Tuanku Imam Bonjol
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Tuanku Imam Bonjol (Born Knurl, Pasaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia 1772 – died in exile and was buried in Lotak, Pineleng , Minahasa, 6 November 1864) , is one cleric, Leaders and warriors who fought against Netherlands in the wars known as Padri War in the years 1803-1837 . Tuanku Imam Bonjol appointed Indonesia National Heroes based on Presidential Decree No. 1973 087/TK/Tahun , dated 6 November 1973[ 1 ].
 Name and title
The original name of Tuanku Imam Bonjol is Muhammad Shahab, who was born in Knurl in 1772. As scholars and local community leaders , he obtained several degrees , ie Peto Sharif, Malin Bases, and Tuanku Imam. Lord nan Renceh from Kamang as one of the leaders of Tiger nan Salapan is appointed Priest ( leader ) for the Padri in Bonjol . He finally better known as the Tuanku Imam Bonjol .
 History of struggle
The main article for this section are: Padri War
can not be denied , Padri War leave at once heroic traumatic memories in the memory of the nation. For about 18 years old the first war ( 1803-1821 ) who fought a practical fellow Minang and Mandailing or Hobo general.
At first occurrence of this war based on a desire among leaders in the clergy Pagaruyung Kingdom to implement and run the Shari’a Islam in accordance with Wahabi sect which time it developed in Arab lands (Saudi Arabia now) . Then the leader of the clergy who are members of Tiger nan Salapan request Tuanku Lintau to invite the King Pagaruyung Sultan Muning Alamsyah along Indigenous people to leave some habits that are not compatible with Islam .
In some negotiations no agreement between The Padri ( naming for the clergy ) with Indigenous people. As it was in some Nagari Pagaruyung turmoil in the kingdom , and finally The Padri under the leadership of Tuanku Pasaman attack Pagaruyung in 1815 , and fighting broke out in SMART INVESTOR close Stone Cage. Sultan Muning Alamsyah forced to flee from the capital of the kingdom .
On February 21 1821, the Indigenous formally cooperate with the government Dutch East Indies fight against the Padri in the agreement that was signed in Padang , as compensation Netherlands obtained rights to access and control over territory darek ( inland Minangkabau )[ 2 ]. Agreement was also attended by the rest of the family dynasty Pagaruyung Kingdom under the command of Nature talisman Sultan Bagagar who have been in Field that time.
Intervention Netherlands in that war marked by attack Simawang and Difficult Water by army Captain Captain Dienema Goffinet and early April 1821 on the orders of the Resident James du Puy in Padang . In this case VOC engage in war because of ” invited “by the indigenous .
Resistance carried out by forces strong enough so that the priest is very difficult for them subject Netherlands . Therefore the Netherlands through the Governor -General Johannes van den Bosch invites leaders The Padri which time it has been led by the Tuanku Imam Bonjol to make peace with the intimation ” Agreements install a “ in 1824. This is understandable because while simultaneously Batavia also run out of funds in the face of another war in Europe and Java as Diponegoro War. But then this agreement is violated by the Dutch themselves by attacking Nagari Clever Sikek.
However , since the beginning 1833 the war turned into a war between the Indigenous and the Padri against the Dutch , the two sides shoulder to shoulder against the Dutch , the original parties to the conflict finally unite against the Dutch . Tip of remorse appears consciousness, inviting the Dutch society in the conflict just miserable Minangkabau itself [ 3 ]. Merging of the indigenous and the Padri was started with compromise known as The peak plaque Pato in Broken Tabek which embodies the consensus Indigenous basandi Syarak , Syarak basandi Kitabullah ( Indigenous based on Religion , Religious based Kitabullah (Al – Quran) ) .
Tuanku Imam Bonjol remorse for the actions of the Padri on fellow Minang , Batak Mandailing and , reflected in his words ” Adopun Kitabullah law is malampau deck caused many Kito juo . Baä your deck ? “ ( As many of the laws that already terlangkahi Kitabullah by us. How do you mind ? )[ 3 ]
Assault and siege of the fort by the Padri in Bonjol Netherlands from all directions for about six months (March 16 – August 17, 1837 )[ 4 ] led by the generals and the officers of the Netherlands , but the army is largely composed of indigenous peoples from various tribes , such as Java, Madura, Bugis, and Ambon. In the list of names of the Dutch army officer , Maj. Gen. Cochius there , Lt. Col. Bauer , sous Major , Captain Maclean , Lieutenant Van der Tak, Assistant First Lieutenant Steinmetz . and so on , but also terda [at the names Inlandsche (indigenous) as Captain Noto Prawiro Inlandsche Luitenant Prawiro in Logo , Karto Wongso Redjo Wiro , Prawiro Sentiko , Prawiro Brotto , and Merto Poero .
There are 148 European officers , 36 native officers , 1103 soldiers of Europe , 4130 native troops , Sumenapsche hulptroepen hieronder begrepen ( auxiliary troops Sumenep , Madura ) . The attack on the fort began Bonjol Bugis people who are in the front of the defense attack Padri .
From Batavia brought in extra forces kept the Dutch army , which on the date July 20 1837 The ship arrived with Perle in Padang , Captain Sinninghe , a number of people Europe and Africa, 1 Sergeant, 4 korporaals and 112 flankeurs. The latter refers to the African soldiers recruited by the Netherlands in the continent , the present state Ghana and Mali. They also called Sepoys and served in the Dutch army .
 Arrest and exile
After aid comes from Batavia , the Dutch began to resume the siege , and in subsequent periods , the position of Tuanku Imam Bonjol get more difficult , but she is still unwilling to surrender to the Dutch . So up to three times the Dutch to change his war commander to seize Bonjol , which is a small country with a fort from the surrounding clay surrounded by moats . Later on, August 16 1837, Fort Bonjol can be mastered after long siege .
In the month of October 1837 , Tuanku Imam Bonjol invited to Palupuh to negotiate. Arriving at the place was immediately arrested and thrown into Cianjur, West Java. Then transferred to Ambon , and finally to Lotak , Minahasa, Near Manado. In the last place that he died on 8 November 1864. Tuanku Imam Bonjol buried at the exile .
The struggle that has been done by the Tuanku Imam Bonjol can be appreciation will heroism in opposing colonialism[ 5 ], as an award from the Indonesian government that represents the people of Indonesia in general , was appointed Tuanku Imam Bonjol Indonesia National Heroes date 6 November 1973.
Besides his name is also present in the public spaces of the nation as a street name , the name of the stadium , a university , even at USD 5000 output sheets Bank Indonesia 6 November 2001[ 6 ].
Tuanku Imam Bonjol hero story ” Chief of the Padri War “
March 30, 2009 at 8:18 pm | Written in Imam Bonjol, Indigenous people, Denomination | 5 Comments
Tuanku Imam Bonjol ( TIB ) ( 1722-1864 ) , who was appointed as a national hero berdasarkam Presidential Decree No. 1973 087/TK/Tahun , 6 November 1973, was the main leader Padri War in West Sumatra ( 1803-1837 ), a persistent fight against the Dutch .
During 62 years of independent Indonesia , the name of Tuanku Imam Bonjol present in the public space of the nation: as a street name , the name of the stadium , a university , even in sheet USD 5000 output of Bank Indonesia 6 November 2001.
However , recently appeared petition , sued his heroism . TIB accused of violating human rights because it forces invaded Padri Batak Land (1816-1833) which killed ” millions ” of people in that region ( http://www.petitiononline . com / knurl / petition.html ) .
Padri cruelty highlighted by the publication of books MO Parlindungan , Pongkinangolngolan Sinamabela degree Tuanku Rao : Hambali school of Islamic Terror in the Batak land , 1816-1833 ( 2006 ) ( first edition published in 1964 , which has been criticized Hamka , 1974 ) , later followed by Basyral Hamidy Harahap , Greget Tuanku Rao ( 2007 ) .
Both authors , incidentally from the Batak land , describing the suffering of his ancestors and the Batak generally during the assault troops in the region 1816-1833 Padri Mandailing , Bakkara , and surrounding areas ( Tempo , October 2007 ) .
The emergence of a correction in the recent history of Indonesia discourse raises criticism against the concept of a national hero . Intellectuals and academics , especially historians , is the most responsible party if the evaluation of the historical discourse that only resulted in the emergence of friction at the basic level has the potential to divide this nation .
the academic end of the pen must be sharp , but the texts torehannya results should not contain ” hot air ” . That is why in the academic tradition , subjective nuanced words in texts to be removed to the writer .
Each generation is entitled to interpret history ( nation ) of his own . However , a new generation of this nation , who live in the imagination – globalism should be aware of , any nation-state in the world requires confirmation myths . Myth inauguration was not bad . He is an important element in the -there ‘s the ” glue ” of the nation. national hero , such as Prince Diponegoro , Sultan Hasanuddin , Sisingamangaraja XII , also TIB , and others are part of the inauguration of the Indonesian nation myth .
Jeffrey Hadler in ” An History of Violence and Secular State in Indonesia : Tuanku Imam Bondjol and Uses of History ” (forthcoming in the Journal of Asian Studies , 2008 ) indicates , heroism TIB has been established since the early days of independence until the New Order era , related at least three interests .
First, created the myth of the indomitable hero against the Dutch as part of the historical discourse of unifying the nation .
Second, eliminating the discourse of Islamic radicalism in the nation-state efforts to create tolerant of religious and cultural diversity .
Third, ” embrace ” ethnic Minang back to haribaan Indonesia , which has been a negative stigma in the eyes due to the events center PRRI.
We’re not sure , been there a seed particle at the time of the struggle keindonesiaan TIB and other local figures who lived with her contemporaries , now known as a national hero .
We also know that era of slavery is part of the social system and some of the traditional royal Nusantara territorial expansion by attacking a neighboring kingdom . Local leaders fought against the Dutch because it encouraged the spirit of regionalism , possibly backed by the desire to maintain hegemony as a ruler who gets rival due to the arrival of the West . However , they eventually became a national hero because the nation needs a unifying myth .
Not a perfect man
It can not be denied , leaving the Padri War traumatic memories in the memory at once heroic nation. For about 20 years old the first war ( 1803-1821 ) that killing is a practical fellow Minangkabau and Batak Mandailing or general.
Dutch intervention in the war marked by attack Simawang and Hard Water by army Captain Captain Dienema Goffinet and early April 1821 on the orders of the Resident James du Puy in Padang . Company involved in the war because ” invited ” the Customary .
On February 21, 1821 they were officially handed over the territory darek ( inland Minangkabau ) to the Company in an agreement signed in Padang , as compensation to the Dutch who are willing to help fight the Padri . Part of the ” invite ” the rest of the family dynasty under the leadership of Sultan Pagaruyung Muningsyah who survived the killings by troops led by lord Pasaman Padri on SMART INVESTOR , near Stone Cage , in 1815 (not 1803 as mentioned Parlindungan , 2007:136-41 ) .
However , since the beginning of 1833 the war turned into a war between the indigenous and the religious against the Dutch . Memorie Tuanku Imam Bonjol ( MTIB ) – transliterasinya by Sjafnir Aboe Nain ( Padang : PPIM , 2004 ) , an important indigenous source of the Padri War historians tend to ignore this long – note , how the two sides shoulder to shoulder against the Dutch .
The parties initially opposed finally unite against the Dutch . At the end of remorse appears consciousness, inviting the Dutch in the Minangkabau people miserable instead of conflict itself .
In MTIB , reflected a sense of remorse for the actions of the Padri TIB over fellow Minang and Mandailing . TIB aware , the struggle has deviated from the teachings of religion. ” The law is too Kitabullah Vast deck by us. How our minds ? ” ( As for many of the laws that already terlangkahi Kitabullah by us. How do you mind ? ) , write the TIB in MTIB ( p. 39 ) .
TIB remorse and heroic struggle against the Dutch with their followers who surrounded Bonjol from all directions for about six months (March 16 – August 17, 1837 )- such as details of De Salis was reported in Het einde Padri Oorlog : Het beleg en van de vermeestering Bondjol 1834-1837 : Een bronnenpublicatie [End Padri War : Siege and Deprivation Bonjol 1834-1837 ; A Publication Source ] ( 2004 ) : 59-183 , may be taken into consideration for forgiveness for the errors and mistakes that have been done TIB .
Now this nation that must determine if the TIB will be issued or derived from the ” litter of national heroism ” that had been ” paraded “by previous generations of this nation in their collective memory . ( Kompas 10/11/2007 By Suryadi , Lecturer and Researcher at the Opleiding Talen en van Zuidoost – Azië Culturen en Oceanië , Universiteit Leiden , The Netherlands ) .