Tandem Paragliding – Batu City


Para Gliding

Not only offers a beautiful view, Batu also be the best choice for those who love paragliding. They usually start their activities from Banyak mountain that is familiar as the aero sport. However, it is officially established as the paragliding on 20 June 2000. Since then, it is declared as the aero spot. The official announcement is at the same time of PON VI of East Java that is marked by building an epigraphy signed by Indonesian Air Marshal, Hanafi Asnan who is also the chairman of Indonesian Aero sport Federation. Paragliders usually come to this place in June up to October. There is a plan to have a paragliding show on the night. This is, of course, will be unique and interesting. If you want to see paragliding either from the landing area in Songgoriti or from the starting area in Banyak mountain, you will find many facilities such as observation station, food stalls, and shelters. 

For you who love unusual sport..adrenaline junkie..who wants to fly and soaring like an eagle..who wants to get the sensation of catching white-clouds..who wants to enjoy Batu’s landscape from different angle..who wants to have unique and stylish pictures..who wants to do tandem paragliding in Batu-East Java.., you may consider to call “Ayokitakemon! Outdoor-Activities”, the one and only provider that offering tandem packages among of their service. 

From Rp. 300.000,- to the most pampered service at Rp. 500.000,-, you will get a tandem paragliding service with national-licensed tandem master, international standard equipments, safety-first operations, and crews who provide friendship-love, and rock ‘n roll.

Tandem Para Gliding Rates :

                       INDIVIDUAL (1-9 px)
PACKAGE A / Tandem BASIC FLIGHT SERVICE
Price IDR. 300.000, –
Description:
– Meeting point at take-off areas
– Implementation of a tandem
– 4x softcopy photos (Preparing and take-off)

PACKAGE B / MEDIUM Tandem FLIGHT SERVICE
Price IDR. 350.000, –
Description:
– Pick-up at base camp or in the territory of the Stone Ayokitakemon
– Implementation of a tandem
– Welcome drinks, snacks
– 8x softcopy photos (Preparing the take-off)
– Back to the point of pick-up Delivery

PACKAGE C / Tandem ADVANCED FLIGHT SERVICE
Price IDR. 450.000, –
Description:
– Pick-up at base camp or in the territory of the Stone Ayokitakemon
– Implementation of a tandem
– Welcome drinks, snacks
– 10x softcopy photos (Preparing, take-off, Airborne)
– Sticker ayokitakemon! paragliding
– Pin Paragliding
– Mini poster / postcard photograph paragliding from relevant guest
– Back to the point of pick-up Delivery

PACKAGE D / Tandem FLIGHT PREMIUM SERVICE
Price IDR. 500.000, –
Description:
– Pick-up at base camp or in the territory of the Stone Ayokitakemon
– Implementation of a tandem
– Welcome drinks, snacks
– 10x softcopy photos (Preparing the take-off, Airborne)
– Sticker ayokitakemon! paragliding
– Pin Paragliding
– Mini poster / postcard photograph paragliding from relevant guest
– T-shirts ayokitakemon! paragliding
– Back to the point of pick-up Delivery

                  SPECIAL Packages:
T-SHIRT PACKAGE
Price IDR. 350.000, –
Description:
– Package A + Ayokitakemon’s paragliding t-shirtsPrice IDR: 600 000, –
Description:
– Pick-up at base camp or in the territory of the Stone Ayokitakemon
– Implementation of a tandem under the moon
– Video of prepare, flight, & landing
– Sticker ayokitakemon! paragliding
– Pin Paragliding
– T-shirts ayokitakemon! paragliding night safari edition
– Hot Roasted corns and fresh milk at the landing area
– Back to the point of pick-up Delivery

NIGHT SAFARI PACKAGE

                      CORPORATE (+ 10 px)IDR. 275.000, –IDR. 325 000, –IDR. 425 000, –IDR. 475.00, –

PACKAGE A / Tandem BASIC FLIGHT SERVICE
Price

PACKAGE B / MEDIUM Tandem FLIGHT SERVICE
Price

PACKAGE C / Tandem ADVANCED FLIGHT SERVICE
Price

PACKAGE D / Tandem FLIGHT PREMIUM SERVICE
Price

* Airborne photos we use a monopod for a better photo angle and wider. Video capture is also possible with prior notice.

Coban Rondo Waterfall – Batu Area


Coban Rondo Waterfall

Coban Rondo Waterfall is also one object owned ecotourism in Malang. Located 12 km from Stone Town, or rather in the Village Pandansari Kec. Pujon. In this ecotourism objects you will encounter a waterfall with a height of 60 m.

Forest Tourism Area Waterfall Coban Rondo is the region most easily ecotourism travel. Entrance to the location is already paved, so it’s easier if tourists want to visit this ecotourism object. Around Coban Rondo waterfall, tree-lined mountain pine and spruce, made the atmosphere at these sights seemed cool.

Mini Zoo Not only are there waterfalls in this ecotourism object. You also can see the panoramic beauty of the town of Batu, toga plants, various animals and the inn is currently in construction phase

Mount Bromo


BROMO MOUNTAIN

Far Side is Semeru Mountain,  on the Left Bromo Mountain and on the right Batok Mountain

Picture above is Bromo Caldera from 1,2 Km High Space

Above Picture of Semeru Mountain on the left and Bromo on the right

This National Park is one of the most beautiful places of interest in East Java. The beauties of mountain covered, give a special and characteristic green plants, arousing great interest. Tenggerese traditional farming also makes this famous place being more interesting and attractive. In addition, cool and breezy wind always blows freshly giving ever visitor special deep impression a unforgettable memories.
The accessibility has no problem and very reachable (via Malang, Pasuruan, Probolinggo or Lumajang).
Surely, different access give different characteristics scenery landscape. The elevation reaches about 2.392 meter sea level above and the temperature varies from 3 up to 20 degrees centigrade.Facilities: Star Hotels, home-stays, restaurants, and many others that visitors needed can be found.
The people who live in this area are supposed to be descended from Majapahit Kingdom about six hundred years ago. The belonged to Tenggerese Hinduism with old traditional. That tradition still survives up to now. Every year, they always carry out the traditional and religious ceremonies, and the most popular ones is Yadnya Kasada, an offering ceremony held at the edge of the crater on the top of mount Bromo.The Story of Offering Kasada Ceremony
Hundreds years ago, during the reign of the last king of Majapahit, Brawijaya, the situation was so uncertain due to the expanding new religion, Islam. At the time, the queen gave birth a baby girl and named her Roro Anteng, later the princess married Joko Seger, a Brahma Caste.Since the influences of the new religion was so strong that it created chaos. The king and his followers were forced to back off to the east, some of them reached Bali and some of them reached a volcano.

The new married couple, Roro Anteng and Joko Seger were also found among the fugitives who went to the volcano. Later they ruled the volcano area and named it Tengger. The word Tengger was derived from Roro Anteng and Joko Seger. Then he surnamed himself the riffle of Purba Wasesa Mangkurat Ing Tengger which means the righteous ruler of Tengger.

Years after year as the region flourished in prosperity, the King and Queen felt unhappy for they had no children to succeed their throne. On their desperation, they decided to climb the top of the volcano to pray and beseech before God, the Almighty. Deeply, impressed by the faith of their meditation affected the murmuring sound of the crater lifted up miraculously followed by a golden lightning that made the surrounding locked so scintillating. Their prayer were heard the God and would give them children, but they should sacrifice their last child as return. It was a promising future that could not be denied.

Not long after, the first baby boy was born and Roro Anteng named him Tumenggung Klewung. Child after child was born during the years and it reached 25 in number to whom she gave the named Kesuma for the last child.

Roro Anteng and Joko Seger were very happy ever since, love and affection were imparted among their children. Happiness lingered on years after years, but a dull and sad feeling still haunted them for their promise would be claimed one day. They realized that they could not run from the fact, a bitter disappointment of losing a child shot through their brains. The day came, the God reminded them of their promise which could not be avoided.

As they felt how cruel it was to sacrifice their beloved child, they decided to break their promise by not offering him to the God. They brought away their children in order to save their last child from the offering. They tried to find a place to hide, however, they could not find away.

All of by sudden, the dreadful eruption of the volcano followed to where they went and miraculously Kesuma, the last beloved child was swallowed into the crater. At the same time when Kesuma disappeared from their sight, turbulent brawl diminished and strange silence for a while but a sudden voice echoed: Hi, my beloved brothers and sisters. It was sacrificed to appear before God Hyang Widi Wasa to save all of you. And what I expect be in a peace and live prosperously. Don’t forget to set mutual assistance among you and to worship God constantly to arrange an offering ceremony annually on 14th of Kasada (the twelfth month of Tenggerese calendar) by full moon. For the sake of your God. Hyang Widi Wasa.

Kesuma’s Brothers and sisters held the offering ceremony annually just like what Kesuma advised and it was held from generation to generation up to now.

Ijen Plateu – Bondowoso


Ijen is a lake acidic crater at the top Mount Ijen, East Java, Has a height of 2368 meters above sea level with a depth of 200 meters and the area of the lake crater reached 5466 hectares. Crater in the territory of Nature Reserve Nature Trail Ijen Bondowoso, East Java. Ijen crater Ijen mountain views from the summit was amazing. The atmosphere is pleasant to feel good in the landscape and natural ambience make nature lovers became interested in exploring this Ijen mountain. Besides being a recreation of the most beautiful places in the region Bondowoso, Ijen mountain areas as frequently as the young children as a suitable camping spot. Ijen is a large lake with a bluish-green mist and sulfur fumes very charming. In addition, cold air with a temperature of 10 degrees centigrade, can even reach a temperature of 2 degrees centigrade, will add to the sensation of cold at all for those who are not accustomed to feel the air in the crater of Ijen. Various plants that exist only in the highlands you can also find, like Flowers Edelweis and Pine Mt.

As the morning, when the sun began to shine crater area, the beautiful scenery you can enjoy feel the rays coming out from behind trees and hiding when the sunset. Ijen a bluish green color will be increased in the golden sunlight reflecting in the crater. Stunning scenery you can also get with the charm of beauty watch Mount Merapi adjacent. Mount Merapi have similar shapes with Mount Ijen. The most appropriate time to witness the beauty of Ijen is in the morning.

To reach Ijen, you have to down a path along the caldera cliffs. Do not forget to bring life cover because sometimes the sulfur smoke is blown through the track. You can also surround the caldera in the region that takes time to reach 8 to 10 hours walking.

Ijen volcano is one tourist attraction in Indonesia. Ijen is a famous tourist attraction, which has been recognized by domestic and foreign tourists for its beautiful nature and charming. 5466 hectares, the depth of 2386 meters from the sea, with 92 hectares of forest tourism. Temperatures ranged from 2 to 8 degrees Celsius and is located in the crater area of 2.386 meters above sea level (masl).There are many kinds of beautiful plants that can be found there, like a flower edelweiss and mountain pine, etc. Many animals can also be seen in the forest-like birds (partridge) and hedgehogs. Ijen Crater is located about 68km from the city center. There are few facilities here such as: a campground, shelter and Tourist Information Center (TIC) etc..

 
The best time to enjoy the scenery is a crater in the morning, when the yellow sun was shining and the water in the surrounding mountains such as Mount Merapi, which is adjacent to Mount Ijen. Morning dew creating a calm that we could not get in metropolitan cities. At 2 pm, closed on the grounds Ijen thick smoke from the crater that are poisonous.

Way to go to the crater Ijen
There are two alternative roads to reach the Ijen crater, the first is from Banyuwangi to Greasy – Guava – Patulding. Approximately 38 km from Banyuwangi, but this is a bad road. The second is from Bondowoso – Wonosari – Sempol – Patulding, about 70 kilometers of roads better. Advised to go from Bondowoso. If visiting from Bondowoso, tourists will pass through coffee plantations. This is a beautiful scenery that ever existed. Green arabica coffee tree is a very nice scenery to be enjoyed.

 
To reach the crater of Ijen Surabaya, we can use public transportation routes as follows:

  • Surabaya – Bondowoso: 180 km with a public bus
  • Bondowoso – Paltuding: 68 km on public transport
  • Paltuding – for the location: 2 km on foot

Kasodo Ritual Ceremony at Bromo Mountain


DON’T MISS THIS BIG EVENT  !!!!

Once a year, Tengger community round Bromo-Tengger National Park, holds Kasodo ceremony, this year on 25th and 26th Of August 2010 but the preparation of the series of the ceremony will be held 2 days before, with the anniversary of Poten Temple which is located on the sea of sand in the Tengger crater.

 The temple anniversary was preceded by a journey to request holy water from three different sacred places, Widodaren spring on the slope of mount widodaren , Madakaripura Waterfall, and Watu Plosot at Mount Semeru. The holy water is essential part of the ceremony since it is used to purify the temple and the offerings that are presented by the Tengger Hindus on the day of Temple anniversary.

The peak of Kasodo ceremony was held early in the morning,, thousands of Tengger Hindus climbed Mount Bromo; at the rim of Bromo’s craters they threw their offerings into the crater of Mount Bromo. The offerings range from vegetables to chickens, from fruits to goats, from money to other valuables. Dozens of non Hindus who came from outside Tengger area, waited on the edge of the crater to catch the offerings.

The Kasodo ceremony is a way of Tengger Hindus to express their gratitude to God almighty for good harvest and fortune that have been bestowed on them.

Singosari Kingdom (Before Majapahit Empire)


SINGOSARI

Description

Not much remains of the once powerful 13th century East Java kingdom of Singosari. Only an unfinished temple and two giant statues that once stood guard in front of the palace remain of this great kingdom.  In its heyday Singosari was so powerful that the mighty Mongol emperor Kublai Khan deemed it essential to send a fleet and a special emissary to the court of Singosari to demand that King Kertanegara personally submit allegiance to the emperor.  In response, Kertanegara cut off one of the ambassador’s ears as a message to Kublai khan that he will do no such thing.

Whatever little remains of the palace of Singosari can be seen near the present-day town of Singosari, where stands the unfinished Singosari temple built in 1304 and in the courtyard are a collection of statues, while further down are two huge guardian statues known as dwarapala.


 
The beautiful Candi Jawi, with Mt. Penanggungan at its back, built in the reign of Singosari, is believed to be the funerary temple of the kingdom’s fifth and last king Kertanegara. Built in the 13th century, it is dedicated to a deity combining features of the Hindu god Siva with the Buddha. Candi Jawi is located 40 km. south of Surabaya at Prigen on the way to Tretes. (Below)

Other temples built during the Singosari era are the Candi Jago built in 1268 located in Tumpang village, 6 km. south of present day town of Singosari. It is dedicated to Singosari’s 4th king Visnusardahana; while Candi Kidal is 11 km along the same road, built in 1260 and decorated with the mythical Garuda bird. Kidal is dedicated to Singosari’s 2nd king, Raja Anusapati.  

An original statue of king Kertanegara still stands in the center of the city of Surabaya, affectionately known as Joko Dolog, or the Fat Boy.

The kingdom of Singosari was founded in 1222 by a commoner by the name of Ken Arok, who managed to marry the beautiful princess Ken Dedes of Janggala after murdering her husband.  Ken Arok later attacked neighbouring Kediri and thus united the two realms that were split by King Airlangga in 1049 as inheritance to his two sons.

Ken Arok

One of the most famous legends from Java describes a legendary bladesmith called Mpu Gandring and his impatient customer, Ken Arok. The customer ordered a powerful keris to kill the chieftain of Tumapel, Tunggul Ametung. Ken Arok eventually stabbed the old bladesmith to death because he kept delaying the scheduled completion of the kris. Dying, the bladesmith prophesied that the unfinished or incomplete kris would kill seven men, including Ken Arok. The prophecy finally came true, with four men enlisted as the kris’ first death roll, including Mpu Gandring himself, Tunggul Ametung, Kebo Ijo to whom Ken Arok lent the weapon, and finally Ken Arok himself. The unfinished kris then disappeared.[5][6]

Another version of the tale describes that the kris passed to Ken Arok‘s stepson Anusapati which in turn killed his stepfather after recognized that his genuine father was killed by Ken Arok with the same kris. The bloody revenge continued on and on until the reign of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari kingdom.
Singosari succeeded in developing the rich agricultural hinterland along the Brantas river basin, as well as the lucrative maritime trade along the Java Sea. In 1275 and 1291 king Kartanegara attacked the maritime kingdom of Crivijaya in South Sumatra and gained suzerainty over the maritime trade in the Java and Sumatra seas. He was, however, killed by one of his vassals, Jayakatwang in 1293.

When the Chinese fleet sent by the irate Kublai Khan arrived on Java, unbeknown to them Kartanegara was already dead. Kertanegara’s son in law, Prince Vijaya, at first managed to persuade them to kill Jayakatwang, but then turned around to oust the Chinese fleet from Java.

Hereafter Vijaya founded the powerful Majapahit empire in 1294 whose palace is located to the north of Singosari at Porong. Majapahit’s influence would encompass present day Indonesia and spread even to Malaysia and Thailand.

Much of what we know today about Singosari comes from the 14th century Old Javanese text called the Pararaton (or the book of Kings).

Two giants squat on either side of a minor road in what is now a small village area on the outskirts of Malang in East Java. They seem to be both aggressive guards and benevolent protectors. They wear crowns made of skulls, have fanged teeth and their hands, legs and feet are massive and elephantine.

A giant dvarapala stone figure sits in a area that was once part of the Singosari kingdom. (JP/Simon Marcus Gower)

These are stone giants known as dvarapala and were intended as guardians, typically of temples, and yet  today they seem sad and forlorn figures. They sit discarded along what is today an insignificant road. But  they do hint at what once might have been here.

These stone giants would have been part of an impressive kingdom. Today they stand within a village that lies 10 to 15 kilometers to the north of the center of Malang, just off the main road between Malang and Surabaya. It bears the name Singosari and centuries ago it would have been no mere village.

For the better part of one hundred years in the 13th century this was a land of kings of the Singosari dynasty. Also standing within the current village of Singosari is the temple, or candi, which bears the same name, hinting at the kingdoms that were once here.

Singosari Temple in East Java stands tall and majestic. (JP/Simon Marcus Gower)

Candi Singosari stands some 250 meters away from the two giant dvarapalas and is a funerary temple built to honor the fifth and last king of the Singosari dynasty, King Kertanegara. He died at the end of the 13th century and it is said the temple was erected ten years after his death, but it has a strangely unfinished feel.Steps lead up to a raised terraced two meters above the ground level. From this terrace four doorways and four chambers within the temple structure can be reached. Above each of these doorways are what are known as kala heads. Similar to the dvarapala giants down the road, these heads are fearsome protectors of the chambers.

The kala heads are unusual as they appear unfinished. Usually such heads would have intricately carved details but the features here are unusually smooth, suggesting that the stone carvers never got around to finishing them. Perhaps their unfinished state left them less capable of protecting the contents of the chambers.

Today only one of the chambers has a figure left within it. This is the figure of Agastya, who was a Shivaite teacher said to have walked across water to reach Java. This is a finely carved figure that has evidently suffered over the centuries but is still honored and prayed to; people leave flowers and incense sticks burning at his feet.

All around the small fenced-in precinct of the temple there is a collection of other figures and various other ornamented and carved stones that suggest there were many more stone structures in the area. There are indeed many other temples to be seen in this part of East Java and they too hint at the extent of the once considerable kingdoms in the region.

Not far from Singosari is a small box-like temple which is slowly being surrounded by the growing town of Malang.

This is a temple which is said to be the oldest surviving Hindu temple in East Java but it is unusually named. It is now tucked away in an alleyway in an area that is increasingly becoming a residential complex. Its name, Badut, seems unusual because that word could be taken to mean “joker” or “clown”, but there is nothing funny about this temple.

Like Singosari, it is a funerary temple. It is thought to have been built between 750 and 760 and was erected to honor King Gajayana. He belonged to the Kanjuruhan Kingdom, one of the earliest recorded kingdoms in East Java, but Candi Badut is a simple square structure.

Like Singosari it is fenced in, and there are carved and shaped stones placed around the precinct of the temple that indicate there must have been much more here once. But the area evidently fell into disuse and neglect; when it was rediscovered in 1923, the temple was largely a mess of stones and had to be reassembled.

Today the temple is being overshadowed by modern development — it has a new Bible seminary as a nearby neighbor. Candi Badut is becoming rather lost in urban development but another small and modest candi in these parts offers a far more bucolic setting.

The temple known as Candi Sumberawan is quite beautifully located as it sits in the foothills of Gunung Arjuna (Arjuna Mountain). A narrow footpath leads to the temple and this footpath follows the line of streams that carry clear, cool water down from the mountains — this water too is carried to supply the town of Malang.

It is a good walk from any passing roads, practically a trek into an area of terraced rice fields and forests. Local people bathe in the mountain water as it streams by but there are few houses here. The temple sits in a small clearing amongst some sparse trees. Again, kingdoms are represented by a temple.

This is today a remote part but Candi Sumberawan is said to have been built to commemorate the visit to the area by King Hayam Wuruk of the great Majapahit kingdom in 1939, another indication that much more was once here.

Today it is a solitary stone reminder of lost kingdoms. It is also different to Singosari and Badut in that it is a Buddhist temple. Its stupa (structure) is incomplete but is sufficiently in place to remind one of the stupas at Borobudur. The structure itself is very plain, there are little or no decorations, just crisply cut and placed stones.

Candi Sumberawan is very modest and rather remote but its modesty and location give it a simplicity and calm in which one can contemplate the lost kingdoms of East Java. They once must have been great, but today they are only fleetingly represented by centuries-old stone monuments

Majapahit Empire (1293 – 1527)


Majapahit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Surya Majapahit
Surya Majapahit (‘The Sun of Majapahit’) is the emblem common found in temples and ruins dated from Majapahit era. Some scholars suggested that this sun disc was the royal emblem of Majapahit, probably functioned as the coat of arms of Majapahit empire. The sun disk is stylized with carved ray of light; surrounded by eight Lokapala gods, the eight Hindu gods that guarded eight cardinal points of the universe. There’s other version of Majapahit’s Sun, such as sun disc with sun god Surya riding a celestial horse or chariot, to just a simple sun disc with stylized ray of light. Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.  
Majapahit
1293–1527
Surya Majapahit¹
Extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakertagama; the notion of such Javanese depictions is considered conceptual.[1]
Capital Majapahit, Wilwatikta (modern Trowulan)
Language(s) Old Javanese (main), Sanskrit (religious)
Religion Kejawen, Hinduism, Buddhism, Animism
Government Monarchy
Raja
 – 1295-1309 Kertarajasa Jayawardhana
 – 1478-1498 Girindrawardhana
History  
 – Coronation November 10, 1293
 – Demak invasion 1527
Currency Native gold and silver coins, Kepeng (Chinese imported copper coins)
 

 

Majapahit was a vast archipelagic empire based on the island of Java from 1293 to around 1500. Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia, including the present day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, the Philippines, and East Timor. His achievement is also credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada.

The terracotta portrait of Gajah Mada. Collection of Trowulan Museum.

Majapahit was one of the last major empires of the region and is considered to be one of the greatest and most powerful empires in the history of Indonesia and Southeast Asia, one that is sometimes seen as the precedent for Indonesia’s modern boundaries [2]. Its influence extended beyond the modern territory of Indonesia and has been a subject of many studies [3]. German orientalist Berthold Laufer suggested that maja came from the Javanese name of Indonesian tree [4].

Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains,[5] and some details of the history are rather abstract.[6] The main sources used by historians are: the Pararaton (‘Book of Kings’) written in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in Old Javanese.[7] Pararaton is focused upon Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk after which some events are covered narratively.[6] There are also some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese.

Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He visited Majapahit. Zheng He’s translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description about Majapahit and where the king of Java lived.[9]

The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar and the statue is now preserved at National Museum of Indonesia.

After defeating Srivijaya in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the area. Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and the Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute. In 1293, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java.

By that time, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura’s regent, Arya Wiraraja; Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, was given the land of Tarik timberland. He then opened that vast timberland and built a new village there. The village was named Majapahit, which was taken from a fruit name that had bitter taste in that timberland (maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter). When Mongolian Yuan army sent by Kublai Khan arrived, Wijaya allied himself with the army to fight against Jayakatwang. Once Jayakatwang was destroyed, Raden Wijaya forced his allies to withdraw from Java by launching a surprise attack.[10] Yuan’s army had to withdraw in confusion as they were in hostile territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds home; otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a hostile island.

In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[10] Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.

Wijaya’s son and successor, Jayanegara was notorious for immorality. One of his sinful acts was taking his own stepsisters as wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or “weak villain”. In AD 1328, Jayanegara was murdered by his doctor, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to replace him, but Rajapatni retired from court to become a bhiksuni (a Buddhist nun) in a monastery. Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni’s auspices. During Tribhuwana’s rule, the Majapahit kingdom grew much larger and became famous in the area. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of her mother in AD 1350. She was succeeded by her son, Hayam Wuruk.

 Golden age

The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as “the golden age” of the archipelago.

.Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in AD 1350–1389. During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of prime minister, Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada’s command (AD 1313–1364), Majapahit conquered more territories. In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada’s death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against Palembang,[2] contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada’s other renowned general was Adityawarman, known for his conquest in Minangkabau.

According to the book of Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.

The Nagarakertagama, written in 1365 depict a sophisticated court with refined taste in art and literature, and a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts in more or less legendary from 14th century Majapahit’s power. Majapahit’s direct administration did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit’s claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses.[11]

The nature of the Majapahit empire and its extent is subject to debate. It may have had limited or entirely notional influence over some of the tributary states in included Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia over which of authority was claimed in the Nagarakertagama.[12] Geographical and economic constraints suggest that rather than a regular centralised authority, the outer states were most likely to have been connected mainly by trade connections, which was probably a royal monopoly.[2] It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.[2]

Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area.

[edit] Decline

Following Hayam Wuruk’s death AD 1389, Majapahit power entered a period of decline with conflict over succession. Hayam Wuruk was succeeded by the crown princess Kusumawardhani, who married a relative, Prince Wikramawardhana. Hayam Wuruk also had a son from his previous marriage, crown prince Wirabhumi, who also claimed the throne. A civil war, called Paregreg, is thought to have occurred from 1405 to 1406,[6] of which Wikramawardhana was victorious and Wirabhumi was caught and decapitated. Wikramawardhana ruled to 1426 AD and was succeeded by his daughter Suhita, who ruled from 1426 to 1447 AD. She was the second child of Wikramawarddhana by a concubine who was the daughter of Wirabhumi.

In 1447, Suhita died and was succeeded by Kertawijaya, her brother. He ruled until 1451 AD. After Kertawijaya died, Bhre Pamotan became a king with formal name Rajasawardhana and ruled at Kahuripan. He died in 1453 AD. A three year kingless period was possibly the result of a succession crisis. Girisawardhana, son of Kertawijaya, came to power 1456. He died in 1466 AD and was succeeded by Singhawikramawardhana. In 1468 AD Prince Kertabhumi rebelled against Singhawikramawardhana promoting himself king of Majapahit.

The model of Majapahit ship display in Muzium Negara, Kuala Lumpur.

Singhawikramawardhana moved the Kingdom’s capital to Daha and continued his rule until he was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya in 1474 AD. In 1478 AD he defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom. Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 AD to 1519 AD with the formal name Girindrawardhana. Nevertheless, Majapahit’s power had declined through these family conflicts and the growing power of the north-coastal kingdoms in Java.

Majapahit found itself unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from 1478 (that is, 1400 Saka, the ends of centuries being considered a time when changes of dynasty or courts normally ended[13]) to 1527. The year is marked among Javanese today with candra sengkalasirna ilang kertaning bumi” (the wealth of earth disappeared and diminished) (sirna = 0, ilang = 0, kerta = 4, bumi = 1). After a series of battles with the Sultanate of Demak, the last remaining courtsmen of Majapahit were forced to withdraw inland to Kediri; it is unclear whether they were still under the rule of the Majapahit dynasty. This small state was finally extinguished at the hands of the Demak in 1527.[14] A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali; however, the power and the seat of government transfered to Demak under the leadership of Pangeran, later Sultan Fatah[citation needed]. According to Babad Tanah Jawi and Demak tradition, their first sultan, Raden Fatah is the son of Majapahit king Brawijaya V with a Chinese concubine. The Muslim emerging forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century.[15]

[edit] Culture

Wringin Lawang, the 15.5 meter tall red brick split gate. Located at Jatipasar, Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java. Believed to be the entrance of an important compound in Majapahit capital.

“Of all the buildings, none lack pillars, bearing fine carvings and coloured” [Within the wall compounds] “there were elegant pavilions roofed with aren fibre, like the scene in a painting… The petals of the katangga were sprinkled over the roofs for they had fallen in the wind. The roofs were like maidens with flowers arranged in their hair, delighting those who saw them”.

— Description of the Majapahit capital from the Old Javanese epic poem Nagarakertagama.

The main event of the administrative calendar took place on the first day of the month of Caitra (March-April) when representatives from all territories paying tax or tribute to Majapahit came to the capital to pay court. Majapahit’s territories were roughly divided into three types: the palace and its vicinity; the areas of east Java and Bali which were directly administered by officials appointed by the king; and the outer dependencies which enjoyed substantial internal autonomy.[16]

The capital (Trowulan) was grand and known for its great annual festivities. Buddhism, Shaivism, and Vaishnavism were all practiced, and the king was regarded as the incarnation of the three. The Nagarakertagama does not mention Islam, but there were certainly Muslim courtiers by this time.[2]

Although brick had been used in the candi of Indonesia’s classical age, it was Majapahit architects of the 14th and 15th centuries who mastered it.[17] Making use of a vine sap and palm sugar mortar, their temples had a strong geometric quality.

[edit] Economy

Majapahit Terracotta Piggy Bank, 14-15 century AD Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)

Taxes and fines were paid in cash. Javanese economy had been partly monetised since the late 8th century, using gold and silver coins. In about the year 1300, in the reign of Majapahit’s first king, an important change took place: the indigenous coinage was completely replaced by imported Chinese copper cash. About 10,388 ancient Chinese coins weighing about 40 kg were even unearthed from the backyard of a local commoner in Sidoarjo in November 2008. Indonesian Ancient Relics Conservation Bureau (BP3) of East Java verified that those coins dated as early as Majapahit era.[18] The reason for using foreign currency is not given in any source, but most scholars assume it was due to the increasing complexity of Javanese economy and a desire for a currency system that used much smaller denominations suitable for use in everyday market transactions. This was a role for which gold and silver are not well suited.[16]

Some idea of scale of the internal economy can be gathered from scattered data in inscriptions. The Canggu inscriptions dated 1358 mentions 78 ferry crossings in the country (mandala Java).[16] Majapahit inscriptions mention a large number of occupational specialities, ranging from gold and silver smiths to drink vendors and butchers. Although many of these occupations had existed in earlier times, the proportion of the population earning an income from non-agrarian pursuits seems to have become even greater during the Majapahit era.

The great prosperity of Majapahit was probably due to two factors. Firstly, the northeast lowlands of Java were suitable for rice cultivation, and during Majapahit’s prime numerous irrigation projects were undertaken, some with government assistance. Secondly, Majapahit’s ports on the north coast were probably significant stations along the route to obtain the spices of Maluku, and as the spices passed through Java they would have provided an important source of income for Majapahit.[16]

The Nagarakertagama states that the fame ruler of Wilwatikta (a synonym for Majapahit) attracted foreign merchants from far and wide, including Indians, Khmers, Siamese, and Chinese among others. A special tax was levied against some foreigners, possibly those who had taken up semi-permanent residence in Java and conducted some type of enterprise other than foreign trade

[edit] Legacy

The elegant 16.5 metres tall Bajang Ratu gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.

Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century (Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco)

In sum, Majapahit was the largest empire ever to form in Southeast Asia. Although its political power beyond the core area in east Java was diffuse, constituting mainly ceremonial recognition of suzerainty, Majapahit society developed a high degree of sophistication in both commercial and artistic activities. Its capital was inhabited by a cosmopolitan population among whom literature and art flourished.[16]

For Indonesians in later centuries, Majapahit became a symbol of past greatness. The Islamic sultanates of Demak, Pajang, and Mataram sought to establish their legitimacy in relation to the Majapahit.[19] The Demak claimed a line of succession through Kertabumi, as its founder, Raden Patah, in court chronicles was said to be the son of Kertabumi with Putri Cina, a Chinese princess, who had been sent away before her son was born.[14] Sultan Agung‘s conquest of Wirasaba in 1615, led by the sultan himself, may have had such importance as it was the location of the Majapahit capital.[20] Central Javanese palaces have traditions and genealogy that attempt to prove links back to the Majapahit royal lines — usually in the form of a grave as a vital link in Java — where legitimacy is enhanced by such a connection. [citation needed] Bali in particular was heavily influenced by Majapahit and the Balinese consider themselves to be the true heirs of the kingdom.[17]

Modern Indonesian nationalists, including those of the early 20th century Indonesian National Revival, have invoked the Majapahit Empire. The memory of its greatness remains in Indonesia, and is sometimes seen as a precedent for the current political boundaries of the Republic.[2] Many of modern Indonesian national symbols derived from Majapahit Hindu-Buddhist elements. The Indonesian national flag “Sang Merah Putih” (“Red and White”) or sometimes called “Dwiwarna” (“The bicolor”), derived from the Majapahit royal color. The Indonesian Navy flag of red and white stripes also has a Majapahit origin. The Indonesian national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika“, is a quotation from an Old Javanese poem “Kakawin Sutasoma”, written by a Majapahit poet, Mpu Tantular.[citation needed]

The Indonesian coat of arms, Garuda Pancasila, also derives from Javanese Hindu elements.[citation needed] The statue and relief of Garuda have been found in many temples in Java such as Prambanan from the ancient Mataram era, and the Panataran as well as the Sukuh temple dated from the Majapahit era. The notable statue of Garuda is the statue of the king Airlangga depicted as Vishnu riding Garuda.

In its propaganda from the 1920s, the Communist Party of Indonesia presented its vision of a classless society as a reincarnation of a romanticized Majapahit.[21] It was invoked by Sukarno for nation building and by the New Order as an expression of state expansion and consolidation.[22] Like Majapahit, the modern state of Indonesia covers vast territory and is politically centred on Java.

Majapahit had a momentous and lasting influence on Indonesian architecture. The descriptions of the architecture of the capital’s pavilions (pendopo) in the Nagarakertagama (see the quotation above) invoke the Javanese Kraton and also the Balinese temples and compounds of today.

Palapa, the series of communication satellites owned by Telkom, an Indonesian telecommunication company, has been named after Sumpah Palapa, the famous oath taken by Gajah Mada. Gajah Mada swore that he would not taste any spice as long as he had not succeeded in unifying Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago). This ancient oath of unification signifies the Palapa satellite as the modern means to unify the Indonesian archipelago by way of telecommunication. The name was chosen by president Suharto, and the program was started in February 1975.

During the last half year of 2008, the Indonesian government sponsored a massive exploration on the site that is believed to be the place where the palace of Majapahit once stood. Jero Wacik, the Indonesian Minister of Culture and Tourism stated that the Majapahit Park would be built on the site and completed as early as 2009, in order to prevent further damage caused by home-made brick industries that develop on the surrounding area.[23] Nevertheless, the project leaves a huge attention to some historians, since constructing the park’s foundation in Segaran site located in south side of Trowulan Museum will inevitably damage the site itself. Ancient bricks which are historically valuable were found scattered on the site. The government then argued that the method they were applying were less destructive since digging method were used instead of drilling.[24]

[edit] List of rulers

Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

  1. Raden Wijaya, styled Kertarajasa Jayawardhana (1294–1309)
  2. Kalagamet, styled Jayanagara (1309–1328)
  3. Sri Gitarja, styled Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (1328–1350)
  4. Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara (1350–1389)
  5. Wikramawardhana (1389–1429)
  6. Suhita (1429–1447)
  7. Kertawijaya, styled Brawijaya I (1447–1451)
  8. Rajasawardhana, born Bhre Pamotan, styled Brawijaya II (1451–1453)
  9. Interregnum (1453–1456)
  10. Bhre Wengker, Purwawisesa or Girishawardhana, styled Brawijaya III (1456–1466)
  11. Singhawikramawardhana, Pandanalas, or Suraprabhawa, styled Brawijaya IV (1466 – 1468 or 1478[6])
  12. Kertabumi, styled Brawijaya V (1468–1478)
  13. Girindrawardhana, styled Brawijaya VI (1478–1498)

[edit] Majapahit in popular culture

Celebrated as ‘the golden era of the archipelago’, the Majapahit empire has inspired many writers and artists (and continues to do so) to create their works based on this era, or to describe and mention it. The impact of the Majapahit theme on popular culture can be seen in the following:

  1. Sandyakalaning Majapahit (1933), or Twilight/Sunset in Majapahit is an historical romance that took place during the fall of Majapahit empire, written by Sanusi Pane.
  2. Panji Koming (since 1979), a weekly comic strip by Dwi Koendoro published in the Sunday edition of Kompas, telling the everyday life of Panji Koming, a common Majapahit citizen. Although it took place in the Majapahit era, the comic strip serves as witty satire and criticism of modern Indonesian society. From a political, social, cultural and current point of view, Indonesia is described as the ‘reincarnation‘ of the Majapahit empire. The current Indonesian president is often portrayed as a Majapahit monarch or prime minister.
  3. Saur Sepuh (1987–1991), a radio drama and film by Niki Kosasih. Begun as a popular radio drama program in the late 1980s, Saur Sepuh is based on 15th century Java, centered around the story about a fictional hero named Brama Kumbara, the king of Madangkara, a fictional kingdom neighbour of the Pajajaran. In several stories the Paregreg war is described, that is to say the civil war of Majapahit between Wikramawardhana and Bhre Wirabhumi. This part has been made into a single feature film entitled ‘Saur Sepuh’ as well.
  4. Tutur Tinular, a radio drama and film by S Tidjab. Tutur Tinular is a martial art historical epic fictional story with the Majapahit era serving as the background of the story. The story also involved a romance between the hero named Arya Kamandanu and his Chinese lover Mei Shin.
  5. Wali Songo, the film tells the story of nine Muslim saints (‘wali’) who spread Islam to Java. The story took place near the end of the Majapahit era and the formation of Demak. It describes the decaying Majapahit empire where royals are fighting each other for power, while commoners are suffering.
  6. Senopati Pamungkas (1986, reprinted in 2003), a novel by Arswendo Atmowiloto that is also a martial art-historical epic fiction. It took place in the late Singhasari period and formation of Majapahit. This novel describes the saga, royal intrigue, and romance of the formation of the Majapahit kingdom as well as the adventure of the main character, a commoner named Upasara Wulung and his forbidden love affair with princess Gayatri Rajapatni, whom later becomes the consort of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit.
  7. Imperium Majapahit, a comic book series by Jan Mintaraga, published by Elexmedia Komputindo. This series tells the history of Majapahit from its formation until the decline.
  8. Puteri Gunung Ledang (2004), a Malaysian epic film based on a traditional Malay legend. This film recounts the love story between Gusti Putri Retno Dumilah, a Majapahit Princess, and Hang Tuah, a Malaccan admiral.
  9. Gajah Mada, a pentalogy written by Langit Kresna Hariadi, about fictionalized detail of Gajah Mada‘s life from Kuti rebellion until Bubat War.

Dyah Pitaloka (2007), a novel written by Hermawan Aksan, about the fictionalized detailed lifestory of Sundanese Princess Dyah Pitaloka, focussed around the Bubat War. The novel virtually took the same context and was inspired by Kidung Sundayana

Pict. Above :TROWULAN ARCHAELOGICAL SITE  & Candi Tikus (rat)

BRAHU TEMPLE :

The Gate Way Of Jedong 14th Century Gajah Mungkur Penanggungan Mountain (Pic. Above)

Jabung Temple :

Pict. Above : The Gate way of Jedong 14th century Northern Slope Of Gajah Mungkur Mountain – one of Penanggungan minor peaks

CAMPA PRINCESS TOMB. :

Penataran Temple :

Keris – Indonesian Tradisional Blade


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 

The kris or keris is an asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Brunei. It is known as kalis in the southern Philippines. The kris is famous for its distinctive wavy blade, but many have straight blades as well. Both a weapon and spiritual object, kris are often considered to have an essence or presence, with some blades possessing good luck and others possessing bad.

In 2005, UNESCO gave the title Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity to the kris of Indonesia. In return, UNESCO urged Indonesia to preserve their heritage.

Etymology

The origin of the word kris derived from the old Javanese term ngiris which means to stab, wedge or sliver. “Kris” is the more frequently-used spelling in the West, but “keris” is more popular in the dagger’s native lands,[2] as exemplified by the late Bambang Harsrinuksmo‘s popular book entitled Ensiklopedi Keris (Keris Encyclopedia). Two notable exceptions are the Philippines, where it is usually called kalis or kris, and Thailand where it is always spelled and pronounced as kris. Other spellings used by European colonists include “cryse”, “crise”, “criss”, “kriss” and “creese”.

Origins

 

 

Kris history is generally traced through the study of carvings and bas-relief panels found in Southeast Asia. It is widely believed by archaeologists that the earliest kris prototype can be traced to Dong Son in Vietnam circa 300 BC. From there, the design would have been brought into present-day Malaysia by Cham migrants who made their way into the Malay Peninsula twenty centuries ago. Another theory is that the kris was based on daggers from India. Frey (2003) concludes from Raffles‘ (1817) study of the Candi Sukuh that the kris recognized today came into existence around 1361 AD in the kingdom of Majapahit. There exist claims of earlier forms predating the Majapahit kris but none are verifiable. In the past, the majority of kris had straight blades but this became less frequent over time. Some of the most famous renderings of a kris appear on the Borobudur temple (825 CE) and Prambanan temple (850CE). Tome Pires, in early 16th century, describe the importance of Kris to the Javanese  :

Kris were worn on a daily basis, especially when travelling because it might be needed for self-defense. Heirloom blades were handed down through successive generations and worn during special events such as weddings. Men usually wore only one kris but the famous admiral Hang Tuah is said in the Hikayat Hang Tuah to have armed himself with one short and one long kris. As women were also permitted to learn silat, they sometimes also wore kris, though of a smaller size than a man’s.

Kris were often broken in battle and required repairs. Yearly cleanings, required as part of the spirituality and mythology surrounding the weapon, often left ancient blades worn and thin. The repair materials depended on location and it is quite usual to find a weapon with fittings from several areas. For example, a kris may have a blade from Java, a hilt from Bali and a sheath from Madura.

In many parts of Indonesia, the kris was the choice weapon for execution. The executioner’s kris had a long, straight, slender blade. The condemned knelt before the executioner, who placed a wad of cotton or similar material on the subject’s shoulder or clavicle area. The blade was thrust through the padding, piercing the subclavian artery and the heart. Upon withdrawal, the cotton wiped the blade clean. Death came within seconds.

Technique

The kris usually has a curved pistol-grip hilt that aids in stabbing strikes. It allows the palm of the holding hand to add pressure to the blade while stabbing. A kris only offers minimal protection for the hand by the broad blade at the hilt. In rare cases, the blade may be forged so its axis lies at an angle to the hilt’s axis. The intention is to get the blade automatically turning to slip past the ribs but this works poorly and makes the weapon less durable.

In battle, a fighter carried three kris: his own, one from his father-in-law, and one as a family heirloom. The extra two served as parrying daggers but if none were available, the sheath would serve the same purpose.

Cultural beliefs

 

Barong dance performance with kris-wielding dancers and Rangda in Bali

The making of a kris was the specialised duty of metalworkers called empu or pandai besi. In Bali this occupation was preserved by the Pande clan to this day, members of whom also made jewellery. Kris-makers did more than forge the weapon, they carried out the old rituals which could infuse the blade with mystical powers. For this reason, kris are considered almost alive because they may be vessels of spirits, either good or evil. Legends tell of kris that could move of their own volition and killed individuals at will. Some kris are rumored to stand upright when their real names are called by their masters.

Below Pictures of Keris stand by itself : (Believe it or not)

 

It was said that some kris helped prevent fires, death, agricultural failure, and many other problems. Likewise, they could also bring fortune, such as bountiful harvests. Many of these beliefs, however, were erroneously derived from the possession of different kris by different people. For example, there is a type of kris in Java that was called Beras Wutah, which was believed to grant its possessor an easy life without famine. In reality, this kris was mainly assigned to government officers that were paid, in whole or in part with foodstuff such as rice.

There are several ways of testing whether a kris is lucky or not. A series of cuts on a leaf, based on blade width and other factors, could determine if a blade was good or bad. Also, if the owner slept with the blade under their pillow, the spirit of the kris would communicate with the owner via dream. If the owner had a bad dream, the blade was unlucky and had to be discarded, whereas if the owner had a good dream the dagger would bring good fortune. However, just because a blade was bad for one person didn’t mean it would be bad for another. Harmony between the weapon and its owner was critical.

Because some kris are considered sacred and believed to possess magical powers, specific rites needed to be completed to avoid calling down evil fates which is the reason warriors often made offerings to their kris at a shrine. There is also the belief that pointing a kris at someone means they will die soon, so silat practitioners precede their demonstrations by touching the points of the blades to the ground so as to neutralise this effect.

Ken Arok

One of the most famous legends from Java describes a legendary bladesmith called Mpu Gandring and his impatient customer, Ken Arok. The customer ordered a powerful kris to kill the chieftain of Tumapel, Tunggul Ametung. Ken Arok eventually stabbed the old bladesmith to death because he kept delaying the scheduled completion of the kris. Dying, the bladesmith prophesied that the unfinished or incomplete kris would kill seven men, including Ken Arok. The prophecy finally came true, with four men enlisted as the kris’ first death roll, including Mpu Gandring himself, Tunggul Ametung, Kebo Ijo to whom Ken Arok lent the weapon, and finally Ken Arok himself. The unfinished kris then disappeared.

Another version of the tale describes that the kris passed to Ken Arok‘s stepson Anusapati which in turn killed his stepfather after recognized that his genuine father was killed by Ken Arok with the same kris. The bloody revenge continued on and on until the reign of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari kingdom.

Adipati

Another Javanese folk story tells of Arya Penangsang, who was killed by his own keris. The scene happened at the end of a battle to re-unite the collapsed kingdom of Demak-Bintara, fought between Jaka Tingkir of Pajang and Penangsang, of Majapahit royalty. The story tells that he fought the battle with Hadiwijaya‘s adopted son, who would become the first ruler of the Mataram dynasty, Danang Sutawijaya. Penangsang inadvertently stabbed himself when he sheathed his keris, gutting his own belly. He soon fell down, bathing in his own blood, which was flowing from the wound. While he was dying, he encircled his scattered intestines on his keris. The tradition of putting a jasmine chain around the kris’ hilt might have come from this tale.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.kerisattosanaji.com/kerissajen.html

Tosanaji Keris
Talismanic
Indonesian Blades

Here you will find photographs of Indonesian talismanic weapons.

These are not weapons in any sense other than being weapons to guard against misfortune, they are not weapons intended
to be used against humanity.

In a sense, this could probably be called a “non-information” page. Not enough is known about these items of wesi aji to allow
a definitive discourse on them. My purpose in making these photos available is to assist researchers in this field.

The items hereunder that resemble a keris are known as “keris sajen” in Indonesia, and by many collectors in the western
world as “keris Majapahit“. The keris sajen is reportedly a keris used in offerings, notably the ceremony of bersih desa which
is carried out after the major rice harvest (panen raya). Dates for the harvest can vary, and each village has its own day and
own requirements for bersih desa, so offerings can change from village to village.

In the ceremonies I have seen, no keris sajen has been used. Suryo Negoro in his book “Javanese Traditional and Ritual
Ceremonies”  describes  the general form of bersih desa and mentions two other forms specific to individual villages.
Nowhere does he describe the inclusion of a keris in these ceremonies. Bambang Harsrinuksmo in “Ensiklopedi Keris” claims
use of this keris form in the ceremony of bersih desa, and other writers have also claimed this. It is possible that some
villages could have the requirement for a keris sajen to be included in the ceremony and other villages not have this
requirement.

David van Duuren  records that in the colonial days, these small keris were known as talismanic weapons.

My own observance has been that present day Javanese regard them as talismanic objects.

At the present time insufficient research has been carried out in relation to this form of wesi aji to allow any certain
definition of their place in Indonesian or Javanese culture.

In respect of the age of keris sajen in general, and this is also true of the examples shown here , it is not possible to be at all
certain of how old any particular item may be. The form is clearly an ancient one, and an example was found under the
central stupa of Candi Borobudur during its restoration, however, whether it was placed there at the time Borobudur was
built, or at a later date, we do not know. However, although ancient, it is doubtful if the form can be linked to Dongson
daggers with similar handles. The time gap between Dongson culture and early classical Javanese culture is too great.

Some writers have attempted to classify this form of wesi aji into types and sub-types, and wish to make true weapons of
the longer examples of the keris sajen. I do not intend to attempt any such classification. Too little is known of these objects
for such a classification to be of very much use. The design of the gonjo of the longer examples would seem to indicate that
these were not intended for use as a real weapon, any more than was the shorter version. Anybody using one of these long
examples as a weapon would be likely to do severe injury to their own hand, because of the narrowness of the gonjo.

I think it is highly probable that the alternate keris sajen as in #’s 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, were forged from recycled old keris
blades. Further, I believe that recycled old keris blades were sometimes used in the manufacture of certain other talismanic
keris, those with the handle forge welded to the base of the blade.  Whether this was done simply as a use of recycled
material, whether to preserve a valued blade, whether to save costs, or for all these reasons, we have no way of knowing.

Apart from those items of wesi aji that are positively identifiable as keris sajen, a number of other items of talismanic wesi aji
are also shown here. Some are keris-like, with the handle in a different plane to the blade, one is of cunderik form.

I regret that I am unable to provide more information  on these talismanic objects, however, I am open to questions or
discussion in respect of them.

Additional Indonesian talismanic blades will be made available for viewing at a later date.

1. A more or less conventional keris form, the handle forged from the same billet as the
blade, but with the width of the gonjo too narrow to allow effective use as a weapon.
Pamor construction with blade core,Overall length:-  345mm, (13½”)

  1. a,b,c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

====================================================

2. A longer than usual example , the handle of a relatively simple form, a forging flaw
in the blade base. Construction is of veined iron, Overall length:- 315mm, (12½”).(Pictures 2a,b,c) :

3. Another long example. The handle possibly forge welded to the blade. The blade is
of pamor construction with a steel core, but the handle does not show any line of a steel
inclusion, and there is an overlapping layer of material in the sorsoran that differs from
the material in the blade,Overall length:- 370mm, (14½”).

4. A very scarce waved example with nine wave blade. Possibly construction uses a
steel core, but because of uncleaned condition this is difficult to be certain of at the
present time. The handle appears to be forged from the same billet as the blade,Overall length:-  325mm, (12¾”)

For Further detail please visit :

http://www.kerisattosanaji.com/kerissajen.html

Name of the Regional Special Weapons Traditional Indigenous National Culture – Culture Nusantara Indonesia

1. DI Aceh province / the Aceh Darussalam / NAD
Traditional Weapons: Rencong
2. Province of North Sumatra / North Sumatra
Traditional Weapons: Surit Piso, Piso Gaja densely packed

3. West Sumatra Province / West Sumatra
Traditional Weapons: Karih, Ruduih, barb

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4. Riau Province
Traditional Weapons: Swords JenaWi, Badik Mash Lado

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5. Jambi Province
Traditional Weapons: Pepper Mash Badik (Badik Tumbuk Lada)

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6. South Sumatra Province / South Sumatra

Traditional Weapons: Spear Trisula

7. Lampung Province

Traditional Weapons: Terapang, Pehduk Payan

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8. Bengkulu Province
Traditional Weapons: neck, Badik, Rudus
9. DKI Jakarta Province
Traditional Weapons: Badik, Parang, Machete
10. West Java Province / Jabar
Traditional Weapons: Kujang


11. Central Java Province / Central Java
Traditional Weapons: Keris
12. Province of Yogyakarta / Yogyakarta / Jogjakarta
Traditional Weapons: Keris Jogjakarta
13. Province of East Java / East Java
Traditional Weapons: sickle
14. Bali Province
Traditional Weapons: Keris
15. West Nusa Tenggara Province / NTB
Traditional Weapons: Keris, Sampari, Sondi
16. East Nusa Tenggara Province / NTT
Traditional Weapons: Sundu
17. West Kalimantan Province / Kalbar
Traditional Weapons: Mandau

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18. Central Kalimantan Province / Kalteng
Traditional Weapons: Mandau, Lunjuk Randu Chopsticks
19. South Kalimantan Province / South Kalimantan
Traditional Weapons: Keris, Bujak pickaxe
20. Province of East Kalimantan / Kalimantan
Traditional Weapons: Mandau
21. North Sulawesi Province / North Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Keris, bike, Sabel
22. Central Sulawesi Province / Central Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Pasatimpo
23. Sulawesi Tenggara / Southeast Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Keris
24. South Sulawesi Province / South Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Badik

25. Maluku Province
Traditional Weapons: Machete Salawaki / salawaku, Kalawai
26. Province of Irian Jaya / Papua
Traditional Weapons: Knife Dagger
27. Province of East Timor / East Timor
Traditional Weapon: Machete

Description:

Rencong Aceh :

Calling the weapons of the people of Aceh, in addition to guns and firearms, the most famous is Rencong. In fact, one of Aceh’s land titles known as “Land Rencong”.

Rencong or some are calling it reuncong, is a traditional weapon of Acehnese society. Aceh has the form seperli Rencong letter [L] or more precisely like calligraphy bismillah.Rencong included in the category of dagger or knife (not a knife or sword).

Historically, rencong have levels. First, rencong used by the king or sultan. Rencong is usually made of ivory (sarong) and pure gold (the dagger). Second, rencong-rencong a common sheath made of buffalo horn or wood, while the dagger of brass or white metal. In general, there are four kinds of rencong which became the mainstay weapon of Acehnese society.

1. Rencong Meucugek. Called meucugek rencong because the handle there is a form of archery and glue that in terms of Aceh called cugek or meucugek. Cugek is needed to easily held and not easily separated when stabbed into the body of the opponent or enemy.

2. Rencong Meupucok. Rencong has a bud on top of the handle is made of metal engraving in general of gold. The handle of this meupucok rencong seem rather small, namely at the bottom of the handle. However, getting to the end of the handle is getting bigger. Type rencong this kind are used for decoration or as a means of jewelry. Usually, this rencong used at official ceremonies associated with masaalah customs and art.

3. Rencong Pudoi. Rencong this type of handle is shorter and straight-shaped, unlike the rencong general. Impressed, rencong is not yet perfect so that said pudoi. The termpudoi in Acehnese society is something that is considered still shortages or still exist that have not been perfect.

4. Rencong Meukuree. Differences rencong meukuree with other rencong type is in the eye. Eye rencong this type were given a specific decoration such as pictures of snakes, centipedes, flowers, and so forth. The images are interpreted by a blacksmith with various kinds of advantages and privileges. Rencong stored long, initially will be formed similar aritan or form called kuree. The longer or the older the age of a rencong, the more kureecontained on these rencong eye. Kuree isdeemed to have magical powers.