Sidoarjo Mud Flow


Sidoarjo Mud Flow prior to the eruption, August 28, 2004. NASA ASTERsatellite image

Sidoarjo Mud Flow, November 11.2008

Sidoarjo mud flow, October 20, 2009. NASA ASTER satellite image. Red areas indicate plants in this false-color image

Sidoarjo mud flow

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Sidoarjo mud flow or Lapindo mud, also informally abbreviated as Lusi, a contraction of Lumpur Sidoarjo (lumpur is theIndonesian word for mud), is a mud volcano[1] in the subdistrict ofPorongSidoarjo in East JavaIndonesia that has been ongoing since May 2006. Approximately 30,000 m³ (1 million cubic feet) of mud — equivalent to the contents of a dozen Olympic-size swimming pools — are expelled per day.[2] It is expected that the flow will continue for the next 30 years.[3] Although the Sidoarjo mud flow has been contained by levees since November 2008, resultant flooding regularly disrupts local highways and villages. Further breakouts of mud are still possible.[4]

Geological setting

Mud volcano systems are fairly common on Earth, and particularly in East Java province. Beneath the island of Java is a half-grabenlying in the east-west direction, filled with overpressured marinecarbonates and marine muds.[5] It forms an inverted extensionalbasin which has been geologically active since the Paleogeneepoch.[6] The basin started to become overpressured during theOligoMiocene period. Some of the overpressured mud escapes to the surface to form mud volcanoes, which have been observed at Sangiran Dome and near Purwodadi city, 200 km (124 miles) west of Lusi.

The East Java Basin contains a significant amount of oil and gasreserves and therefore the region is known as a major concession area for mineral exploration. The Porong subdistrict, 14 km south ofSidoarjo city, is known in the mineral industry as the Brantas Production Sharing Contract (PSC), an area of approximately 7,250 km² which consists of three oil and gas fields: Wunut, Carat and Tanggulangin. As of 2006, three companies — Santos (18%),MedcoEnergi (32%) and PT Lapindo Brantas (50%) — had concession rights for this area; PT Lapindo Brantas acted as an operator.[7]

Mud eruption chronology

On May 28, 2006, PT Lapindo Brantas targeted gas in the Kujung Formation carbonates in the Brantas PSC area by drilling a boreholenamed the ‘Banjar-Panji 1 exploration well’. In the first stage of drilling the drill string first went through a thick clay seam (500–1,300 m deep), then sands, shells, volcanic debris and finally into permeable carbonate rocks.[1] At this stage the borehole was surrounded by a steel casing to help stabilise it. At 5:00 a.m. local time (UTC+8) a second stage of drilling began and the drill string went deeper, to about 2,834 m (9,298 ft), this time without a protective casing, after which water, steam and a small amount of gas erupted at a location about 200 m southwest of the well.[8] Two further eruptions occurred on the second and the third of June about 800–1000 m northwest of the well, but these stopped on June 5, 2006.[8] During these eruptions, hydrogen sulphide gas was released and local villagers observed hot mud, thought to be at a temperature of around 60 °C (140 °F).[9]

From a model developed by geologists working in the UK,[8] the drilling pipe penetrated the overpressured limestone, causingentrainment of mud by water. The influx of water to the well bore caused a hydrofracture, but the steam and water did not enter the borehole; they penetrated the surrounding overburden and pressured strata. The extra pressure formed fractures around the borehole that propagated 1–2 km to the surface and emerged 200 m away from the well. The most likely cause of these hydraulic fractures was the unprotected drill string in the second stage of drilling.[8] While steel casing is used to protect the well bore in oil or gas exploration, this protection can only be applied in stages after each new section of the hole is drilled, see drilling for oil.


There was controversy as to what triggered the eruption and whether the event was a natural disaster or not. According to PT Lapindo Brantas it was the May 2006 earthquake that triggered the mud flow eruption, and not their drilling activities.[10] Two days before the mud eruption, an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.3 hit the south coast of Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces killing 6,234 people and leaving 1.5 million homeless. At a hearing before the parliamentary members, senior executives of PT Lapindo Brantas argued that the earthquake was so powerful that it had created deep underground faults, allowing the mud to flow thousands of meters away, and that their company presence was coincidental, which should exempt them from paying compensation damage to the victims.[10] If the cause of the incident is determined to be natural, then the government of Indonesia has the responsibility to cover the damage instead. This argument was also recurrently echoed by Aburizal Bakrie, the Indonesian Minister of Welfare at that time, whose family firm controls the operator company PT Lapindo Brantas.[11][12]

However the UK team of geologists downplayed Lapindo’s argument and concluded that the earthquake was merely coincidental.[8] While it could have generated a new fracture system and weakened strata surrounding the Banjar-Panji 1 well, it could not have been the cause of the formation of the hydraulic fracture that created the main vent 200 m (660 ft) away from the borehole. Additionally there was no other mud volcano reported on Java after the earthquake and the main drilling site is 300 km (190 mi) away from the earthquake’s epicenter. The intensity of the earthquake at the drilling site was estimated to have been only magnitude 2 on Richter scale, the same effect as of a heavy truck passing over the area.[1]

In June 2008, a report released by British, American, Indonesian, and Australian scientists [13] concluded that the volcano was not a natural disaster, but the result of oil and gas drilling.[4]

Legal case

On June 5, 2006, MedcoEnergi (one partner company in the Brantas PSC area) sent a letter to PT Lapindo Brantas which accused them of breaching safety procedures during the drilling process.[10] The letter further attributes “gross negligence” to the operator company for not equipping the well bore with safety steel casing. Soon afterwards former vice president Jusuf Kalla announced that PT Lapindo Brantas and the owner, the Bakrie Group, must compensate thousands of victims affected by the mud flows.[14] A criminal investigation was then started against several senior executives of the company because the drilling operation has put the lives of local people at risk.[15]

Aburizal Bakrie frequently said that he is not involved in the company’s operation and further detached himself from the incident.[citation needed] Even in his capacity as Minister of Welfare, Aburizal Bakrie was reluctant to visit the disaster site.[citation needed] Aburizal Bakrie’s family business group, Bakrie Group, one of the owners of PT Lapindo Brantas, had been trying to distance themselves from the Lusi incident. Afraid of being liable for the disaster, Bakrie Group announced that they would sell PT Lapindo Brantas to an offshore company for only $2, but Indonesia’s Capital Markets Supervisory Agency blocked the sale.[16] A further attempt was made to try to sell to a company registered in the Virgin Islands, the Freehold Group, for US$1 million, which was also halted by the government supervisory agency for being an invalid sale.[16] Lapindo Brantas was asked to pay about 2.5 trillion rupiah (about US$ 276.8 million) to the victims and about 1.3 trillion rupiah as additional costs to stop the flow.[17] Some analysts predict that the Bakrie Group will emulate many US mining companies and pursue bankruptcy to avoid the cost of clean up, which could amount to US$ 1 billion.[18]

On August 15, 2006, the East Java police seized the Banjar-Panji 1 well to secure it for the court case.[19] The Indonesian environmental watchdog, WALHI, have meanwhile filed a suit against PT Lapindo Brantas, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, the Indonesian Minister of Energy, the Indonesian Minister of Environmental Affairs and local officials.[20]

After investigations by independent experts, police have concluded the mud flow was an “underground blow out“, triggered by the drilling activity. It is further noted that the steel casing lining had not been used which could have prevented the disaster. Thirteen Lapindo Brantas’ executives and engineers face twelve charges of violating Indonesian laws.[21]

Current status

As of October 30, 2008, the mud flow is still ongoing at a rate of 100,000 m3 per day.[22] A study has found that the mud volcano is collapsing under its own weight, possibly beginning calderaformation.[23]. The researchers say the subsidence data could help determine how much of the local area will be affected by Lusi. Their research used GPS and satellite data recorded between June 2006 and September 2007 that showed the area affected by Lusi had subsided by between .5 and 14.5 metres (1 ft 8 in and 47 ft 7 in) per year. The scientists found that if Lusi continued to erupt for three to 10 years at the constant rates measured during 2007 then the central part of the volcano could subside by between 44 and 146 m (144 and 479 ft). They propose the subsidence is due to the weight of mud and collapse of rock strata due to the excavation of mud from beneath the surface. Their study has also found that while some parts of Sidoarjo are subsiding others are rising suggesting that the Watukosek fault system has been reactivated due to the eruption.[24]

Workers helping to relocate families after new hot gas flows began to appear have been injured. The workers were taken to a local hospital to undergo treatment for severe burns. In Siring Barat, 319 more families have been displaced and in Kelurahan Jatirejo, 262 new families are also going to be affected by the new flows of gas. Protesting families took to the streets demanding compensations, which in turn added more delays to the already stressed detour road for Jalan Raya Porong and the The Porong-Gempol toll road.

The government has stated that their heart is with the people, although the cabinet meeting on how to disperse the compensation has been delayed until further notice. Local official, Saiful Ilah, signed a statement announcing that “The government is going to defend the people of Siring.” After this announcement all protests came to an end and traffic flow returned to normal an hour later.[25]

New mudflows spots have begun in April 2010, this time on Porong Highway, which is the main road linking Surabaya with Probolinggoand islands to the east including Bali, despite roadway thickening and strengthening. A new highway is planned to replace this one however are held up by land acquisition issues. The main railway also runs by the area, which is in danger of explosions due to seepage of methane and ignition could come from something as simple as a tossed cigarette.[26]

Revived Controversy

On 23 October 2008 a public relations agency in London, acting for one of the oil well’s owners, started to widely publicise what it described as “new facts” on the origin of the mud volcano, which were subsequently presented at an American Association of Petroleum Geologists conference in Cape TownSouth Africa on 28 October 2008 (see next section).[citation needed] The assertion of the geologists and drillers from Energi Mega Persada was that “At a recent Geological Society of London Conference, we provided authoritative new facts that make it absolutely clear that drilling could not have been the trigger of LUSI.” Other verbal reports of the conference in question indicated that the assertion was by no means accepted uncritically, and that when the novel data is published, it is certain to be scrutinised closely.[citation needed]

After hearing the (revised) arguments from both sides for the cause of the mud volcano at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists International Convention in Cape Town in October 2008, the vast majority of the conference session audience present (consisting of AAPG oil and gas professionals) voted in favor of the view that the Lusi (Sidoarjo) mudflow had been induced by drilling. On the basis of the arguments presented, 42 out of the 74 scientists came to the conclusion that drilling was entirely responsible, while 13 felt that a combination of drilling and earthquake activity was to blame. Only 3 thought that the earthquake was solely responsible, and 16 geoscientists believed that the evidence was inconclusive.[27]

The report of the debate and its outcomes was published in AAPG Explorer Magazine.[28]

In February 2010, a group led by experts from Britain’s Durham University said the new clues bolstered suspicions the catastrophe was caused by human error. In journal Marine and Petroleum Geology, Professor Richard Davies, of the Centre for Research into Earth Energy Systems (CeREES), said that drillers, looking for gasnearby, had made a series of mistakes. They had overestimated the pressure the well could tolerate, and had not placed protective casing around a section of open well. Then, after failing to find any gas, they hauled the drill out while the hole was extremely unstable. By withdrawing the drill, they exposed the wellhole to a “kick” from pressurised water and gas from surrounding rock formations. The result was a volcano-like inflow that the drillers tried in vain to stop. [29] [30]


Jember Festival Carnaval

One of the tourism potential should be developed in Jember is Jember Fashion Carnival (JFC) in which this event has never been in other cities in the world. This event will be a mainstay tourist town of Jember future, even further to create a tourism city of Jember Fashion. Jember Fashion Carnival is able to involve the whole community and foreign tourists coming from the Netherlands, France and England. JFC starts from Jember town square and finishes at Kaliwates Sub district approximately 5 km.
Location: Jember Regency
First week of August 2010

Tour Central Java : Jurnal Daily Events at Jogjakarta

  • Every night
Time : Every night, 20.00 – 21.30
Venue : Purawisata
Jl. Brigjen Katamso
Phone: +62 274 375705
Category : Art performance, Sendratari (dance, drama and music)
Description : Ramayana Ballet is a beautiful, enchanting and unrivalled performance that could combine the diversity of Javanese arts in forms of dance, drama and music in one stage that at the same time could deliver Ramayana story in four stages: Sinta’s abduction, Anoman’s mission to Alengka, Kumbarkana’s death and the happy ending when Rama meets Sinta again. This show has received the award for making a record of 25 year stripping show from MURI (Indonesia documentary record museum).
Ticketing : IDR 140,000 (per show)
IDR 250,000 (show + dinner)
  • Every night
Time : Every night, 20.30 – 23.00
Venue : Purawisata
Jl. Brigjen Katamso
Phone: +62 274 375705
Category : Music
Description : Dangdut is a very popular music stream in Indonesia that is a mixture of traditional, Arabian, Indian and proto malay. The attractive part is at the entertaining rhytm, beauty of the singers and body movement following the rhytm in particular. Purawisata comes with different Malay music assemble and singer every single day.
Ticketing : IDR 8,000 (week days)
IDR 10,000 (Saturday night)
  • Every night
Time : Every night, 20.00 – 22.00
Venue : Museum Sonobudoyo
Jl. Trikora No. 6 Yogyakarta
Phone: +62 274 418330
Category : Cultural performance
Description : Wayang kulit (leather puppet) is a magnificent artwork of Javanese art performance that has received acknowledgment from UNESCO. A dalang (wayang player) plays puppet made from buffalo’s leather behind a white screen. Hence, the audience can only see the shadow. That’s exactly the reason why it’s called “wayang” meaning shadow in English. The attractive parts of the show lie on the dynamic movement of dalang at playing different roles of wayang, changing the voice character, his jokes and even his singing.
Ticketing : IDR 20,000
  • Every Sunday
Time : Every Sunday, 11.00 – 12.00
Venue : Keraton Yogyakarta
Jl. Rotowijayan No. 1
Phone: +62 274 373721
Category : Cultural performance, Theater
Description : “Wayang Orang” is a Javanese traditional theater combining music, drama and dance. The actors making up themselves as if they’re the real leather puppet played by them. The story at this show taken from Mahabarta or Ramayana story.
Ticketing : It’s free. However, we need to pay the entrance fee to get into Keraton (IDR 12,500)
  • Every 1st Sunday night in a month
Time : Every 1st Sunday night in a month, 20.00 – 24.00
Venue : Auditorium RRI
Jl. Affandi / Jl. Gejayan
Phone: +62 274 512783
Category : Art performance, Theater
Description : Ketoprak is a traditional javanese theater performance. Just like wayang orang, Ketoprak comes with a drama inserting a Javanese composition and gamelan music. The critical difference lies on its source of the story where it’s not derived from Mahabarata or Ramayana but it’s derived from legend or other stories.
Ticketing : IDR 5,000
  • Every Monday and Tuesday
Time : Every Monday and Tuesday, 10.00 – 12.00
Venue : Keraton Yogyakarta
Jl. Rotowijayan No. 1
Phone: +62 274 373721
Category : Art performance, Music
Description : A show combining gamelan music and singing. Karawitan is derived from sanskrit word “rawit” meaning soft. Watching this show can be best described as experiencing the ideal values of Javanese music philosophy from the source, Keraton Yogyakarta (Sultan’s palace)
Ticketing : It’s free. However, we need to pay the entrance fee to get into Keraton (IDR 12,500)
  • Every Wednesday
Time : Every Wednesday, 10.00 – 12.00
Venue : Keraton Yogyakarta
Jl. Rotowijayan No. 1
Phone: +62 274 373721
Category : Cultural Performance
Description : Wayang Golek is a wooden puppet art show which is so popular in West Java.
Ticketing : It’s free. However, we need to pay the entrance fee to get into Keraton (IDR 12,500)
  • Every Thursday
Time : Every Thursday, 10.00 – 12.00
Venue : Keraton Yogyakarta
Jl. Rotowijayan No. 1
Phone: +62 274 373721
Category : Cultural performance, Music
Description : Seeing Javanese philosophy through music. That’s the valuable thing that you’ll experience by watching this cultural performance at this special place. Listening to the gamelan rhytm can be best described as listening to a harmony relaxing your mind and soul.
Ticketing : It’s free. However, we need to pay the entrance fee to get into Keraton (IDR 12,500)
  • Every Friday
Time : Every Friday, 10.00 – 11.30
Venue : Keraton Yogyakarta
Jl. Rotowijayan No. 1
Phone: +62 274 373721
Category : Cultural Performance, Music
Description : This is a poetry reading performance accompanied by gamelan music. The poetry is presented as if it’s a song that has a specific pattern and composition. There are seven songs in Macapat: Dhandang Gula, Sinom, Asmarandana and Kinanthi. Each song has its total lyrics and sound called guru.
Ticketing : It’s free. However, we need to pay the entrance fee to get into Keraton (IDR 12,500)
  • Every Saturday
Time : Every Saturday, 09.00 – 13.00
Venue : Keraton Yogyakarta
Jl. Rotowijayan No. 1
Phone: +62 274 373721
Category : Cultural Performance
Description : Wayang kulit (leather puppet) is a magnificent artwork of Javanese art performance that has received acknowledgment from UNESCO. A dalang (wayang player) plays puppet made from buffalo’s leather behind a white screen. Hence, the audience can only see the shadow. That’s exactly the reason why it’s called “wayang” meaning shadow in English. The attractive parts of the show lie on the dynamic movement of dalang at playing different roles of wayang, changing the voice character, his jokes and even his singing.
Ticketing : It’s free. However, we need to pay the entrance fee to get into Keraton (IDR 12,500)
  • Every night
Time : Every night, 19.00 till finish
Venue : Alun Alun Kidul (Southern square of Sultan’s palace)
Category : Game
Description : Try to walk as if you’re blind by closing your eyes to get into the middle  of two banyan tress at southern square of Sultan’s palace.

If you’re lucky,you might be able to proceed smoothly.

However, many people end up tofar deviation

at that process inviting many laughs.

For more joy and fun,

challenge your friends to do the same thing

and compare the results.

Ticketing : Free

Keraton Jogjakarta


History Of Keraton Jogya

It lies between the northern boundary and the monument as a Stage Krapyak the south border, between Code River in the east and west Winongo River. Between Mount Merapi and the South Sea, Palace in the mind of the Javanese society, defined as the center of the world which is described as the center of the universe.

Kraton History

After Giyanti Agreement, Prince Mangkubumi given the Yogyakarta region. To run his administration, Prince Mangkubumi built a castle in the year 1755 in the Forest region Beringan. This land is considered good enough because flanked by two rivers that protect it from being flooded. The first king of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta is the title of Prince Mangkubumi lane I (HB I).

Naming and Meaning Layout

PalacePalace or Kraton, Derived from the word ka-Queen’s, Which means a place to live the queen / king. Its broader meaning, described in simple, that all structures and buildings in the Palace area has the meaning related to essential Javanese philosophy of life, ie Sangkan Paraning Dumadi (Where they come from humans and where eventually humans after death

Outlines, the Kraton area extending 5 km to the south until Krapyak and 2 km to the north end of Monument. On this line there is a linear inverse duality, so that could be read symbolically philosophical. From south to north, as the birth of humanity from a high place to the perishable nature, and vice versa as the process of returning humans to the side Dumadi (God in the view of Java). While the Palace as a physical with the king as a symbol of the true soul that comes into the physical body.

Palace to Tugu monument as a way of life that is full of temptations. Beringharjo market symbolizes women temptation. While the temptation for power is symbolized by Kepatihan Building. Both are located on the right. Straight road itself as a human symbol close to the Creator (Paraning impressive Dumadi).

In a simple, symbolic monument Phallus (Male) and Krapyak asYoni (Female). And the Palace as the physical origin of the two.

The meaning of Yogyakarta Space

Hit by the earthquake in 1867, the Palace was severely damaged. At the time of HB VII in 1889, the buildings are refurbished. The lay still retained, but the shape of the building changed, as seen now

Tugu and Ward, or Ward Manguntur Tangkil Kencana (where the king’s throne), located in a straight line, this means, when the Emperor sat on his throne and looked toward the monument, so he will always remember the people (Gusti subjects unity).

Same order of the Kingdom of Mataram Dynasty in general. Ward Kencana that is where the king’s reign, together with Prabayeksa as a place to keep sacred weapons Palace (in this room there Wiji Kyai oil lamps, which are always kept servants in the palace in order not to die), serves as the center. Wards are covered by the court Kedhaton, so as to achieve the center, must pass through layers of pages that resemble a series of bewa (waves) above the ocean.

Spatial arrangement of the Palace is very similar to the constellation of mountain and Jambu Dwipa, which is seen as a continental center of the universe.

From north to south area of the Palace there are successive North Square, North Hinggil Siti, North Kemandhungan, Srimanganti, Kedhaton, Kemagangan, South Kemandhungan, Siti Hinggil Square South and South (the sheltered courtyard wall height).

While the door to go through to get to each place nine, called Regol. From there north gate, pangurukan, the stage grand, brajanala, srimanganti, kemagangan, gadhung Mlati, kemandhungan and ivory.

Brongtodiningrat critical look at these numbers, the highest number that describes perfection. This corresponds to nine holes in human beings, commonly called babahan hawa sanga.

The sacredness of each Palace building is indicated by the frequency and intensity of activity at the site of the Sultan.

Square, Performances, and Siti Hinggil, in place of Sultan only comes three times a year, namely during the events of Pisowan Ageng Grebeg Mawlood, Sawal and Besar. And the opportunities so incidental a very specific example during the coronation of the Emperor and Crown Prince or Princess Coronation Duke Anom.

Sultan Palace is an old building that was once damaged and restored. Looks like other Kingdom buildings. But if we explore Yogyakarta Palace, which is the largest and most beautiful examples with symbolic meaning, a philosophy of life, human nature, how nature works and human beings live their lives and various symbols of life existence in them.

Parangtritis Beach

Tour Central Java : Parangtritis Beach


Sharp rocks and the undulating link and the expanse of black sand beach called Parangtritis is part of the Indian Ocean, 28 miles south of Yogyakarta. With a challenging waves, sand dunes are always moving, and enjoy the beautiful starry night. Mythof the Queen of the South Sea kingdom that has a relationship with the King (Sultan) who ruled in Yogyakarta, and the prohibition of wearing a green dress while in the beach because it is believed that the green color represents the Queen’s favorite color is still a public trust.Parangwedang, a water tour in Parangtritis warm-containing minerals that are suitable for treatment of skin diseases. Parangkusumo, a place considered sacred, was the place where the meeting between the Kings Jogja with Queen of South.

Kasongan Handicraft – Kasongan

Tour Central Java :

Kasongan Handicraft- Gerabah


Kasongan is a popular tourist destination in the district Bantul,Yogyakarta Special Region which is famous for handicrafts gerabahnya. This place is exactly located in the area Kajen hamlets, villagesBangunjiwo, District Poor, BantulYogyakarta Special Region, (~ S 7.846567 ° – E 110.344468 °) about 6 km fromPlazaYogyakarta North to South direction.

Kasongan originally a land of paddies in the south of the village’s population Yogyakarta. On The period of Dutch colonization in Indonesia, in areas paddies belonging to one of these people found a dead horse. HorseInvestigation is expected to belong to the Dutch. Because the time period of Dutch colonization, then those residents who own land and immediately release the fear that their land rights and no longer acknowledged. Fear is also common on other residents in the surrounding fields which have finally managed to unleash their land rights. Since the number of free land, then the other villagers immediately recognized the land. Residents who have no land is then switched professions to become a craftsman ceramicswhich initially only mengempal-ngempal land that is not broken when put together. Actually the land is only used for children’s toys and kitchen utensils. However, due diligence and traditions from generation to generation, Kasongan eventually became well-known tourist village.

Since the year 19711972, Tourism Village Kasongan remarkable progress. Sapto Hudoyo (A great artist Yogyakarta) to help develop a tourist village with a building society Kasongan mostly craftsmen to provide a variety of commercial and artistic touch to the design so that the earthenware pottery produced does not create the impression that boring and monotonous, but it can provide value and value of art economy high. Ceramic Kasongan used commercially in large scale by Sahid Ceramics around the year1980.

Village Tourism

Results from the craft Earthenware produced by Kasongan in general form jar with various motifs (peacockdragonrose and many others), pot various sizes (from small to shoulder the size of adults), souvenirpicture frame, Wall hangings, furniture such astable and chair, Etc.. But then developing varied products includeinterest clone of leaf banana, Furniture bamboomask-Topengan and many others. The results are good-quality handicrafts and has been exported to foreign countries such as Europe and America. Usually, this village is frequently visited by tourists visiting theYogyakarta.

Keraton Surakarta Hadiningrat

Tour Central Java :

Keraton Surakarta Hadiningrat

Keraton Surakarta or in a language called Java Hadiningrat Surakarta Palace, a former royal palace in Surakarta Kasunanan Hadiningrat (1755-1946). It was founded by His Majesty Sultan Palace Pakubuwono II (Sunan PB II) in 1744 as a substitute for the Palace / Palace Kartasura ravaged caused commotion in 1743′s Chinatown.

Last palace of Mataram kingdom was established in the village of Sala (Solo), a small port on the west bank of the River, (the river) Concrete / Sala. After the official palace of Mataram Kingdom was completed, the village name was changed to Surakarta Hadiningrat. The Palace is also a silent witness transfer of sovereignty in the kingdom of Mataram by Sunan PB II to the VOC in the year 1749. After the 1755 Treaty Giyanti years, the palace was later used as an official palace for Kasunanan Surakarta until 1946, when the Government of Indonesia officially remove Kasunanan Surakarta and turn it into a residency directly under the President of Indonesia.Architectural grandeurKeraton (Palace) in Surakarta is one of the exotic buildings in his time. One architect of this palace is Prince Mangkubumi (later the title of Sultan Hamengkubuwono I) which is also the main architect of Yogyakarta Palace. Therefore it is not surprising that the basic pattern of spatial structure are both Kraton (Yogyakarta and Surakarta) has much in common equation.

Keraton Surakarta as can be witnessed today was not built simultaneously in 1744-45, but was built in stages by maintaining basic spatial patterns that remain the same as initially. Development and large-scale restoration recently performed by His Majesty Pakubuwono X (Sunan PB X), which reigned 1893-1939. Most of this palace of white and blue color shades with a mixture of Javanese-style arsitekrur Europe.In general, the distribution of the palace include: Complex Square Lor / North, Sasana Sumewa Complex, Complex Sitihinggil Lor / North, Lor Kamandungan Complex / North, Sri Manganti Complex, Complex Kedhaton, Kamagangan Complex, Complex Srimanganti South / South (?) And Kemandungan South / South and South Sitihinggil Complex and Alun-alun Kidul. This palace complex is also surrounded by baluwarti, a defensive wall with a height of about three to five meters and a thickness of about one meter without the pavilion. These walls enclose an area with a rectangular shape. The area size of about five hundred yards wide and about seven hundred meters long. Palace complex within the walls is from Kemandungan Lor / Kemandungan North to South / South. Both complexes Sitihinggil and square is not surrounded by defensive walls.source: