Cosmic strings are super-massive, ultra-thin cracks in the universe


By Alasdair Wilkins

Cosmic strings are super-massive, ultra-thin cracks in the universe


Cosmic strings are theoretical fault lines in the universe, defective links between different regions of space created in the moments after the Big Bang. And they might be theoretical no longer – distant quasars show the fingerprints of these strings.

Compared to cosmic strings, black holes seem downright sensible. These strings – no relation to the subatomic strings of theoretical physics – are one-dimensional objects, meaning they have length, but no height or width. They are defects in the fabric of the universe, a byproduct of the universe cooling in the first instants after the Big Bang. The easiest way to think about these strings is to see them as the cosmic equivalent of the cracks that form in ice over a frozen lake.

Of course, that doesn’t capture the full measure of their one-dimensional weirdness. Since they have no width or height, they are incomprehensibly narrow, with a diameter that would make even a tiny photon look fat. They’re also dense, as a string that’s even a mile long would weigh considerably more than Earth. These strings expanded right along with the universe, ultimately stretching across the entire known universe in a more or less straight line, or forming massive rings many thousands of times bigger than our galaxy.

We’ve not yet directly observed these strings, but researchers at the University of Buffalo say they’ve found clear indirect proof. They studied 355 quasars – incredibly bright galaxies with super-massive black holes at their center – at the furthest corners of the observable universe. All quasars emit massive energy jets pointed in a particular direction, and through very careful study it’s possible to figure out the directions of the jets.

183 of those quasar jets lined up to form a pair of enormous rings in the sky, suggesting two massive circular structures exist – or had existed – to orient the direction of the jets. The only known candidates for such colossal structures are cosmic strings, providing compelling indirect evidence for them. If we confirm the existence of cosmic strings, it will greatly improve our understanding of the formation of the earliest galaxies.

This isn’t clinching proof – some scientists, like Arizona State’s Tanmay Vachaspati, are skeptical cosmic strings that formed nanoseconds after the Big Bang could last long enough after the Big Bang to affect quasars in this way. But this new hypothesis provides testable predictions to further explore the existence of these strings, and these quasar rings might eventually prove to be for cosmic strings what Cygnus X-1was for black holes.

[Physical Review Letters]

 

 

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Last of Chilean miners is raised safely to surface


Salute to Mr President Sebastian Pinera & WifeChilean Minister of Mining Mr.  Laurence Goldborne & staff and all rescuers….We Are  The world Proud, and very grateful to  you… May God Bless You All.(Mannaismaya)

And also Thank you so much to all Reporters.

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Last of Chilean miners is raised safely to surface

AP/Jorge Saenz

Miner Raul Bustos embraces his wife Cristy Coronado after being rescued. More photos »

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By MICHAEL WARREN, Associated Press Writer – 2 mins ago

SAN JOSE MINE, Chile – The last of the Chilean miners, the foreman who held them together when they were feared lost, was raised from the depths of the earth Wednesday night — a joyous ending to a 69-day ordeal that riveted the world. No one has ever been trapped so long and survived.

Luis Urzua ascended smoothly through 2,000 feet of rock, completing a 22 1/2-hour rescue operation that unfolded with remarkable speed and flawless execution. Before a jubilant crowd of about 2,000 people, he became the 33rd miner to be rescued.

“We have done what the entire world was waiting for,” he told Chilean President Sebastian Pinera immediately after his rescue. “The 70 days that we fought so hard were not in vain. We had strength, we had spirit, we wanted to fight, we wanted to fight for our families, and that was the greatest thing.”

The president told him: “You are not the same, and the country is not the same after this. You were an inspiration. Go hug your wife and your daughter.” With Urzua by his side, he led the crowd in singing the national anthem.

The rescue exceeded expectations every step of the way. Officials first said it might be four months before they could get the men out; it turned out to be 69 days and about 8 hours.

Once the escape tunnel was finished, they estimated it would take 36 to 48 hours to get all the miners to the surface. That got faster as the operation went along, and all the men were safely above ground in 22 hours, 37 minutes.

The rescue workers who talked the men through the final hours still had to be hoisted to the surface.

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Chilean President Sebastian Pinera (R) embraces the last miner to be rescued, Luis Urzua, who is credited with organizing trapped miners to ration food and save themselves, at the end of the rescue operation at the San Jose mine in Copiapo, October 13, 2010. All of Chile’s 33 trapped miners were rescued from the bowels of the earth in a special capsule on Wednesday as a extraordinary two-month survival story many call a miracle triggered wild celebrations.

Chilean President Sebastian Pinera embraces Luis ...

Chilean President Sebastian Pinera talks with ...

Chilean President Sebastian Pinera talks with the last miner to be rescued, Luis Urzua, credited with organizing the miners to ration food and save themselves, at the end of the operation at the San Jose mine in Copiapo October 13, 2010. All of Chile’s 33 trapped miners were rescued from the bowels of the earth in a special capsule on Wednesday as a extraordinary two-month survival story many call a miracle triggered wild celebrations.«

Frame grab shows Urzua, the last of the 33 trapped ...

Luis Urzua, 54, last of 33 trapped miners

Luis Urzua, 54, the last of the 33 trapped miners, celebrates with Chilean President Sebastian Pinera (R) after ascending from the underground San Josemine in Copiapo, in this frame grab taken October 13, 2010. All of Chile’s 33 trapped miners were rescued from the bowels of the earth in a special capsule on Wednesday as a extraordinary two-month survival story many call a miracle triggered wild celebrations. REUTERS/Government of Chile/Pool

Luis Urzua, the last miner to be rescued, center ...

Luis Urzua, the last miner to be rescued, center in green, sings the national anthem next to Chile’s President Sebastian Pinera, right, after being rescued

Rescued miner Franklin Lobos, 53

Rescued miner Franklin Lobos, 53, waves to the press as he arrives to the hospital of Copiapo, Chile, Wednesday, Oct. 13, 2010. Lobos is the twenty-seventh of 33 miners rescued from the San Jose mine after more than 2 months trapped underground.

Franklin Lobos

Carlos Burgueno

Rescued miner Carlos Burgueno, 26

Rescued miner Carlos Burgueno, 26, waves to the press as he arrives to the hospital of Copiapo, Chile, Wednesday, Oct. 13, 2010. Burgueno was the twenty-third of 33 miners rescued from the San Jose mine after more than 2 months trapped underground.«

Relatives and friends of 33 freed miners celebrate ...

Relatives and friends of 33 freed miners celebrate the end of the successful rescue operation at the camp outside the San Jose mine near Copiapo, Chile,

Rescue workers begin to celebrate as the last ...

Rescue workers begin to celebrate

Rescue workers begin to celebrate as the last rescued miner Luis Urzua arrives to the surface at the San Jose Mine near Copiapo, Chile, Wednesday Oct.

Jubilation as last miner rescued in Chile

In a triumphant moment shared by millions around the world, a trapped Chilean miner broke through the surface overnight Tuesday, ending 69 days of underground captivity and leading the way for 32 others behind him. The complex operation, which involves bringing each miner up from more than 600 meters in a rocket-like rescue capsule, has drawn massive interest

Jubilation as last miner rescued in Chile

Chilean miner Carlos Barrios

Chilean miner Carlos Barrios (C) leaves the Fenix capsule after being brought to the surface. The miners stepping out of the capsule after a 15-minuteascent up a 622-meter (2,041-foot) escape shaft pumped their fists towards the sky they had not seen for 69 days, or dropped to their knees in prayer.«

Jubilation as last miner rescued in Chile

Chilean miner Mario Sepulveda celebrates after being brought to the surface. All the miners were pale and wore special dark sunglasses to protect their weakened eyes from the natural light.

In this screen grab taken from video, rescuers ...

Mission Complete

In this screen grab taken from video, rescuers inside the San Jose Mine near Copiapo, Chile, hold a sign that reads ‘Mission Complete’ after all 33 trappedminers were rescued Wednesday, Oct. 13, 2010.

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Thursday, October 14, 2010 09.20 Am

Thanks God, You’ve saved them all