating a drum at this shrine.

Pearl Harbor
2 Mar 47
PEARL HARBOR, T.H. (Delayed) – Marine Privates First Class Alec E. Nez, Flagstaff, Ariz., left, and William D. Yazzie, Shiprock, N.M., recently participated in the Marine Corps Pacific Division Rifle and pistol matches at Puuloa Point, T.H. Both Marines fired a total score of 545 out of a possible six hundred, but Yazzie fired a higher score the second day and placed third while Nez placed fourth. Yazzie received a gold medal, Nez the first silver medal. The presentations were made by Brigadier General H. D. Linscott, Commanding General, Marine Garrison Forces, Pacific. Yazzie and Nez were two of the men chosen to represent the First Marine Division in the San Diego and Quantico, Va., matches.

DEFENSE DEPT. PHOTO (MARINE CORPS) #145995

PEARL HARBOR, T.H. – Marine Corporal William D. Yazzie, son of Mrs. Paul Wilson of Shiprock, N.M., awaits his turn on the firing line at Puuloa Point rifle range near Pearl Harbor. Corporal Yazzie was selected from among the best marksmen in his unit in China to participate in the preliminary firing of the Marine’s Pacific Division rifle and pistol competition being held currently. Leathernecks representing all Pacific units from Hawaii to China and Japan are firing, preparatory to the final competition in the Pacific matches which will be held at the end of February. The top marksmen of the meet will go to San Diego to fire in the Bear Trophy match and later to Quantico, Va., for the Marine Corps matches. Corporal Yazzie, a former student of Shiprock high school, enlisted in the Marine Corps in May 1941. A veteran of three Pacific campaigns, he won a gold medal with the rifle and a silver with the pistol at last year’s Pacific shoot. Before coming to Hawaii, Yazzie was stationed with the Fleet Marine Force.

OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH

1st MarDiv
Ballart, South Pacific
7 July 1943

Corporal Lloyd Oliver, a Navajo Indian, operates a field radio while attached to a Marine Artillery Regiment in the South Pacific. Cpl. Oliver also is a sniper and a highly regarded scout.

OFFICIAL U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO
USMC

Bougainville
Dec 1943

Corporal Henry Bahe, Jr. (left) and Private First Class George H. Kirk, Navajos serving with a Marine Signal Unit, operate a portable radio set in a clearing they’ve hacked in the dense jungle close behind the front lines.

OFFICIAL U.S. MARINE CORPS PHOTO

Enroute to Okinawa
3/31/45
Photog: CSP Zerbe (NAVY)

MARINE RADIO MESSENGERS — (L to R) Private First Class Hosteen Kelwood, Private Floyd Saupitty and Private First Class Alex Williams are on their way to the Japanese war front. PFCs Williams and Kelwood are Navajos and Private Saupitty, a Comanche. They are veterans of Peleliu.

Hawaii
5 Mar 48
Pearl Harbor, T.H. — Marine Corporal William D. Yazzie, son of Mrs. Paul Wilson of Shiprock, N.M., is congratulated by Major General Samuel L. Howard, commander of Marine Garrison Forces, Pacific, who presented the Corporal with a temporary certificate in lieu of the bronze rifle medal which he won in the Pacific Division rifle and pistol matches held recently at Puuloa Point rifle range on the island of Oahu. Corporal Yazzie, who had been stationed Tsingtao, China, fired in competition with nearly 100 other Marine shooters from units throughout the Pacific. A veteran of three Pacific campaigns, Cpl. Yazzie enlisted in the Marine Corps in May 1941.

DEFENSE DEPT. PHOTO MARINE CORPS #148633

See also

 

 

Chinese vase fetches $69.3 million at auction


Chinese vase fetches $69.3 million at auction

This undated photo released by Bainbridge Auctioneers ...

Chinese vase which was sold

This undated photo released by Bainbridge Auctioneers shows a Chinese vase which was sold for 43 million pounds ($69.3 million) in London Thursday, Nov. 11, 2010. The vase is decorated with a fish motif and is 16 inches high. Auctioneers Bainbridges said the vase is believed to have been acquired by an English family during the 1930s or earlier.« Read less

(AP Photo / Bainbridge Auctioneers ho, via PA) ** UNITED KINGDOM OUT **

This undated photo released by Bainbridge Auctioneers ...

Top of Chinese vase which was sold

This undated photo released by Bainbridge Auctioneers shows the top of a Chinese vase which was sold for 43 million pounds ($69.3 million) in London Thursday, Nov. 11, 2010.

This undated photo released by Bainbridge Auctioneers ...

Base of Chinese vase which was sold

This undated photo released by Bainbridge Auctioneers shows the base of a Chinese vase which was sold for 43 million pounds ($69.3 million) in London Thursday, Nov. 11, 2010.