Almost original citizen of South Kalimantan is Banjar tribe which is consist of sub tribe, it is Maayan, Lawangan and Bukiat and also has interference with Malay, Java and Bugis tribe. The main identity which is shown is Banjar language as a general medium. New comer citizen is like Java, Malay, Madura and Bugis has come to South Kalimantan for a long time. Malay tribe comes since Sriwijaya Kingdom or as the trader who is staying there. Java tribe come in Majapahit Kingdom even before and Bugis people come and build Pagatan Kingdom in the past.
Maayan tribe, Lawangan, Bukit and Ngaju is influenced by Malay culture and Java. It is joined by Budhas’ Kingdom, Hindu and the last is Islam or From Banjar Kingdom, so it makes the Banjar tribe which speaks in Banjar language. Banjar kingdom in 16 and 17 century has a relation with Sultanate of Demak and Mataram. This Kingdom was not slipped away from strange country like Holland and England which is alternately come from Banjar’s anchorage.When there were a fight to Holland in 29 century, there are leader is like Sultan Hidayat and Prince Antasari dace Holland.
Tradition people of South Kalimantan especially Banjar tribe know a lot of tradition ceremony which is about human life, from the time that human is in uterus until the death. For example: there are prohibition for pregnant woman tradition, Babalas Bidan ceremony when the baby born is 40 days old and also give the name. Marriage ceremony which is consisting of some part, Sajaka Babasasulus is looking for the candidate wife data, Badatang is asking for the hand parents. Bantar Patalian is to give a set of goods or bride price, Qur’an and the top ceremony is Batatai bride or sit in stage, Last is Pemakanan Pengantin, Both of bride and groom go though the honeymoon for 7 days and 7 nights to eat and drink behind the close screen.
In Banjar people, they have developed the literature art and beautiful voice art which come from daily association. One of them is tease each other, sometimes they use poem and Pantun and ones, it is humor between the young generations. This tease in a long time had been changing to become a beautiful literature art until today. For example is aphorism.
Fine art, Banjar tribe knows about the beautiful embroidery and usually use as the equipment of ceremony carved art. In the building of house or mosque; they have carved object which is made by wood, also in equipment industry from brass, it is like place for Betel Vine, Cuspidor, Bokor, Kapit, Abun and soon. Cane work from Pandanus or rattan, generally doing by women to fill up their free time is increased in other territory.
To building art especially for house building, the Banjar people has had the high value of architecture, traditional house is like grand stand house with the highly roof. If you see from side of the house, it is like pyramid. This grand stand houses id different with other because we can know from social class of the owner. A long time ago that house is devided into some high people of group; it is like nobility, the leader of Muslim and trader. They have high Bebungan house which is known as Gajah Baliku, Palimasan Palimbangan, Gajak Manyusu, Balai Laki house and Balai bini house. In the other hand common house are Cacak Burung houses, Tadah Alas house, Gudang house or common cottage. Generally, the houses for common people have cross cubic shape or long cubic.
|Traditional Architecture of Banjar People (South Kalimantan)
(Thanks to Ari)
|Mar 4, ’08 3:07 AM
by Ari for everyone
The black color on the Banjarese house in both South Kalimantan and Banjarmasin’s coat of arms represent the high culture of Banjar people. As a Banjarese, it’s my duty to appreciate and promote our own heritage. So from now on I will try to write about our culture.
For the first article I choose to do an overview of Traditional Architecture of Banjar people, the reason is because I’ve written parts of the article about this specific matter in Wikipedia, so it’s easier for me. These types of houses could still be found in South Kalimantan, but unfortunately they are in a bad shape to say the least. Such a shame, because their existence resonates the glory of our past.
Not only we should preserve it for the sake of our heritage, but because this type of houses was built with great consideration and expertise. Traditional dwellings in Indonesia have developed to respond to natural environmental conditions, particularly Indonesia’s hot and wet monsoonal climate. Banjarese traditional vernacular homes are built on stilts. A raised floor serves a number of purposes: it allows breeze to moderate the hot tropical temperatures; it elevates the dwelling above stormwater runoff and mud; allows houses to be built on rivers and wetland margins; keeps people, goods and food from dampness and moisture; lifts living quarters above malaria-carrying mosquitos; and the house is much less affected by dry rot and termites. “Modern” houses which most Banjarese prefer nowadays don’t have that kind of sensibility.
Among the 4 Kalimantan provinces in Indonesia, South Kalimantan is the only one that depicts our traditional house in our province’s coat of arm. The house in those particular coat of arms is the one named as “Bubungan Tinggi”, the style of “kraton” (royal palace) with its signature 45ºsteep roof. In the days of our kingdom, this was the type of house that a royalty would live in (although in time this type of house were also built by commoners). The house is built with the philosophy of harmony between the upper world and the under world.
In time, Bubungan Tinggi became the symbol of Banjar culture that represents both palace and vernacular traditions. But there are other types of traditional house in Banjarese community other than Bubungan Tinggi. Fortunately, not many Banjarese know these types of house, but it’s already explained in old Banjarese poem:
Bubungan tinggi wadah raja-raja,
Palimasan wadah emas perak,
Balai laki wadah penggawa mantri,
balai bini wadah putri gusti-gusti,
Gajah manyusu wadah nanang-nanangan, raja-raja atau gusti nanang
Anjung Surung (Cacak Burung): This is the type of house of commoners. The shape of this house if seen from above is the shape of a cross(+), that is why it is also known as RumahCacak Burung
Joglo Gudang: This type of house has the roof that is similar to Joglo (Javanese-style house),hence the name. While the name “Gudang” (which means “storehouse”) was given because the lower part of the house is usually used to store things. This feature makes this type of house is the preferred style of the Chinese-ethnicity who live in South Kalimantan.