Nyi Ageng Serang

Nyi Ageng Serang

Indonesian From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia

Nyi Ageng Serang

Nyi Ageng Serang original name Raden Ajeng Kustiyah Wulaningsih Retno Edi ( Serang , Purwodadi, Central Java, 1752Yogyakarta, 1828) Is an National Heroes Indonesia. She was the daughter  of Prince Natapraja that controls the remote areas of the Mataram kingdom which is now exactly in the border regions  GroboganSragen. After her father died Nyi Ageng Serang replace her father. Nyi Ageng Serang is one of the offspring Sunan KalijagaHe also has a national heroine is a descendant of Soewardi Soerjaningrat or Ki Hajar Dewantara. She was buried in Kalibawang , Kulon Progo. She was a national heroine who was almost forgotten, maybe because her name was not as popular as R.A. Kartini or Cut Nyak Dhien but she is a boon to the country .Warga Kulon Progo monument immortalize her in the town center of sculptures Wates she is a gallant horse carrying a spear.

Nyi Ageng Serang had the original name Raden Edi Ajeng Kustiyah Retna . She is the youngest daughter of the regent of Serang , Panembahan Natapraja .

Though a nobleman ‘s Daughter , but since little is known Nyi Ageng Serang close to the peoples. As an adult she has also appeared as one warlord against invaders . Her enthusiasm for the rise not only to defend the people, also triggered the death of her brother Prince Mangkubumi when defending against Paku Buwana I assisted the Dutch .

After Giyanti Agreement , Nyi Ageng Serang moved to Jogja with Prince Mangkubumi . But the struggle against imperialist forces kept her continue . At that time Nyi Ageng Serang led troops called Force stealth fast attack with the expertise to make enemy troops often topsy- turvy . These forces also became one of the very be included Dutch troops at the time.

When the Diponegoro War broke out in 1825 , Nyi Ageng Serang also become one of the commander of the army . Troops assisted by the greater because the lower ranks , especially a lot of farmers who joined the army. Nyi Ageng Serang also known as a tactician and . negotiations . Nyi Ageng Serang died because of advanced age and was buried in Orchard Frozen , Pagerarjo , Kalibawang , Kulonprogo . This tomb is situated on a hill, approximately 6 km of road – Muntilan Dekso . Distance from Yogyakarta ± 32 km, from the town Wates ± 30 km.

This tomb restored in 1983 with joglo shaped building . At the time restored, the tomb of her husband , mother , grandchild and who have been buried in the village Nglorong , Sragen regency on the move in this place .

Besides the tomb of Nyi Ageng Serang , in Kulonprogo , also built a monument Nyi Ageng Serang. The monument depicts the figure of Nyi Ageng Serang was leading his troops while riding a horse .

Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (1631 – 1695)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ageng (1631–1695), also known as Tirtayasa and Abulfatah Agung[1], was the sultan of Banten (on Java in modern Indonesia) during the kingdom’s golden age. He built a strong fleet on European models, which did considerable trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and, with help from the English, Danes, and Chinese, were able to trade with Persia, India, Siam, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Japan in the Javanese tradition of long-distance traders. This trade gave considerable wealth to Banten.

The greatest period in Banten is arguably under Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa. In 1661 he extended Banten rule to Landak in western Borneo. In 1670s he also acquired Cirebon area following civil war in Mataram. Ageng established trade with Spanish Manila for silver and built canal for coconut palm and sugar plantations, among other developments. [2]

Ageng was a strong opponent of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and inevitably came into conflict with their headquarters at Batavia (modern Jakarta), 75 km to the east. In this sentiment Ageng also came into conflict with his son, the crown prince and later sultan Haji. Haji held considerable power in Banten, and was in favor of gaining support from the VOC. The court split into two factions, supporting the father and the son, and the more militant Muslim elite supported the father.

In 1656, the fragile 1645 treaty between the Dutch and Banten broke, and war erupted, as Bantenese raided Batavian districts and VOC ships, and the VOC blockaded the Bantenese port. A peace settlement was reached in 1659, but the VOC sought a stronger settlement, and was able to take advantage of the internal division in Bantenese politics to achieve it.

Ageng withdrew to a residence outside Banten proper sometime before 1671, in order to forestall a palace coup he anticipated from his son. He supported Trunajaya‘s rebellion in the Mataram Sultanate, and was highly critical of Amangkurat II and his relationship with the VOC. He was able to gain control of Cirebon and the Priangan highlands when Mataram fell into disarray, thus surrounding Batavia with his troops. However, he did not declare war on the Dutch until 1680, on the pretext of some mistreatment of Bantenese merchants on the part of the VOC. The Dutch were now stronger after their victory at Kediri over the Mataram rebels. In May 1680, though, before hostilities began, Haji led a coup and confined Ageng to his residence. His supporters gained the upper hand in 1682, but when a VOC force came to support the compromises of Haji, they drove Ageng from his residence into the highlands, where he surrendered in March 1683. He was kept in Banten for a while, and later moved to Batavia, where he died in 1695.

Iskandar Muda of Aceh 1593 – 1636

Iskandar Muda of Aceh

Indonesian From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia



Painting pictures of Sultan Iskandar Muda

Sultan Iskandar Muda (Aceh, Banda Aceh, 1593 or 1590 – Banda Aceh, Aceh, 27 September 1636) Is sultan the greatest in the period Aceh Sultanate, who ruled from 1607 until 1636. Aceh reached its glory during the leadership of Iskandar Muda , where an increasingly large territory and an international reputation as a center of trade and learning about Islam.

 Family and childhood


From the ancestral mother , Iskandar Muda is a descendant of King Dar al – Kamal , and from the ancestral father is a descendant of the royal family crown of Nature . Darul Kamal and crown – Alam said the settlement formerly the two neighboring ( separated by rivers) and the joint is the origin of Aceh Darussalam. Iskandar Muda alone represents the second branch, which is fully entitled to claim the throne .

His mother , named Princess Raja Indra Nation, which also named His Majesty the Shah Alam, is the son of Sultan Alauddin Shah Riayat, Sultan 10th ; where This sultan was the son of Sultan Shah ‘s Word , and Word Sultan Shah is the son or grandson (according Djajadiningrat ) Sultan of Inayat Shah , King of Darul – Kamal .

Raja Indra ‘s daughter is married to the Nation a massive ceremony with Sultan Mansur Shah , the son of Sultan Abdul – Jalil , where Abdul – Jalil is the son of Sultan Alauddin Shah al – Kahhar Riayat, Sultan


Sultan Iskandar Muda later married a princess from Sultanate of Pahang. Princess is known by the name Putroe Phang. It is said , because too love the emperor with his wife , the Sultan ordered the construction of fictional structure’s history in the middle field ( Castle Park ) as a sign of his love . Reportedly, the princess is always sad because it harbored a profound longing for home which is hilly . Therefore Sultan build Structure’s history mengubati longing for the princess . Until now, this structure’s history can still be seen and visited.


Sultan Iskandar Muda ‘s reign which began in 1607 until 1636, is the most glorious period for Aceh Sultanate, although on the other side of the tight control by Iskandar Muda , caused many rebellions in the future after the death of the Emperor.

Aceh is a very rich country and prosperous in its heyday . According to an explorer of origin France who arrived in Aceh in the heyday era Sultan Iskandar Muda Perkasa Alam Meukuta, The power reaching the west coast of Aceh Minangkabau. Aceh powers also include up to Silver .

When Iskandar Muda came to power in 1607, he soon made a naval expedition that caused him to gain effective control in the area northwest Indonesia. Full royal accomplished smoothly at all important ports on the west coast of Sumatra and on the east coast , to the Shavings in the south. Sailing conquest waged far into Penang, on the east coast Malays Peninsula, and foreign merchants were forced to submit to him . His kingdom wealthy , and became the center of science.

Controls on domestic

According to the tradition of Aceh , Iskandar Muda Aceh region divided into administrative regions called uleebalangs and habitation; This was reinforced by reports of a French explorer named Beauliu , that “Iskandar Muda clearing out almost all of the old nobility and created a new aristocracy. Habitation1 initially is the set of several villages to support an mosque headed by a Priest (Aceh: Imeum) . Uleebalangs (Wither: Commander) Initially perhaps the major subordinate Sultan , who was awarded the Sultan of several mukims , to manage as a feudal owners . This pattern in djumpai Aceh Besar and in lands conquered Aceh important .

Relationship with a foreign nation


On 16th century, Queen English, Elizabeth I, Sent his envoy named Sir James Lancester to the Kingdom of Aceh and send a letter addressed : “To Civil Servant , King of Aceh Darussalam.” and a set of high- value jewelry . Sultanate of Aceh at that time did receive good intentions ” sister ” in the UK and allow UK to anchor and to trade on the territory of Aceh . Even the Sultan also sent valuable gifts , including a pair of bracelets of rubies and a letter written on fine paper with gold ink . Sir James was awarded the title ” Rich White People . “

Sultan also reply to a letter from Queen Elizabeth I. Here are excerpts of the letter the Sultan of Aceh , which is still kept by the government of the British Empire , dated 1585 year :

I am the mighty Ruler of the Regions below the wind , the WHO holds sway over the land of Aceh and over-the land of Sumatra and over all the lands tributary to Aceh , Which stretch from the sunrise to the sunset.

( present yourselves mighty ruler Countries under the wind , which accumulated on the ground in Aceh and on land Sumatra and over the whole area is subject to the Aceh region , which stretches from horizon sunrise to sunset) .

intimate relationship between Aceh and the King of England continued in James I of England and Scotland . King James sent a cannon as a gift to the Sultan of Aceh . The cannon is still preserved and known by the name of King James Cannon .


In addition to the United Kingdom, Prince Maurits – founder Oranje dynasty– also had sent a letter with the intention of asking the help of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam. Sultan welcomed their good intentions by sending emissaries to party Netherlands. The delegation was led by Tuanku Abdul Hamid.



File:Aceh Sultanate en.svg

The conquest of Iskandar Muda, 1608-1637.

The successes of Iskandar Muda were based on his military strength. His armed forces consisted of a navy of heavy galleys each with 600-800 men, a cavalry using Persian horses, an elephant corps, conscripted infantry forces  and more than 2000 cannons and guns (of both Sumatran and European origin).  Upongaining power, he began consolidating control over northern Sumatra. In 1612 he conquered Deli, and in 1613 Aruand Johor. Upon the conquest of Johor, its sultan, Alauddin Riayat Syah II, and other members of the royal family were brought to Aceh, along with a group of traders from theDutch East India Company. However, Johor was able to expel the Acehnese garrison later that year, and Iskandar Muda was never able to assert permanent control over the area. Johor further built an alliance with PahangPalembangJambiInderagiriKampar andSiak against Aceh.

Iskandar Muda’s campaigns continued, however, and he was able to defeat a Portuguesefleet at Bintan in 1614. In 1617 he conquered Pahang and carried its sultan Ahmad Syahto Aceh, and thus achieved a foothold on the Malayan peninsula.This conquest was followed by Kedah in 1619, in which the capital was laid waste and the surviving inhabitants were brought to Aceh. A similar capture of Perak occurred in 1620, when 5,000 people were captured and left to die in Aceh. He again sacked Johor in 1623 and took Nias in 1624/5. At this point Aceh’s strength seriously thretened the Portuguese holding of Melaka. In 1629, he sent several hundred ships to attack Melaka, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all of his ships were destroyed along with 19,000 men. After this loss, Iskandar Muda launched only two more sea expeditions, in 1630/1 and 1634, both to suppress revolts in Pahang. His sultanate maintained control over northern Sumatra, but was never able to gain supremacy in the strait or expand the empire to the rich pepper-producing region of Lampung on the southern part of the island, which was under the control of the sultanate of Banten.

Economy and administration

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Sultan Iskandar Muda’s tomb in Banda Aceh

The economic foundations of the sultanate was the spice trade, especially in pepper. The conflicts between Aceh and Johor and Portuguese Melacca, as well as the numerous pepper-producing ports in the sultanate’s domain, were the main causes of the military conflict. Other major exports included cloves and nutmegs, as well as betel nuts, whose narcotic properties bypassed the Muslim prohibition of alcohol. Exports, encouraged by the Ottoman Sultans as an alternative to the “infidel” (i.e. Portuguese)-controlled route around Africa, added to the wealth of the sultanate. Iskandar Muda also made shrewd economic decisions that supported growth, such as low interest rates and the widespread use of small gold coins (mas).However, like other sultanates in the area it had trouble compelling the farms in the hinterland to produce sufficient excess food for the military and commercial activities of the capital. Indeed, one of the aims of Iskandar Muda’s campaigns was to bring prisoners-of-war who could act as slaves for agricultural production.

One reason for Iskandar Muda’s success, in contrast to the weaker sultans who preceded and succeeded him, was his ability to suppress the Acehnese elite, known as the orang kaya (“powerful men”). Through the royal monopoly on trade, he was able to keep them dependent on his favor. The orang kaya were forced to attend court where they could be supervised, and were prohibited from building independent houses, which could be used for military purposes or hold cannons. He sought to create a new nobility of “war leaders” (Malay languagehulubalangAcehneseuleëbalang), whom he gave districts (mukim) in feudal tenure. After his reign, however, the elite often supported weaker sultans, in order to maintain their own autonomy. He also sought to replace the Acehnese princes with royal officials called panglima, who had to report annually and were subject to periodic appraisal. An elite palace guard was created, consisting of 3,000 women. He passed legal reforms which created a network of courts using Islamic jurisprudence. His system of law and administration became a model for other Islamic states in Indonesia.

Iskandar Muda’s reign was also marked by considerable brutality, directed at disobedient subjects. He also did not hesitate to execute wealthy subjects and confiscate their wealth. Punishments for offenses were gruesome; a French visitor in the 1620s reported “every day the King would have people’s noses cut off, eyes dug out, castrations, feet cut off, or hands, ears, and other parts mutilated, very often for some very small matter.” He had his own son killed, and named his son-in-law, the son of the captured sultan of Pahang, as his successor, Iskandar Thani.


During Iskandar Muda’s reign, eminent Islamic scholars were attracted to Aceh and made it a center of Islamic scholarship. Iskandar Muda favored the tradition of the Sufi mystics Hamzah Pansuri and Syamsuddin of Pasai, both of whom resided at the court of Aceh. These writers’ works were translated into other Indonesian languages, and had considerable influence across the peninsula. Both were later denounced for their heretical ideas by Nuruddin ar-Raniri, who arrived in the Aceh court during the reign of Iskandar Thani, and their books were ordered to be burnt.

The chronicle Hikayat Aceh (“The Story of Aceh”) was probably written during the reign of Iskandar Muda, although some date it later.It describes the history of the sultanate and praises Iskandar Muda in his youth. It was apparently inspired by the Persian Akbarnama for the Mogul Emperor Akbar.


Among the Acehnese, Iskandar Muda is revered as a hero and symbol of Aceh’s past greatness. Posthumously he was given the titlePo Teuh Meureuhom, which means “Our Beloved Late Lord,or “Marhum Mahkota Alam”.

He has several buildings and structures in and near Banda Aceh named after him, including the Sultan Iskandarmuda Airport and Sultan Iskandar Muda Air Force Base. Kodam Iskandar Muda is the name of the military area commands overseeing Aceh Province.


The Sultanate of Aceh was established by Sultan Ali Mughayatsyah in 1511. Then, During itsgolden era) in the 15th century, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern ThailandJohor in Malay Peninsula, and Siak in what is today the province of Riau. As was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca. It was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production.

After the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing theMalacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh and increased Acehnese rulers’ wealth. During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 17th century, Aceh’s influence extended to most ofSumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Acehnese military power waned gradually thereafter, and Aceh ceded its territory of Pariamanin Sumatra to the Dutch in 18th century.

By the early nineteenth century, however, Aceh had become an increasingly influential power due to its strategic location for controlling regional trade. In the 1820s it was the producer of over half the world’s supply of black pepper. The pepper trade produced new wealth for the Sultanate and for the rulers of many smaller nearby ports that had been under Aceh’s control, but were now able to assert more independence. These changes initially threatened Aceh’s integrity, but a new sultan Tuanku Ibrahim, who controlled the kingdom from 1838 to 1870, reasserted power over nearby ports.

Under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 the British ceded their colonial possessions on Sumatra to the Dutch. In the treaty, the British described Aceh as one of their possessions, although they had no actual control over the Sultanate. Initially, under the agreement the Dutch agreed to respect Aceh’s independence. In 1871, however, the British dropped previous opposition to a Dutch invasion of Aceh, possibly to prevent France or the United States from gaining a foothold in the region. Although neither the Dutch nor the British knew the specifics, there had been rumors since the 1850s that Aceh had been in communication with rulers of France and of the Ottoman Empire.

Aceh War

Main article: Aceh War
File:Generaal Kohler sneuvelt in de Mesigit.jpg

General Kohler, commandant of Dutch troops, died after shot by Acehnese sniper during first aggression to Aceh

Pirates operating out of Aceh threatened commerce in the Strait of Malacca; the sultan was unable to control them. Britain was a protector of Aceh and gave the Netherlands permission to eradicate the pirates. The campaign quickly drove out the sultan but the local leaders mobilized and fought the Dutch in four decades of guerrilla war, with high levels of atrocities. The Dutch colonial government declared war on Aceh on 26 March 1873. Aceh sought American help but was rejected by Washington.

The Dutch tried one strategy after another over the course of four decades. An expedition under Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler in 1873 occupied most of the coastal areas. It was his strategy to attack and take the Sultan’s palace. It failed. They then tried a naval blockade, reconciliation, concentration within a line of forts, then passive containment. They had scant success. Reaching 15 to 20 million guilders a year, the heavy spending for failed strategies nearly bankrupted the colonial government.

The Aceh army was rapidly modernized, and Aceh soldiers managed to kill Köhler (a monument to this achievement has been built inside Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh). Köhler made some grave tactical errors and the reputation of the Dutch was severely harmed. In addition, in recent years in line with expanding international attention to human rights issues and atrocities in war zones, there has been increasing discussion about the some of the recorded acts of cruelty and slaughter committed by Dutch troops during the period of warfare in Aceh.

Hasan Mustafa (1852–1930) was a chief ‘penghulu,’ or judge, for the colonial government and was stationed in Aceh. He had to balance traditional Muslim justice with Dutch law. To stop the Aceh rebellion, Hasan Mustafa issued a fatwa, telling the Muslims there in 1894, “It is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to be loyal to the Dutch East Indies Government”.

Later years and conquest by the Dutch

File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van de Sultan van Atjeh TMnr 10001853.jpg

Tuanku Muhammad Daudsyah Johan Berdaulat, the last Sultan of Aceh.

In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, Koh Lay Huan – the firstKapitan Cina of Penang, had good contacts with the English-and-French-speaking Sultan of Aceh, Jauhar al-Alam. The Sultan allowed Koh to gather pepper plants in Aceh to begin pepper cultivation in Penang. Later, about 1819, Koh helped Sultan Jauhar al-Alam put down a rebellion by Acehnese territorial chiefs.

In the 1820s, as Aceh produced over half the world’s supply of pepper, a new leader, Tuanku Ibrahim, was able to restore some authority to the Sultanate and gain control over the “pepper rajas” who were nominal vassals of the Sultan by playing them off against each other. He rose to power during the Sultanate of his brother, Muhammad Syah, and was able to dominate the reign of his successor Sulaiman Syah (r. 1838–1857), before taking the Sultanate himself, under the title Sultan Ali Alauddin Mansur Syah (1857–1870). He extended Aceh’s effective control southward at just the time when the Dutch were consolidating their holdings northward.

Britain, heretofore guarding the independence of Aceh in order to keep it out of Dutch hands, re-evaluated its policy and concluded the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of Sumatra, which allowed for Dutch control throughout Sumatra in exchange for concessions in the Gold Coast and equal trading rights in northern Aceh. The treaty was tantamount to a declaration of war on Aceh, and the Aceh War followed soon after in 1873. As the Dutch prepared for war, Mahmud Syah (1870–1874) appealed for international help, but no one was willing or able to assist.

In 1874 the Sultan abandoned the capital, withdrawing to the hills, while the Dutch announced the annexation of Aceh. He eventually died of cholera, as did many combatants on both sides, but the Acehnese proclaimed a grandson of Tuanku Ibrahim Sultan. The local rulers of Acehnese ports nominally submitted to Dutch authority in order to avoid a blockade, but they used their income to support the resistance.

However, eventually many of them compromised with the Dutch, and the Dutch were able establish a fairly stable government in Aceh with their cooperation, and get the Sultan to surrender in 1903. After his death in 1907, no successor was named, but the resistance continued to fight for some time.


Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah’s tomb inBanda Aceh

Sultan tomb complex from era before Iskandar Muda in Banda Aceh

Sultan Iskandar Muda’s tomb in Banda Aceh

A complex of tomb of Acehnese sultan from Bugis descendant in Banda Aceh

Sultan of Aceh Reign
Ali Mughayat Syah 1496–1528
Salahuddin 1528–1537
Alauddin al Qahhar 1537–1568
Husain Ali I Riayat Syah 1568–1575
Muda 1575
Sri Alam 1575–1576
Zainal Abidin 1576–1577
Alauddin II Mansur I Syah 1577–1589
Buyong 1589–1596
Alauddin III Riayat Syah Sayyid al-Mukammil 1596–1604
Ali II Riayat Syah 1604–1607
Iskandar Muda 1607–1636
Iskandar Thani 1636–1641
Ratu Safiatuddin Tajul Alam 1641–1675
Ratu Naqiatuddin Nurul Alam 1675–1678
Ratu Zaqiatuddin Inayat Syah 1678–1688
Ratu Kamalat Syah Zinatuddin 1688–1699
Badrul Alam Syarif Hashim Jamaluddin 1699–1702
Perkasa Alam Syarif Lamtui Syah Johan Berdaulat 1702–1703
Jamal ul Alam Badrul Munir 1703–1726
Jauhar ul Alam Aminuddin 1726
Syamsul Alam 1726–1727
Alauddin IV Ahmad Syah 1727–1735
Alauddin V Johan Syah 1735–1760
Mahmud I Syah 1760–1781
Badruddin Syah 1764–1785
Sulaiman I Syah 1775–1781
Alauddin VI Muhammad I Daud Syah 1781–1795
Alauddin VII Jauhar ul Alam 1795–1815
Syarif Saif ul Alam 1815–1818
Alauddin VII Jauhar ul Alam (second time) 1818–1824
Muhammad II Syah 1824–1838
Sulaiman II Syah 1838–1857
Mansur II Syah 1857–1870
Mahmud II Syah 1870–1874
Muhammad III Daud Syah Johan Berdaulat 1874–1903


In Photos: Container ship crashes, tips near Mumbai

Ships collide off Mumbai

Containers fall from the deck of damaged cargo ship MSC Chitra in the Arabian Sea off the Mumbai coast August 9, 2010. Teams from the Navy and the Coast Guard were attempting to contain an oil spill off the coast of Mumbai on Monday after a collision between two cargo ships, with concerns rising that the slick may spread.«

Panamanian-registered ship MSC Chitra, background

This Sunday, Aug.8, 2010 photo shows the Panamanian-registered ship MSC Chitra, background, getting submerged after it collided Saturday with the MV Khalijia-II,another Panamanian-registered ship, unseen, in the Arabian Sea, close to Mumbai, India. Indian coastguard ships were working Monday to minimize the impact of oil spill from the collision, news reports

Panamanian-registered container ship MSC Chitra

The Panamanian-registered container ship MSC Chitra that had Saturday collided with the MV-Khalijia-II, a St. Kitts registered ship, tilts in the ArabianSea, close to Mumbai, India, Monday, Aug 9, 2010. Indian coast guard ships and helicopters are working to try and contain an oil spill from the dangerously tilting container ship following the collision near Mumbai, a spokesman for India’s defense ministry said Monday

Containers threaten to slip-off from deck

Containers threaten to slip-off from the deck of damaged cargo ship MSC Chitra in the Arabian Sea off the Mumbai coast August 9, 2010. Teams from the Navyand the Coast Guard were attempting to contain an oil spill off the coast of Mumbai on Monday after a collision between two cargo ships, with concerns rising that the slick may spread.«