Archive for October, 2010

Vehicle registration plates of Indonesia

Posted in Vehicle registration plates of Indonesia on October 30, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

Vehicle registration plates of Indonesia

Indonesian registration plate for Jakarta.

All motorized vehicles including motorcycles in Indonesia are required to have registration plates. The plates need to be displayed in front and at the back of the vehicles.

Registration plate design

Design convention

Except for some special cases (see below), every vehicle license plate in Indonesia follows the following format: LL NNNN LL where “L” are letters of the Latin alphabet, and “N” and numbers from “0″ to “9″ (note that the first number is never a “0″). The first single or double letters denote the area of registration. This is followed by numbers, which can range from one to four digits. This is then followed by one or two letters although they may be optional. For example: D 1028 EB is a vehicle registered in Bandung region, because it begins with letter D. A smaller numbers being added to the bottom of the plate, indicating the month and year where the plate is expired, so the owner must repay the tax to get the new one (for example, “09-10″ means “September, 2010″.

new format was recently introduced which have three ending letters, due to increase of motorized vehicle numbers. At first, this format is used for motorcycles and since July 2008 until present, for cars in Jakarta and its surrounding areas only.

The first letter determines which area the car is registered in:

  • Central Jakarta: L NNNN PLL (P for Pusat, Central)
  • North Jakarta: L NNNN ULL (U for Utara, North)
  • South Jakarta: L NNNN SLL (S for Selatan, South)
  • West Jakarta: L NNNN BLL (B for Barat, West)
  • East Jakarta: L NNNN TLL (T for Timur, East)
  • Depok: L NNNN ELL
  • Tangerang: L NNNN NLL
  • Bekasi: L NNNN KLL
  • ERA: L NNNN HLL
  • Government vehicle: L NNNN RFL (higher ranked)

The middle letter determines which category the car belongs in:

  • Sedan and Coupe: B 1111 LAL
  • MPV and Hatchback: L NNNN LFL
  • SUV and Jeep: L NNNN LJL
  • Truck: L NNNN LDL
  • Taxicab: L NNNN LTL
  • Government vehicle: L NNNN LUL (lower ranked)

The last letter is given randomly.

Example:

  • B 1234 HJA
    H denotes ERA, J denotes SUV/jeep category
  • B 1234 TJB
    T denotes East Jakarta area, J denotes SUV/jeep category
  • B 1234 UFP
    U denotes North Jakarta area, F denotes MPV/hatchback category

[edit]Registration area codes

The lettering convention to denote area of registration is a legacy of the Dutch colonial era and do not reflect the current regional divisions of the country into provinces. Instead, they follow the old system of Dutch Karesidenan or residencies.

The list of area codes are:

DKI Jakarta, Banten, Jawa Barat

A = Banten: Kabupaten/Kota Serang, Kabupaten Pandeglang, Kota Cilegon, Kabupaten Lebak, sebagian Kabupaten Tangerang

B = DKI Jakarta, Kabupaten/Kota Tangerang, Kabupaten/Kota Bekasi(B-K**), Kota Depok

D = Kabupaten/Kota Bandung, Kota Cimahi, Kabupaten Bandung Barat

E = eks Karesidenan Cirebon: Kabupaten/Kota Cirebon, Kabupaten Indramayu, Kabupaten Majalengka, Kabupaten Kuningan (E – YA/YB/YC/YD)

F = eks Karesidenan Bogor: Kabupaten/Kota Bogor, Kabupaten Cianjur, Kabupaten/Kota Sukabumi

T = Kabupaten Purwakarta, Kabupaten Karawang, sebagian Kabupaten Bekasi, Kabupaten Subang

Z = Kabupaten Garut, Kabupaten/Kota Tasikmalaya, Kabupaten Sumedang, Kabupaten Ciamis, Kota Banjar 

Jawa Tengah dan DI Yogyakarta

G = eks Karesidenan Pekalongan: Kabupaten (G – B)/Kota Pekalongan (G – A), Kabupaten (G – F)/Kota Tegal (G – E), Kabupaten Brebes, Kabupaten Batang (G – C), Kabupaten Pemalang (G – D)

H =
eks Karesidenan Semarang: Kabupaten/Kota Semarang, Kota Salatiga, Kabupaten Kendal (H – D), Kabupaten Demak

K =
eks Karesidenan Pati: Kabupaten Pati (K – A), Kabupaten Kudus (K – B), Kabupaten Jepara (K – C), Kabupaten Rembang (K – D), Kabupaten Blora, Kabupaten Grobogan

R = eks Karesidenan Banyumas: Kabupaten Banyumas (R – A/H/S), Kabupaten Cilacap (R – B/K/T), Kabupaten Purbalingga (R – C), Kabupaten Banjarnegara

AA =
eks Karesidenan Kedu: Kabupaten/Kota Magelang, Kabupaten Purworejo, Kabupaten Kebumen, Kabupaten Temanggung, Kabupaten Wonosobo

AB = DI Yogyakarta: Kota Yogyakarta, Kabupaten Bantul, Kabupaten Gunung Kidul, Kabupaten Sleman, Kabupaten Kulon Progo

AD = eks Karesidenan Surakarta: Kota Surakarta (AD), Kabupaten Sukoharjo (AD – B), Kabupaten Boyolali (AD – D), Kabupaten Sragen (AD – E), Kabupaten Karanganyar (AD – F), Kabupaten Wonogiri (AD – G), Kabupaten Klaten (AD – C)
Jawa Timur

L = Kota Surabaya

M = eks Karesidenan Madura: Kabupaten Pamekasan, Kabupaten Sumenep, Kabupaten Sampang, Kabupaten Bangkalan

N =
eks Karesidenan Malang: Kabupaten/Kota Malang, Kabupaten/Kota Probolinggo, Kabupaten/Kota Pasuruan, Kabupaten Lumajang, Kota Batu

P = eks Karesidenan Besuki: Kabupaten Bondowoso, Kabupaten Situbondo, Kabupaten Jember, Kabupaten Banyuwangi

S = eks Karesidenan Bojonegoro: Kabupaten Bojonegoro, Kabupaten/Kota Mojokerto, Kabupaten Tuban, Kabupaten Lamongan, Kabupaten Jombang

W = Kabupaten Sidoarjo, Kabupaten Gresik

AE =
eks Karesidenan Madiun: Kabupaten/Kota Madiun, Kabupaten Ngawi, Kabupaten Magetan, Kabupaten Ponorogo, Kabupaten Pacitan

AG = eks Karesidenan Kediri: Kabupaten/Kota Kediri, Kabupaten/Kota Blitar, Kabupaten Tulungagung, Kabupaten Nganjuk, Kabupaten Trenggalek

SUMATERA

BL = Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam

BB =
Sumatera Utara Bagian Barat (Tapanuli)

BK =
Sumatera Utara

BA = Sumatera Barat

BM = Riau

BP = Kepulauan Riau

BG =
Sumatera Selatan

BN = Kepulauan Bangka Belitung

BE =
Lampung

BD = Bengkulu

BH = Jambi

Bali dan Nusa Tenggara

DK = Bali

DR = NTB I (Pulau Lombok: Kota Mataram, Kabupaten Lombok Barat, Kabupaten Lombok Timur, Kabupaten Lombok Tengah)

EA =
NTB II (Pulau Sumbawa: Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat, Kabupaten Sumbawa, Kabupaten Dompu, Kabupaten/Kota Bima)

DH =
NTT I (Pulau Timor: Kabupaten/Kota Kupang, Kabupaten TTU, TTS, Kabupaten Rote Ndao)

EB = NTT II (Pulau Flores dan kepulauan: Kabupaten Manggarai Barat, Kabupaten Manggarai, Kabupaten Ngada, Kabupaten Ende, Kabupaten Sikka, Kabupaten Flores Timur, Kabupaten Lembata, Kabupaten Alor)

ED = NTT III (Pulau Sumba: Kabupaten Sumba Barat, Kabupaten Sumba Timur)
KALIMANTAN

KB = Kalimantan Barat

DA = Kalimantan Selatan

KH =
Kalimantan Tengah

KT =
Kalimantan Timur

SULAWESI

DB = Sulawesi Utara Daratan (Kota Manado, Kota Tomohon, Kota Bitung, Kabupaten Bolaang Mongondow, Kabupaten Minahasa, Kabupaten Minahasa Utara, Kabupaten Minahasa Selatan)

DL = Sulawesi Utara Kepulauan (Kabupaten Kepulauan Sangihe, Kabupaten Kepulauan Talaud)

DM = Gorontalo

DN =
Sulawesi Tengah

DT = Sulawesi Tenggara

DD = Sulawesi Selatan

DC = Sulawesi Barat

MALUKU DAN PAPUA

DE = Maluku

DG = Maluku Utara

DS = Papua dan Papua Barat

Vehicle classes

There are several classes of license plates, each can be distinguished by their color:

  • White on black: The most common type of license plate, this is for private vehicles.
  • Red on white: Vehicles that have not been registered yet, or for new cars that have no owners yet.
  • Black on yellow: Public transportation vehicles, such as buses, taxis and trucks.
  • White on red: Government vehicles.
  • Black on Red: Vehicles belonging to foreign countries. Commonly used by foreign embassies or vehicles belonging to International organizations. These adopt a different convention (see below).
  • Black on White: Vehicles belonging to foreign countries. Commonly used by foreign embassies or vehicles belonging to International organizations. These adopt a different convention (see below).
  • Military and police vehicles have their own colors and alphanumeric conventions that is very different from civilians, including their insignia and/or the rank of the officer owning the vehicle, especially for high-ranking officers one. Army plate is yellow on green backround, added by a yellow star on the top. Navy plate is yellow on light blue, added by a yellow anchor. Air Force plate is yellow on dark blue, added by a red and white air force roundel. Police plate is yellow on black. Personnels in Armed Forces Headquarters using yellow numbers on red backround plates. Slightly similar, Ministry of Defense vehicles also using yellow on red plates, only replacing Armed Forces’ insignia with the Ministry’s insignia. This is also being practiced on every military vehicles, even on motorcycles, jeeps, trucks, tanks, etc.
  • Fire Departments and Regional Police are administered under their local governments, so they are using government-style license plates.
  • There are also other special conventions, such as for vehicles used by the President, Vice President or other senior government officials.

Special plate designs

Government vehicles

Government vehicles have special license plates. If anytime the government officials go to outside the capital or going out from Indonesia, the plates will be placed on the vehicles which is ridden by the government officials.

Senior government officials

Vehicle license plates belonging to senior government officials like the President or Vice President always begin with RI (which stands for “Republik Indonesia”) and are followed by a number. For example, the president’s vehicle license plate is “RI-1″, and the vice president’s is “RI-2″. Other senior officials such as government ministers, Chairman of The House of Representatives, Commander of The National Armed Forces and Chief of National Police also share the same convention and get the numbers after the President and Vice President. These plates are used for everyday activities, so they are white on black design.

In a special case, there are some very special numbers which are “INDONESIA 1″ and “INDONESIA 2″ for the President and Vice President, respectively. These numbers are used for a ceremonial purposes, such as presidential/vice presidential inaugurations, national day ceremonies and armed forces day. On the inauguration day, at the time the new president/vice president take the oath, the plates are moved from the former presidential/vice presidential cars to the new car. These numbers also being used for all ceremonial presidential/vice presidential cars, no matters what the type of the vehicles used, and being white on red design.

Vehicles belonging to foreign countries or international organization

License plates for vehicles belonging to foreign countries or international organizations adopt a different convention. They contain black letters on a white background.

The plates have the letter CD followed by two or three digits denoting the country or organization, followed by up to three digits of the serial number. For example, a car with number CD 12 001 is owned by the United States.

The list of countries and organizations follows:

Consulates also use the same format, but instead of using the letters CD, they use CC.

[edit]Vanity names

A few vehicle owners pay an extra or persuade an official to get a certain plate as their pleasure. Because the convention is not flexible to include a full word, people try creative uses of numbers and letters. For example, Idris Sardi, a violin player, uses (B 10 LA) for his vehicle. It is a play on word BIOLA which means “violin” in Indonesian. Leoni, a famous actress and singer, uses L 30 NI for her car. Even the former President Megawati Soekarnoputri chooses “M 3 GA” for her personal vehicle, as the plate resembles her broadly-known nickname. Edhie Baskoro Yudhoyono, President Yudhoyono’s younger son, has “B 24 EB”, which “EB” is being his name initial. With the new format of three suffix alphabets, many vanity or personal license plates are more possible to be created. For example, a Toyota Fortuner owner may choose the plate B NN42 NER which sounds B NNfour-two-NER. Even an internet geek can choose “B 900 GLE” as his personal plate.

order �jtc Z �5 (170, 170, 170); border-top-style: solid; border-right-style: solid; border-bottom-style: solid; border-left-style: solid; padding-top: 0.2em; padding-right: 0.2em; padding-bottom: 0.2em; padding-left: 0.2em; “>DMNorth SulawesiDNCentral SulawesiDRLombokDSPapuaDTSoutheast SulawesiECirebonEASumbawaEBFloresEDSumbaFBogorGPekalonganHSemarangKPatiKBWest KalimantanKHCentral KalimantanKTEast KalimantanLSurabayaMMaduraNMalangPBesukiRBanyumasSBojonegoroTPurwakartaWSidoarjoZTasikmalaya

[edit]Vehicle classes

There are several classes of license plates, each can be distinguished by their color:

  • White on black: The most common type of license plate, this is for private vehicles.
  • Red on white: Vehicles that have not been registered yet, or for new cars that have no owners yet.
  • Black on yellow: Public transportation vehicles, such as buses, taxis and trucks.
  • White on red: Government vehicles.
About these ads

Lampung 6 Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

Lampung 6 Tribes :

Lampung, Tribes

sumatra, lampung, tribe, suku

sumatra, lampung, tribe, suku

Komering Tribe 1.509.000 Islam
The majority of the Komering (pronounced KO-mer-ing) people live in the southeastern part of the island of Sumatera. They get their name from the Komering River, upon which so much of their livelihood depends. The Komering consist of two main groups. The Komering Ilir live in Tanjung Lubuk District around the city of Kayu Agung in the regency of Ogan Komering Ilir. The Komering Ulu live in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency in the districts of Cempaka, Buay Madang, Belitang, Simpang, Martapura, and in the municipality of Baturaja. The Komering language has characteristics that are slightly different from the Melayu (Malay) language cluster to which it is related.They are closely related to the neighboring Lampung people groups.

 

The first language of the Komering is called Bahasa Komering, but the national language, Bahasa Indonesia, is taught in the schools.
The main source of livelihood for the Komering is rice farming, using both irrigated and unirrigated methods. In addition to rice, they also raise secondary crops of fruits and vegetables. They usually have a few cattle, goats, chickens, ducks, and also catch fish from the river. In several areas, they mine raw materials such as oil, gold, nickel, diamonds, uranium, and coal.

From the forests they harvest timber, resin, and rattan.The majority of Komering houses are located along the Komering River, so the houses are built atop tall wooden stilts to protect against flooding. The houses are made of wood or bamboo with tile or palm leaf roofs and consist of one bedroom and one large family room. In the past, a Kerio (village headman) was responsible for managing and overseeing the growth of the village.

A person known as the Kermit functioned as a town herald, spreading the local news to each member as he walked through the village. Kinship is usually patrilineal (tracing descent from the father). While traditional law follows the patrilocal pattern. This means that the wife lives with the husband’s family, a tradition that in the Komering language is called ngalaki.Additionally, ngakuk anak marriages are also common. In this pattern, they follow the matrilineal (tracing descent from the mother) system and the husband lives with the wife’s family (matrilocal). Male children are considered descendants of the wife, so this pattern is quite common if the wife’s family has no male children.
Besides the teachings of Islam, which has a strong influence on their culture, the Komering also have strong beliefs in superstitions and spirits. They often call a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) to heal the sick or cast out demons. Their effort to balance their Islamic and animistic beliefs can be seen in the proverb: “adat bersendikan syarak dan syarak bersendikan Kitabullah” (Tradition is centered upon canon law and canon law is centered on Qur’an (the Islamic Holy Book).

Abung Tribe 737.000 Islam

 




The Lampung Abung people originated in the districts of Kayu Agung and Mesuji in Ogan Komering Ilir Regency and now are spread along the northeastern coast of Lampung Province. They are bordered on the north by the Tulang Bawang River, to the west by the border between North Lampung and West Lampung districts, to the south by the Sunda Strait, and to the east by the Jawa (Java) Sea.Although often identified as a single “Lampung people,” the Lampung cluster of peoples consists of three main people groups: Abung, Peminggir, and Pubian. The Lampung Abung people are known as mountain dwellers and have a unique history as headhunters. Their language of Abung is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster and is similar to the Melayu Riau language.
The majority of Lampung Abung make their living as rice farmers. After they harvest the rice, the best fields are then used to plant pepper (ladar). These small pepper plantations are productive for 20-25 years. Pepper crops are usually sold and the money is used for a big and expensive ritual celebration known as pesta pepadon, to mark the beginning of the rice-planting season. The other important source of livelihood for the Lampung Abung is fishing, especially in the swampy areas near Tulang Bawang where rice farming is nearly impossible.The Lampung Abung live in traditional communities known as tiuh, in which each clan has its own permanent house.

 

Typically, these clan houses have only a few older members of the clan living in them while the younger adults with children live in seasonal settlements known as umbulan. Usually, ten clans are grouped into one village. The leader of each clan is known as the penyimbang (advisor). This position is inherited, being passed down to the eldest male child. The Lampung Abung families are grouped according to the patrilineal (tracing descent from the father) system.

After the wedding, the newlywed couple lives near the man’s family. Polygamy is allowed, but is only practiced by the rich. Marriage between immediate family members as well as cousins is forbidden. According to tradition, divorce is not allowed. However, if a wife leaves her husband, the husband’s family must pay a fine to the community elders.

Currently, every Lampung Abung is theoretically a Muslim, as is every other Lampung person. The influence of Islam can be seen in everyday life. Religious themes with an element of Melayu culture can be seen in a growing number of art objects. One of the art forms is called tari tigel. This ancient war dance is accompanied by the ritual sacrifice of a water buffalo to be eaten at a big celebration. Besides the teachings of Islam, the Lampung Abung also have strong beliefs in superstitions and spirits. They often call a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) to heal the sick or cast out demons

Krui Tribe 32.000 Islam

 


The Lampung Krui (or Kroe) are a small sub-group who are closely related to the Komering, a larger people group in the Lampung cluster. The Lampung Krui and Komering are sometimes considered as one group called the Njo people. Most of the Lampung Krui live in and around the towns of Krui, Sanggi, and Kotajawa on the southwest coast of Sumatera, the world’s fifth largest island.Sumatera is an island rich in natural resources, such as minerals, oil, and forest products. However, most of the land consists of thick forests, swamps, and volcanic mountains with many obstacles for transportation and communication.

 


The land where the Lampung Krui live is flat and swampy. This type of land is very suitable for rice farming. Most of the Lampung Krui earn a living as farmers and small traders. Their crops are mainly sold at local markets or shops. Their lives are difficult and their incomes are low. Many children are forced to drop out of school to help supplement the family income.Lampung Krui houses usually consist of two main rooms. The first room serves as a bedroom while the second, which is larger, is used as a place to receive guests or for family gatherings. The walls and floor are constructed of wood and bamboo. The roof is clay tile or woven palm leaves.The father is the head of the family and may have more than one wife. Nevertheless, seldom does a man have more than one wife due to economic obligations. It is the wife’s responsibility to manage the home and the children. In addition, Lampung Krui women also work in the rice fields.


The overwhelming majority of Lampung Krui embrace Islam, which has a tremendous influence on their culture. Followers of Islam believe they will be judged on their knowledge of the Qu’ran, their sacred book, as well as what they did with their lives. Some are devoutly religious people who say their prayers five times daily. Besides the teachings of Islam and its strong influence on their culture, the Krui also have strong beliefs and accompanying practices concerning the powers of spirits. These beliefs influence various facets of their lives. Some believe whistling in a house at night can invite evil spirits. Also, there is the belief that traveling on your birthday is bad luck. Many Lampung Krui wear amulets with verses from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) written on them. Belief in the powers of dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is still very strong. The dukun is usually called to heal the sick or cast out evil spirits. Because of their fear of evil spirits, the Lampung Krui try to live good lives so as to be careful not to become the targets for the anger of the evil spirits.

Peminggir Tribe 632.000 Islam

 


The Lampung Peminggir (coastal Lampung) live in the province of Lampung, the southernmost province on the island of Sumatera. The people groups in the Lampung cluster can be classified according to geography, language, or culture. The three geographical groupings are the Abung, who are mountain dwellers, the Pubian, who live in the eastern part of the province, and the Peminggir, who live along the southern coast. The Lampung Peminggir people are divided into four sub-goups, namely the: 1) Peminggir Melinting Rajabasa in the area of Labuhan Meringgai and around Rajabasa Kalianda; 2) Peminggir Teluk in the area of Telukbetung; 3) Peminggir Skala Brak in the area of Liwa, Kenali, Pesisir Tengah, Pesisir Utara, and Pesisir Selatan; and 4) Peminggir Semangka in the area of Cukuh Balak, Talangpadang, Kotaagung, and Wonosobo.
The Lampung Peminggir are farmers growing labor-intensive crops such as pepper, chocolate, and durian (“stinky” fruit with a thick, spiky shell). The Lampung Peminggir settlement patterns vary from crowded villages to widely spread out villages. Each village has a papanca, which is a place to rest or meditate that may be used by all the people.The Lampung Peminggir have two systems of community organization, namely the Pepadun and the Saibatin. In the Saibatin system, the leader is called the Penyimbang Sebatin, and he is given the honorary title of Batin (King). Other members of this system are called the children of the Sebatin. In the Pepadun, several families from one ancestor live in one village, called a tiyuh, anek, or pekon. The village leader (Penyimbang Tiyuh) also serves as the leader of their traditional law and customs. Several villages may join together to form one larger group (buay or kabuayan). This larger group lives in an area known as a marga, mergo, or mego. Their leader is called the Penyimbang Marga. One of their key principles is that of Pi-il Pesenggiri, which means “guarding one’s dignity above all else.” They usually live a simple life, yet they love to receive honor or praise. They typically do not hesitate to spend huge sums on ritual celebrations. The Lampung Peminggir use honorific titles known as juluk. Upon marriage, men receive a title known as Adok and for women it is Inai.
As a result of Islamic traders from the Middle East, Islam made its way into Sumatera by the end of the thirteenth century. Islamic influence weakened the culture, and local chiefs eventually lost their titles and power. The Lampung Peminggir are followers of Sunni Shafi’i Islam, which they consider stricter Islam than the Maliki, Ambali, and Hanafi subgroups of Sunni Islam. Even so, there are still those who believe that the power obtained at several graveyards is sacred, like the sacred well of Pitu. They also often place symbols, such as the cross with betel-nut chalk above the door, window, or other entrances to the house. They believe that this symbol can ward off evil spirits such as the kuntilanak, especially when there is a woman advanced in her pregnancy in the home.
Pubian Tribe 526.000 Islam
The term Lampung is often applied to all those living in the Lampung province. However, there are actually several people groups, each with their own history and culture. The three main groups are the Abung, Peminggir, and Pubian.The Lampung Pubian live in the regency of Central Lampung. Their villages are scattered throughout the lowlands to the east. For centuries they were forced to avoid the Abung people, who forbade them to cross the border between them. Now the Lampung Pubian have assimilated with the original inhabitants and live in a small area within the Central Lampung district.The daily language is Pubian, a dialect very similar to the Pesisir dialect. During the past twenty years, the Indonesian government has forcibly relocated three million Jawa people to the area, and as a result of these changes, the indigenous peoples of this area are experiencing much bitterness and unrest.
Lampung Pubian villages are permanent settlements following a traditional community pattern. Every clan has a permanent house, but the clan house typically houses only a few of the clan elders. Most of the working adults and children live in seasonal housing settlements (umbulan). Wood houses on stilts that encircle one administrative building, known as a sesat, characterize Lampung Pubian villages. The sesat usually is a building with one large room, which is partitioned into several small sections for members of various groups. A single village can be inhabited by up to 3,000 inhabitants, with about 100 clan houses. In addition, each village has a house used specifically for traditional ceremonies. The entire community participates in carrying out traditional ceremonies.In an area ruled by one village, each member of the village may clear new land. The clans own the traditional ceremony house and the cultivated land, including the pepper plantations. Rules concerning ownership are determined according to traditional law. A council of elders, composed of the clan headmen, serves as the court to settle any disputes regarding land ownership. In the interior regions of Lampung, the Lampung Pubian cultivate a type of rice called gogoranca, which grows in dry fields. Usually after one harvest, pepper is planted which provides a good income for them. In addition, the income from the pepper crop enables the Lampung Pubian to hold a traditional celebration known as pepadon. Fishing predominates in the swamp areas. They also raise water buffaloes, cattle, goats, chickens, and ducks.
As a result of contact with Muslim traders, Islam entered Sumatera near the end of the 13th century. The influence of Islam weakened the local culture and one result was that the area headman lost his position and power. At the present time, the majority of Lampung Pubian are strict Sunni Shafi’i Muslims

Sungkai Tribe 6.900 Islam

 

Kain Tapis from Lampung


South Sumatera 18 Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

South Sumatera 18 Tribes :

South-Sumatra , Tribes

sumatra, tribe, suku, palembang

Daya Tribe 54.000 Islam
The Daya people are spread throughout the districts of Baturaja Timur, Baturaja Barat, Simpang, and Muaradua in the district of Ogan Komering Ulu in the province of southern Sumatera. The Daya language is one of the languages considered to be part of the larger ethnolinguistic grouping of Melayu (Malay) languages. Daya is sometimes considered to be part of the Komering language, but the delineation is unclear. The national language, Bahasa Indonesia, is taught in schools.
Daya homes are mostly found in the southern and western foothills and mountains of the Bukit Barisan range. The land in the Daya area is relatively fertile and most Daya make their living by farming. Rice is the main crop, but they also grow fruits, coffee, rubber, coconut and yams. Some seek a living as fishermen. The Daya who live near the larger towns are mostly traders.Daya houses usually consist of a bedroom and a large guest room. The floor and walls are made of wood or bamboo. The roof is often made of coconut palm leaves layered with clay.Important and heavy work that benefits the community is done through a system called gotong royong. This system is a traditional burden sharing principle of working together for the common good. Individual and family needs are done in a similar manner of exchanging assistance.The men are dominant in the community and the family system of the Daya is patriarchal. The father is respected as the head of the family and makes final decisions. Men may have more than one wife but this seldom happens due to the costs involved. Wives act as the housekeepers and caretakers of the children. Besides household work, most Daya women work in the fields. Daya women can be seen carrying heavy loads of goods on their heads.
The Daya people are followers of Islam. Followers of Islam believe they will be judged on their knowledge of the Koran, their sacred book, as well as being judged on the basis of whether their good deeds outweigh their bad deeds. Although the influence of Islam is strong upon the culture of the Daya, they also maintain animistic beliefs. Many Daya use amulets with written verses from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book). A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is often called to heal the sick and cast out evil spirits.Awareness of the difficulty of facing the natural world is shown by the honoring of their ancestors. The Daya often express this respect through ceremonies to the ancestors that founded their villages or established the fields where they work and live. Other celebrations and ceremonies involve life cycle observances, work related festivals, house-warmings, and so on. All of these activities are done through the gotong royong system to show community solidarity.
Enim Tribe 81.000 Islam
The Enim people live along the Enim River in the districts of Tanjung Agung and Muara Enim in Muara Enim Regency in South Sumatera. Sumatera is the world’s fifth largest island. It has a vast potential wealth of minerals, oil, and natural produce, but much of the land remains untamed jungle, swamp, and volcanic mountains with transportation and communication difficulties. Sometimes called the most unreached island in the world, Sumatera is home to some of the world’s largest unreached people groups. The Enim people are descendants of the Melayu Palembang (Palembang Malay) people. At the time of the decline of the Kingdoms of Sriwijaya and Majapahit, they were driven out of the Palembang area and formed a community along the Enim River. They use the Enim language, which is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.

sumatra , South, enim, tribe, , suku
Farming is the major means of livelihood for the Enim. Farming is particularly important to those living near the river. Some Enim men work as miners in the government-owned Bukit Asam coal mines. Others work in areas around southern Sumatera such as Palembang and Lampung.The Enim homes are usually built from wood with a traditional pyramid shape raised on stilts. This style is used due to two factors. The first is security ,as this style affords protection from wild animals. The second factor is that the houses are often built in swampy areas. The traditional Enim home faces the main street and has a pance (porch) in front. The pance is a common place for relaxing with the family or visitors.Marriage is carried out according to Islamic principles. There are three forms of Enim marriages. The first is Tanam Batu, which means the groom joins the bride’s family. The second is Kepelaking and means the bride joins the groom’s family. The third is Tambe Anak Samarizing, which means that the bride and groom can live in the place which they prefer, so there is no “tie” to either of the families. The Enim are very open to newcomers. This characteristic is referred to as Serasan Sekundang (as if family) or Sesama Teman (friends together). This means they are open to form relationships with anyone regardless of ethnic or religious background. This factor of openness has lead to many mixed marriages with people of other ethnic and religious backgrounds.
The Enim people are nearly all followers of Islam. Their faith in Islam is passed on to each new generation. The Enim follow Islam because their ancestors chose it, but some of the Enim people still practice the traditional beliefs of their ancestors. The influence of animism is apparent from ceremonies performed before clearing forests and other events that involve a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) and traditional rituals. Some Enim believe their own behavior can cause their ancestor’s spirits to either help or harm them.

Kayu Agung Tribe 54.000 Islam
The Kayu Agung people are located throughout the districts of Kayu Agung and Upper Ogan Komering Ilir in the province of South Sumatera. They speak the Kayu Agung language, which is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. Kayu Agung means “the people of the noble wood”. They are not nomadic, but tend to live in the same area their entire lives. Currently, there are approximately 40 Kayu Agung villages.Some neighboring people groups characterize the Kayu Agung as lazy and thieving. A rumor suggests that they are blessed by the local religious leader(s) before setting off on a “robbery trip.” Obviously in response to this hatred, the Kayu Agung are generally unfriendly and suspicious of outsiders.
The Kayu Agung houses have wooden walls and floors, with a sago palm leaf roof. The houses are usually raised several feet off the ground on top of wooden stilts.Livelihood is earned through farming, trading and making earthenware vessels. Seasonal farming is common because they live in a swampy area. During the rainy season, rice is the only crop that can be grown. Cultivating the rice takes place in the following stages. First, the field is cleared. Second, after the water levels recede, a crop is planted. In this phase, the workers are mainly men, but in the third stage of the harvest time the whole community helps one another in a system called gotong royong. Every citizen is required to perform service for the good of the village and clan.Family lineage of the Kayu Agung is determined bilaterally. Community life is ordered by a system of customs called Simbur Cahaya, which is based on a traditional system of regulations from the Sriwijaya Kingdom and the Sultanate of Palembang. This system still maintains a distinction between the royal class and the ordinary people. Decisions in matters of adat (customs) are made in meetings of peers or through village, community, clan, or small group meetings. The community meetings are lead by the pasirah (village chief) or his deputy. If several clans are involved in a problem they often hold small meetings. Larger meetings are lead by regents or other high-ranking officials. Kayu Agung customs include many traditional ceremonies begin at birth, and include engagement, marriage, circumcision and death.
Almost every Kayu Agung person follows Islam. However, many also hold traditional beliefs in the spirit world. The Kayu Agung believe that ancestral spirits can trouble humans. Because of this, before a body is buried they must cleanse it with flowers. The goal is to confuse the dead spirit so it forgets its way back to its former home. A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is highly trusted and is often requested to perform rituals for planting and harvesting. The Kayu Agung also consider some areas as sacred places for the enthroned spirits of the departed.
Kelingi Tribe 64.000 Islam
The Kelingi are located in the south-central part of the island of Sumatra along the Bukit Barisan Mountains. Historically, they were probably a people of coastal Borneo who expanded into Sumatra as a result of their trading and seafaring way of life. Their culture has been strongly influenced by other peoples, including the Siamese, Javanese, and Sumatrans. The Kelingi are close neighbors to the Pasemah people groups, which include the Semendau and the Lematang. They speak Sindan Kelingi, which is an Austronesian language.
The Kelingi are a rural people, living in villages of 50 to 1,000 people. Much of the country is covered by jungle, but the villages are located along the coasts, rivers, and roadways. Within their villages, the Kelingi build houses on stilts raised four to eight feet off the ground.
Farming is the primary occupation of the Kelingi. Rubber is the main cash crop, but coffee and rice are also grown. Wet-rice plots are worked by hoeing, or by plowing with oxen or water buffalo. Planting and harvesting are usually done by either hired work groups or by the extended families. Farmers often use tractors in cultivating their crops. They set aside part of their proceeds from their harvests for several years, then buy their tractors from the government.
Since most of the people make their living from farming, major ceremonies are usually held after the harvest. These events include marriages, circumcisions, and hair cutting ceremonies. Every family in the village participates in such activities because of their strong feeling of community.
Kelingi families do not usually live together as extended family units. Instead, each family tries to have its own separate home. Newlywed couples may temporarily live with their parents, but they prefer to have their own homes as soon as possible.
Kelingi women wear cotton sarongs (loose skirts made of long strips of cloth wrapped around the body) with long-sleeved cotton blouses. They also wear skirts over trousers, jackets, and scarves; they do not wear veils. Men wear Western-style cotton shirts and slacks.
The Kelingi are 95% Muslim, with the remainder following their traditional ethnic religions.
Kikim Tribe 16.000 Islam
The Kikim people are an indigenous group residing near the tributaries of the Kikim River in Lahat Regency of South Sumatera Province. They are spread throughout Kikim District, where they are the majority ethnic group. Although a small number also live in the Lahat City District. The Kikim District constitutes the largest district in the Lahat Regency, but it is sparsely populated. The Kikim are often equated with the Pasemah (or Besemah) people who live nearby.
In everyday life, the Kikim use their own language, called Kikim, which is a specific branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. Their language is often erroneously called the “Besemah language,” which is used by the Melayu community residing in some of the other districts of the Lahat Regency.Most Kikim people make their living as farmers, having rice as their main crop. Many Kikim also plant various dry-season crops such as yam, cassava, corn, and legumes, among others. Some of the Kikim also raise livestock, both for field preparation and for consumption. In general, those farmers living near the jungle still practice migratory agriculture (shifting from one field to another), mainly because they cannot maintain the soil’s fertility. New farmland is opened by cutting down the large trees and burning the underbrush. This clearing method is often cited as one of the causes of the forest fires that frequently occur in Sumatera. Even though their actions do cause some damage, it is not comparable to the destruction done by the large plantation owners who illegally burn large areas of the forest with impunity due to corrupt governmental protection.
Presently, the Kikim people are known as adherents of Islam. Followers of Islam believe they will be judged on their knowledge of the Qu’ran, their sacred book, as well as what they did with their lives. Despite their Islamic faith, vestiges of old animistic beliefs are still seen in their lives. The Kikim are known for a traditional ceremony called Sedekah Rame, which is a religious meal eaten with fellow-villagers while sitting in an area called Tanah Badahe Setue (Land of Future Graves) in the middle of the rice fields. This area is designated as a place to burn incense, make ritual offerings to spirits, and light bonfire.
Lematang Tribe 163.000 Islam
The Lematang (or Lemantang) people’s homeland extends from the city of Lahat in the regency of Lahat until the area of Lematang llir Ogan Tengah in the regency of Muara Enim. Bordered by the areas of the Kikim and Enim peoples, it runs along the full length of the Lematang River near the cities of Muara Enim, Prabumulih, and Gelumbang. It also includes the region of the tributaries of the Rawas River near the cities of Bingintelok and Terusan. The Lematang River, also called Sungai Orang Kaya (Rich Man’s River), is South Sumatera’s largest producer of “river rock,” which is used for foundation material in building. The Lematang area includes the districts of Gunung Magang, Muara Enim, and Merapi. Merapi District has 37 villages, including Muara Lawai, Gedung Agung, Banjarsari, Kota Agung, Tanjung Baru, and Arahan. The Lematang originated from Banten people who immigrated at the time of the ancient Majapahit Kingdom.
In general, the Lematang people work on farms and plantations. Their main crops include coffee, rubber, palm oil, and other permanent crops. They own large expanses of farmland, so there are no shortages of work opportunities.The Lematang people are very hospitable and friendly when welcoming newcomers. They have a strong sense of community togetherness proven by their adherence to gotong royong (neighborhood mutual service and assistance), not only to the Lematang community itself but also to outside communities. Lematang homes are raised on stilts with roofs resembling pyramids. The front of the house has a sitting area (pance) facing the main road. This porch is for relaxing with family members and visitors.Regarding marriage, the Lematang people have two main customs. First, the prospective groom will become a full-fledged member of the bride’s family with all wedding expenses born by her family. Second, the new couple may leave their in-laws in order to seek work elsewhere, but they still have a responsibility to provide for the parents’ eventual retirement needs.Inheritance is granted to the daughters causing many of the sons to set off for other areas to earn their living. When an outsider marries one of the Lematang, it must be in a Muslim ceremony. After such a wedding, however, they are given freedom to embrace another religion and still be accepted as family members, but not as Lematang community members.
The Lematang people currently embrace Islam, yet still hold to ancient beliefs concerning magic and mystical powers. In matters of belief, they are of the opinion that all religions are equally valuable. In matters of traditional customs, their customs are similar to Lahat and Muara Enim customs.
Lembak Delapan Tribe 31.000 Islam
The Lembak Delapan reside in Bengkulu Province, in the provincial capital of Bengkulu and 25 villages located in the low-lying areas of the districts of Talang Empat and Pondok Kelapa. They and the nearby Lembak Beliti people are both members of the Melayu (Malay) ethno-linguistic cluster. The Lembak Delapan consider themselves to be one of the original people groups in this area of South Sumatera.
The Lembak Delapan make their living from traditional farming and raising livestock. The livestock are let loose to find their own grazing areas, and the method of farming is migratory agriculture (shifting from one field to another). Farmers will cultivate fields until the land is depleted and then move to new fields. Because of a low level of fertility, the people use slash and burn farming and then move again for the next season. The natural forestlands are being depleted due to the continuous search for fertile fields. Old fields are quickly overgrown and become difficult to farm.Rice is their main crop, and they also collect rubber sap. Because farming success is somewhat uncertain, the younger generation is generally disinterested in becoming farmers. Many Lembak Delapan young people leave their hometowns to look for work. Many have moved to Jakarta (the national capital) and Palembang (South Sumatera provincial capital) looking for a job. Often these young people have the opinion that their language and customs are rather backward resulting in many of the new generation experiencing an identity crisis.The familial system of the Lembak Delapan is patriarchal. The women help work in the fields or manage their households, and the older children also help in the fields and at home. Most of the houses in Lembak Delapan villages are still the traditional style raised on stilts. In current times, however, some have built brick and cement homes. These folks are seen as making progress and “getting ahead.” Thus the custom of building stilt-houses is beginning to be abandoned.
Lembak Delapan people proudly consider themselves firm followers of Islam. Followers of Islam believe they will be judged on their knowledge of the Qu’ran, their sacred book, as well as what they did with their lives. In addition to faithfully worshipping in the mosque, a large number of the elder generation continue to perform ancestor worship at gravesites. In their everyday lives, they still practice animistic beliefs just as their ancestors did. The younger, better-educated generation generally feels confused and unsure about what they should believe. They feel there is no longer a pattern of what it means to be religious, so many choose to practice those religious values that make sense to them.
Lembang Tribe 174.000 Islam
The Lembak People live in the boundary area of the provinces of Bengkulu and South Sumatera. In Bengkulu they are located in the regencies of Rejang Lebong and North Bengkulu as well as in the city Bengkulu. In Bengkulu Province they call themselves “Sindang Kelingi” or “Lembak Sindang Merdeka” (meaning “Free”). The Lembak may have originated from the valley of the Musi-Rawas River in South Sumatera to the east of the city of Lubuklinggau. This area is currently occupied by the Lakitan people. The Lembak moved in the 16th century to secure freedom from their Palembang rulers. Outsiders often call them the Bulang (turban) people. The Lembak language is part of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. The Lembak people have an indigenous script, called Surat Ulu (Letter of Beginning), which is similar to Rejang and Serawai scripts.
The Lembak people’s main livelihood is cultivating rice in irrigated and unirrigated fields. Quite a few men work as rubber tappers on the many rubber plantations in the area. Others run small-scale brick-making factories in rural areas. The women help in the fields and manage the households.The Lembak family system is patriarchal and the lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). There are three post-marriage patterns for newlyweds. The first is to set up a new, separate household. The second is the bejojoh custom of living with the groom’s relatives. The third is the semendo custom of living with the bride’s relatives.Lembak homes are raised on stilts and have large rooms. Most homes have a stairway on the side. They typically have more furnishings than the homes of the neighboring Lintang and Rawas peoples. Electricity is available throughout the area, but their cooking fuel is kerosene or wood. The Lembak societal system resembles those of the Rejang and Serawai peoples. Villages join together to form a clan, which is lead by a pasirah (village chief). An official (mangku) and his deputy (penggawa) supervise kepemangkuan (clan districts). They are supported by religious experts, such as imam (Muslim prayer & ceremonial priest) and khatib (mosque preacher).Elements of the Lembak culture include: (among others) the Tari Piring (Plate Dance) and the Tari Pisau (Knife Dance). In addition, there is Dangdut music, which often combines a strong beat with Arabic rhythms and Islamic teachings. The young people are trained in singing, dancing, and Indonesian martial arts.
Most Lembak people today embrace Islam, although a large part of the community still adheres to animistic beliefs. Most believe in the power of unseen spirits inhabiting sacred places. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are often sought for many purposes, including healing the sick and exorcising evil spirits
Lintang Tribe 76.000 Islam
The Lintang make their living as farmers who produce rice, coffee, rubber, spice, and vegetables. They also raise goats, water buffaloes, dogs, chickens, ducks, and other animals. Although they live near rivers, they do not catch fish as a livelihood. The economic condition of the Lintang is low. Although the Lintang young people choose their own spouse, their parents still make the arrangements for the wedding. The Lintang lineage is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father). The Lintang men work as farmers whose activities are dependent on the seasons. For instance, harvesting coffee only occurs once a year. Women help men work in the fields, and consequently, they often leave their children at home unsupervised. Lintang houses are built from wood on top of raised platforms. The Lintang who do not perform manual labor would typically have a long pinky fingernail as a sign of higher social status. When a conflict arises, the Lintang solve it through family discussion. If they do not reach an agreement, the problem is brought to the village leaders or elders. If they still fail to find a solution to the conflict, they would then ask for help from the police or the mahkamah (religious court). The Lintang do not appear to practice any indigenous art forms, except pencak silat (an Indonesian traditional martial art), which is taught in local Islamic schools. Formerly, the Lintang performed dances, but they have fallen into disuse. The Lintang traditional festivals and ceremonies normally are Islamic in nature, such as circumcisions, weddings, and Idul Fitri (Muslim celebration at the end of Ramadan fasting month).
The Lintang are loyal adherents of Islam. This is evidenced in the number of mesjid (mosques) in their area. Despite this, traditional animistic beliefs are still strong in daily life. They still believe in the power of unseen spirits that inhabit sacred places. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are often sought for many purposes, including healing sicknesses and exorcising evil spirits.
Musi Banyumasin Tribe 161.000 Islam
The Musi Banyuasin people group live in several districts of Musi Banyuasin Regency in South Sumatera Province. Often the inhabitants of the Musi Banyuasin area are simply called the Musi people because their dwelling place is near the Musi River. However, the residents of the district differentiate between the different Musi groups such as the Musi Sekayu and Musi Banyuasin.The Musi Banyuasin people speak the Musi language as the medium of communication in everyday life. The Musi language is a part of the Melayu (Malay) language family that has the characteristic of using the letter ‘e’ sound at the end of a word. For example, the Indonesian apa (what) becomes ape. According to researchers, the original region of the Musi language covers the districts of Sekayu, Babat, Toman, Banyu Lincir, Sungai Lilin and Bayuasin Tiga.
The Musi’s area is largely made up of lowland clearings interspersed between marshland. In the westward direction, the area consists of highland dense jungle, including part of the Bukit Barisan Mountain Range. Generally, Musi Banyuasin settlements are located in the area of a river. The largest river in the area mentioned above is the Musi River, which has several tributaries. Even now, the river is still the principal communications track.Their basic means of livelihood is farming with the principal products being rice and a variety of fruit. Some also become workers in coconut and tire plantations or in petroleum mines.Historically, the Musi Banyuasin people have been patrilineal (tracing descent from the father). However, today quite a few families follow the bilateral practice of tracing descent from both the mother and father. Current practice states that both families will be consulted on important matters or the matters will be clearly delineated before the marriage takes place. Their wedding ceremonies are known as melerai pengantin, signifying the separation of the woman from her household and her entrance into the man’s household. Singing and dancing are common for every ceremony and program. Some examples of song names are Pucuk Pauh, Biduk Batabe, Iban-Iban, Mare-Mare, and Anyot Sa Antau. Examples of dance names are Setabek, Sekapur Siri, Nasib, Ranggonang, and Selendang Mayang.
The majority of the Musi Banyuasin follow Islam, but most still believe in animism, particularly concerning ancestor spirits. This belief has a very strong influence in community life. This is evident from the many historical graves in the area. For example, the graves of Puteri Darah Putih, Cende Muara Bayo, Puyang Rio Raos, and several more burial sites have become places of ancestor worship and places for asking blessings for their lives.
Ogan Tribe 370.000 Islam

sumatra , South, tribe, ogan, suku

The Ogan people live along the Ogan River in South Sumatera. Their area begins in the Bukit Barisan mountains in the southwest and extends to the city of Palembang in the northeast. Locally, they are often referred to as the Pegagan, which identifies them as the indigenous people of the area. The geographic center of Ogan life is the city of Baturaja, through which both the trans-Sumatera highway and Lampung-Palembang railroad pass. The fact that the name Ogan has been given to three of the six districts in the province 1) upstream Ogan-Komering; 2) downstream Ogan-Komering; and 3) midstream Ogan-Lematang – underscores the importance of this ethnolinguistic group in South Sumatera. Mutually-intelligible Ogan dialects include: Enim, Musi, and Rawas.
Ogan villages usually consist of 300-400 households. Stilted single-family houses are built of wood and have 3-4 rooms. Storage and workspace are beneath the house. Each Ogan village has its own distinct story about their origin and how they became Muslims. Often each village will also be associated with a specific skill, such as woodworking or goldsmithing. There are also similarities among the villages, such as the practice of Islamic education and training, patterns of marriages, loss of face, and efforts to preserve their customs and culture.Two types of customary marriage are followed. The first requires the groom’s family to pay a price to the bride’s family. The couple will live in the groom’s family home and the children become descendants of the groom’s family. The other method does not require a payment to be made. The newlyweds live in the bride’s family home. The children become part of the bride’s family. Married couples are responsible to care for family members and manage the family’s land and assets, including contributions to customary ceremonies.Farming is the principal economic activity in the area and is based on three key crops: rice, rubber and coffee. Planting is done by 5 to 10 hired workers or by shifts of family members. Harvests involve groups of men and women including the farmer’s family.
The Ogan have followed Sunni Shafi’i Islam since the 16th century. At the end of that century, they were also introduced to Sufi beliefs. They practice all Islamic holidays such as Idul Fitri (end of Ramadan fasting month) and Idul Adha (Day of Sacrifice). They tend to believe in superstitions related to spirits occupying a place or item. Their social and spiritual life consists of activities such as religious feasts, celebrating the birth of a child, praying for deliverance from disaster, or in giving thanks for a harvest. People gather to do Islamic prayer readings as well as prayer ceremonies to the spirits of their ancestors.
Pasemah Tribe 684.000 T
Most Pasemah (or Besemah) live in the regencies of Lahat and Ogan Komering Ulu in the province of South Sumatera. Some live in Bengkulu Province. The center of Pasemah territory is the impressive volcanic peak, Mount Dempo. Pasemah communities spread from its slopes to the west, south, and southwest along the Bukit Barisan (“Marching Hills”) mountain range. Historically, their political center was Pagar Alam (“Nature’s Fortress”), which helped protect the Pasemah from their aggressive neighbors, the Rejang.The Pasemah are an energetic and enthusiastic people. They play a dominant role in South Sumatera politics and also hold key leadership roles in many government departments and educational institutions in Bengkulu. They have secured numerous patronage posts in both provinces.
Agriculture is their principle economic activity based on three key crops: rice, rubber, and coffee. Planting and harvesting is carried out by groups of five to ten people working either for wages or crop sharing. Some also produce rubber from rubber trees. Pasemah houses are built from wood with tin roofs and 3-4 rooms including a closed kitchen in the back part of the house. The traditional Pasemah house is built on raised platforms as high as 1.5-2.5 meters off the ground. The enclosed area below the house is used for various purposes: as a cooler room on a hot day or as a storage space for tools, food, and other items. The Pasemah recognize three types of marriage as follows: (1) belaki, where the groom pays a bride price and the price of the wedding and the newlywed couple live with the husband’s family; (2) ambil anak, where the husband moves to the wife’s family and he does not have to make any payments for a bride price or the wedding. Consequentially, the children are considered descendents of the wife’s family; 3) semendean, where the cost of the wedding is split and the newlywed couple is free to choose where they will live.
Most of the Pasemah are Muslims. Islam entered the southeastern Pasemah area in the 16th century. The western and northwestern areas were islamicized in the 19th century. The Pasemah who embraced Islam in this period were Sufi Muslims who then spread throughout Sumatera. The teachings of Sufism are focused on subjective feelings and stress that it is more important to know God than to merely observe religious rituals. On Pasemah plateau, there are 26 historical sites with various artifacts, cemeteries, and Buddhist stupas that have been considered holy since before 100 A.D. There, enormous stones were sculpted into amazing forms such as soldiers riding elephants, a man wrestling with a snake monster, and ocean waves. The Pasemah still use these large statues as places for making sacred pledges, calling out to their ancestors’ spirits to give blessings, and protection from misfortune.
Penesak Tribe 22.000
The Penesak live around Prabumulih in southern Sumatera, including the city of Kayu Agung. The Penesak people originated in the district of Tanjung Batu in the regency of Lower Ogan Komering. This area is somewhat infertile, and although their preference is to stay in the same area their entire lives, they will sometimes move to other areas in search of more fertile land and resources, such as wood for cooking. The Penesak are a primarily rural people and are rarely found in the larger cities and towns in the area.
Penesak seek their livelihood in many ways. Many work as farmers, day workers, carpenters, traders, and iron-workers or in cottage industries. Many women work in their homes, making embroidery and weaving straw mats and a clothing known as songket. The Penesak houses have timber walls and floors with a sago palm leaf roof. The houses are usually raised off the ground several feet on top of wooden stilts. Some Penesak men build these timber houses on wooden stilts for buyers to view and purchase, and upon closure of the sale, they dismantle the house and transport it to its destination for re-assembly.Because of a low level of fertility, the people use slash and burn farming and then move again for the next season. The natural forestlands are being depleted due to the continuous search for fertile fields. Old fields are quickly overgrown and become difficult to farm. Some success comes from rubber, pineapple, sugar cane and vegetable plantations.Traditional customs are influenced by Islam. This includes wedding, birth, death and circumcision ceremonies. One of the most strongly held customs is the wedding ceremony. When a marriage contract is made, the groom and his family visit the bride’s family home. The couple then returns as a part of a procession to the groom’s home to formalize the wedding. The engagement is serenaded with tambourines and music. The groom wears a long white robe topped off with a turban. The wedding ceremony is begun with long readings from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book).
The majority of all Penesak people are Muslims of the Muhammadiyah movement. However, there are still some who believe in a spirit of fear named Sindai, who is often referred to as an invisible creature who disturbs the community. There are dukun (shaman/healers/occultist) who function as mediums between humans and the spirit world. The Penesak also value sacred relics and shrines such as the relics of Lord Umar of the Sari royal line; a spear and a staff with a sword hidden inside; a prayer rug painted in Mecca and signed by the hand of the Prophet Mohammed; and a piece of cloth with a footprint of a prophet. Holy places and shrines such as the gravesite of Lord Umar are located near the village Tanjung Atap.
Pindah Tribe 21.000 T
The Pindah people live in the border area of the provinces of Jambi and South Sumatera. They are mainly located in Jambi Province in the districts of Desa Pauh and Desa Mandiangin of Batang Hari Regency and also in Desa Sarolangun District of Sarolangun Bangko Regency.According to legend, they are descendants of people from Palembang who came and stayed in their present location. Based on their physical characteristics, it is believed they are the descendants of the “Older Malay” race. They are usually shorter than the vast majority of the other people groups living in the area who are from the “Younger Malay” lineage.The Pindah language is considered a part of the larger linguistic cluster of Melayu (Malay) languages. Their language is very close to the Rawas language. The similarity to other Melayu of the Palembang area is shown in the change of a final ‘a’ vowel sound to an ‘e.’ For example, the word ada (there is) becomes ade; apa (what) becomes ape; and kemana (where) becomes kemane. An example of their linguistic proximity with the Rawas is the use of aya (water) rather than air.
Their main livelihood is cultivating crops in irrigated and unirrigated fields. There are rubber and coffee plantations in the forest areas. Today, many Pindah work as laborers in plantations and in the timber industry.One of their often-used hunting weapons, named a pulut, is made from a piece of bamboo or a palm leaf rib that has a clump of sticky sap at the end. The Pindah differ with most other ethnic groups in Jambi in that their lifestyle is very much influenced by the Melayu Palembang culture. This influence is particularly evident in their kinship system and social organization. The lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). The Pindah have an open (rather than restrictive) marriage tradition. Their tradition says that the couple is free to live where they want after the wedding, or their location can be decided by their families before the wedding. The new family is the responsibility of both the wife’s family and the husband’s family. For the Pindah, the wedding ceremony has an important meaning. It symbolizes the relationships between: 1) humans and humans; 2) humans and inanimate objects; and 3) the visible and invisible world. From the wedding ceremony, a feeling of unity, togetherness, and cooperation is created.
Most of the Pindah are Muslims. However, a great number of the people still practice their traditional animistic beliefs in their daily life. For example, they still believe in magical power and sacred objects, and there are many taboos and prohibitions. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are often sought for many purposes, including healing of sicknesses and exorcising evil spirits.
Rambang Senuli Tribe 43.000 Islam
The Rambang Senuli people, who are often called simply the Rambang people, are an indigenous people group who live in the Pedamaran and Mesuji districts of the Ogan Komering llir district in the province of South Sumatera. The Rambang language is one of the languages considered to be part of the larger ethnolinguistic grouping of Melayu (Malay) languages.
The customs of the Rambang communities are rich in the variety of activities focused upon the natural environment. Activities involving the lifecycle include birth and death rituals and Buang Juang (farewell ceremonies when one leaves the village to find work). Other rituals relate to special events such as lunar and solar eclipses, requests for rain, earthquakes, and so on. They also place a high priority on Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) reading competitions and the Islamic Haj pilgrimage to Mecca.The Rambang Senuli people are inclined to live simply. Agriculture is the principal economic activity in the area and rice is the primary crop. Wet rice plots are still worked mostly by water buffalo. In addition to rice, corn, peanuts, other fruits and vegetables are also grown. They are sometimes called orang selengek, which is a term referring to their unique method of preserving fish. They make several traditional items from bamboo, rattan, wood, roots, and palm leaves.Rambang villages usually consist of 300-400 households. Houses are generally single-family dwellings of three or four rooms raised on stilts with the lower part of the house used for storage or, in some cases, trade.The Rambang Senuli are bilateral, which means descent is measured through both the mother’s and father’s family. Two types of marriage arrangements are practiced: 1) payment of bridewealth thereby establishing a couple’s residence in the groom’s household with whom all offspring will be primarily affiliated; 2) no payment of bridewealth thereby placing the groom in the bride’s household and the offspring in the mother’s line.The marriage relationship is considered a powerful factor in the unifying process of families, clans, and people groups. This tendency is seen throughout South Sumatera. Weddings are not seen as only personal affairs, but as a family matter, which also involves the larger clan and the community at large. In the event of a marriage across clan or ethnic lines, there is a meeting to agree on time, place, and which marriage customs will be followed.
The Rambang Senuli people believe their first leader to follow Islam was Lord Bintang Ruano. He introduced Islam to the people of Bengkulu and condemned the practice of animism. Since that time, the people ceased animistic sacrifice offerings, but they still believe there are supernatural forces in certain objects. The teachings of the Sunni Shafi’i branch of Islam became the guidebook for their lives.
Ranau Tribe 74.000 Islam
The Ranau people live in the area along the border between the provinces of South Sumatera and Lampung, in the Baturaja District of the Ogan Komering Ulu Regency. The Ranau are possibly descendants of the Komering people. Their Ranau language is similar to that of the Lampung Krui. However, there are many that speak Bahasa Palembang (Palembang language) due to their proximity to that city.
The Ranau earn their living farming, raising livestock, mining, and gathering forest products such as rattan, resin, and wood. The primary farming product is rice using both irrigated and unirrigated fields. The Ogan Komering Ulu area is the number one producer of rice in South Sumatera. In addition, there are plantations of rubber, coffee, and vegetables. The Ranau also make use of Lake Ranau, rivers, ponds, and rice fields for fishing. Mining products include oil, natural gas, tin, and coal.Generally, the Ranau carry traditional daggers known as keris. In this area, this traditional weapon is very much a part of everyday life. This cultural tradition is illustrated in the saying “your weapon is your clothing.” Thus going out without a weapon is the same as going naked. In addition, this weapon is called dengasanak, which signifies an older sibling that protects the person from danger. During wedding ceremonies, a keris is carried on top of a carved container by a representative of the man, and given to a representative of the woman. The meaning of this is that the man vows to protect the safety of the woman with all his strength. The Ranau build their traditional homes in three shapes: limas (pyramid), ulu (head), and rakit (raft). The limas house is for the nobility. The ulu is built on stilts and is for the commoner. The rakit house is built on top of several layers of bamboo, which have been tied together so that they resemble a raft. This type of house is found along the Musi River. In addition to functioning as a residence, the raft house serves as a place for trading and a port for boats.Decorations in these houses always have a plant motif, which is considered a symbol of life. For example, the jasmine flower is a symbol of politeness and the rose symbolizes an antidote for disaster. This is intended to make an impression on the children as they grow up with these reminders. According to tradition, the number of steps to enter the house is always odd in order to bring blessings to the inhabitants of the house.
Due to the influence of other people groups in South Sumatera, the majority of Ranau are Muslims. Yet, they are Muslims more by tradition and culture than by conviction (taklid). In light of this, it is not surprising that many still believe in superstitions, objects with magic powers, and places considered haunted. The Ranau still practice magic and occultism as well.
Rawas Tribe 174.000

sumatra , South, tribe, rawas, suku

The Rawas people live in the districts of Rawas Ulu and Rawas Ilir in Musi Rawas Regency in South Sumatera Province. Most Rawas live either in small cities, such as Surulangon and Binginteluk, or villages like Lubuk Kemang, Lesung Batu, Sungaibaung, Pangkalan, Pulaukida, Muarakuwis, and Talangberingin. The Rawas villages spread along the Rawas and Rupit Rivers. On the west, Rawas territory ascends up the peaks of 2,068 meter high Mount Hijau. To the south is the Rawas Regency capital, Lubuklinggau, through which runs the trans-Sumatera highway. The Rawas language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.
The most prominent production of the Rawas people comes from rubber plantations. They are self-sufficient in producing their food supply. The Rawas area also produces many fruits such as oranges, mangoes, pineapples, duku (small white fruit), langsat (small yellow fruit), jackfruit, papaya, rambutan (hairy fruit), and durian (“stinky” fruit with a spiky shell). They also raise livestock such as ducks, chicken, goats, and water buffaloes. In catching fish, the Rawas still use traditional boats without motors. Their houses are built close together, which shows unity and the close relationships among them. The Rawas houses are made from wood and raised on stilts. They typically have three large rooms, including two bedrooms and a kitchen in the back part of the house. Usually, these houses face the road with an overhanging porch in the front.Depending on the agreement before the wedding, the Rawas can practice either a patrilineal (tracing descent from the father) or a matrilineal (tracing descent from the mother) system. There is a clear job division between men and women among the Rawas people. The men work in the rice fields, plantations, rivers (as pebble gatherers), and in making bricks. The women have the jobs of cooking and caring for the children at home or opening small stores. The Rawas people have interesting art forms. Their art consists of singing and traditional dancing with tambourine accompaniment. Examples of traditional Rawas dancing are the Tari Piring (Plate Dance) and Tari Pisau (Knife Dance). Among young people, forming art groups encourages this dancing and singing. Other than that, they are also active in developing pencak silat (an Indonesian martial art).
The Rawas people embrace Sunni Islam. They obediently perform the religious fast and implement merry celebrations on Muslim holidays. Their traditional weddings and marriages agree with the teachings of Islam. They carry out circumcision ceremonies for 6 to 7 year old boys. The Rawas also hold religious meals for remembering the deceased 7 days, 40 days, and 1000 days after a death. They often use a carved object with an Islamic motif or design as a charm.
Semendo Tribe 119.000 Islam
The Semendo people are also often called Semende or Jeme Semendo. They form an indigenous community of South Sumatera Province, living in Semendo District of Muara Enim Regency. Semendo District consists of 31 villages with an area of 900 square kilometers. Its capital is Pulau Panggung. Their daily language is Semendo. Generally, words end with the letter ‘e’.The Semendo people trace their history to the Banten people group, some of whom left the island of Jawa a few centuries ago to seek a new home and settled on the island of Sumatera. The descendants of the Banten in this area became the Semendo people. The Semendo are a subgroup of the Pasemah cluster, which includes the Lematang, Lintang, and Lembak. Geographically, the Semendo people are divided into two groups: the Semendo Darat group and the Semendo Lembak group. The Semendo Darat people reside in Muara Enim Regency, and the Semendo Lembak people live in Ogan Komering Ulu Regency.
The majority of the Semendo are traditional farmers. Their farmland lies approximately 900 meters above sea level, and the soil is fairly fertile. There are two main crops on which they depend, rice and Robusta coffee, which has a production that reaches 300 tons per year. The Semendo area is one of the major rice producing areas for South Sumatera. There are approximately 5,000 productive rice fields being planted and harvested yearly.The customs and culture of this area are greatly influenced by the touch of Islam. From rebana (tambourine) music to popular regional songs to folk dances, all are strongly influenced by Melayu (Malay) Islamic culture. One custom still strongly held being passed down through Semendo generations, is the Tunggu Tubang custom. This custom arranges the inheritance rights within the family. The oldest female child is the primary heir. The inheritance is typically a rice field and a house that is to be passed down through the generations. This custom has given rise to a strong motivation among the Semendo men to seek their fortunes far from home.
Through many generations, the Semendo people have been Muslims. The teaching of Islam is firmly and deeply implanted in the society. This can be seen in how faithfully some of the people routinely and regularly carry out the laws of Islam in accordance with the five “pillars” of Islam. Houses of worship, large and small, can be seen everywhere. There are also many pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in the area. These schools have the specific purpose of teaching Semendo sons and daughters to spread the Islamic faith in the area.

Bangka Belitung Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

Banka-Billiton, Tribes

Banka Tribe 340.000 Islam
Bangka Island. Dialects: Urban (Jakarta), North, Central, South, Lom (Belom, Mapor).

The Bangka people live on Bangka Island in the South China Sea to the east of Sumatera, specifically in Bangka Regency and Pangkal Pinang Municipality in Bangka-Belitung Province. Indonesians often visit this island because it has beautiful beaches and is easy to reach from the capital of South Sumatera (Palembang). 60% of the inhabitants of Bangka Island are Melayu (Malay) and about 25% are descendants of Chinese, who migrated to the island. The Bangka language is a branch of the Melayu language cluster.
Bangka Island is known for its large tin mining industry, which was developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. Bangka Island was influenced by the Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. This is seen in the archaeological remains of various ancient inscriptions, which have been found there. For example, the “Kota Kapur Plaque” has been found, which dates back to 686 A.D. This island is also famous for its pepper plantations, which reached their height of prosperity in 1987. However, in the 1990′s the price of pepper declined drastically and was followed by a drop in the price of tin, which seriously impacted the Bangka.The Bangka people make their living in a variety of ways. Many of the island’s inhabitants are laborers in the tin mines. In addition, many are also farmers, fishermen, and boat builders. They produce many crafts, such as cane work, plaited mats, porcelain, ceramics, and carvings from tin. Many people who live around the cities have become traders and merchants; particularly those of Chinese descent. The lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). According to tradition, after marriage, the couple does not live near either set of parents. As a result, there are many mixed marriages between the Bangka and other ethnic groups that have come to the area. This outside influence can be seen in their wedding customs. The engagement is initiated by the man’s family giving gifts to the bride. The engagement ceremony is typically done in a berbalas pantun (traditional singing dialogue). Islamic influence is also shown in the public wedding procession which is accompanied by tambourines and drums. Another regional art form is called the Sepintu Segudan. This Bangka drama tells the story of the community’s attitude of gotong royong (mutual assistance).
The majority of the people on Bangka Island are Muslims, particularly those of Melayu descent, whereas those who are of Chinese descent follow Buddhist or Confucius beliefs. The ethnic Bangka people mix Islam and traditional animistic beliefs that still flourish among the community.

Loncong 420 Islam
East coast on both sides of the mouths of the Kampat and Inderagiri rivers, nearby islands, and coasts of Bangka and Belitung islands. Alternate names: Lonchong, Orang Laut, Seka, Sekah.

Riau 6 Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

RIAU 6 Tribes :

Riau, Tribes

Traditional Dress from Indragiri Riau

Traditional Dress from Malayu Bengkalis Riau

Traditional Dress Melayu Siak Riau


Banka Tribe 340.000 Islam
Bangka Island. Dialects: Urban (Jakarta), North, Central, South, Lom (Belom, Mapor).
The Bangka people live on Bangka Island in the South China Sea to the east of Sumatera, specifically in Bangka Regency and Pangkal Pinang Municipality in Bangka-Belitung Province. Indonesians often visit this island because it has beautiful beaches and is easy to reach from the capital of South Sumatera (Palembang). 60% of the inhabitants of Bangka Island are Melayu (Malay) and about 25% are descendants of Chinese, who migrated to the island. The Bangka language is a branch of the Melayu language cluster.
Bangka Island is known for its large tin mining industry, which was developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. Bangka Island was influenced by the Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. This is seen in the archaeological remains of various ancient inscriptions, which have been found there. For example, the “Kota Kapur Plaque” has been found, which dates back to 686 A.D. This island is also famous for its pepper plantations, which reached their height of prosperity in 1987. However, in the 1990′s the price of pepper declined drastically and was followed by a drop in the price of tin, which seriously impacted the Bangka.The Bangka people make their living in a variety of ways. Many of the island’s inhabitants are laborers in the tin mines. In addition, many are also farmers, fishermen, and boat builders. They produce many crafts, such as cane work, plaited mats, porcelain, ceramics, and carvings from tin. Many people who live around the cities have become traders and merchants; particularly those of Chinese descent. The lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). According to tradition, after marriage, the couple does not live near either set of parents. As a result, there are many mixed marriages between the Bangka and other ethnic groups that have come to the area. This outside influence can be seen in their wedding customs. The engagement is initiated by the man’s family giving gifts to the bride. The engagement ceremony is typically done in a berbalas pantun (traditional singing dialogue). Islamic influence is also shown in the public wedding procession which is accompanied by tambourines and drums. Another regional art form is called the Sepintu Segudan. This Bangka drama tells the story of the community’s attitude of gotong royong (mutual assistance).
The majority of the people on Bangka Island are Muslims, particularly those of Melayu descent, whereas those who are of Chinese descent follow Buddhist or Confucius beliefs. The ethnic Bangka people mix Islam and traditional animistic beliefs that still flourish among the community.
Belide Tribe 22.000
The Belide live southwest of Palembang along the Musi River. One of the greatest kingdoms in the region’s history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the banks of the Musi River in South Sumatera over a thousand years ago. The Sriwijaya Kingdom was a major maritime power that controlled the nearby Straits of Malacca, which is a key waterway between Asia and Europe.The region’s historical background is rich and colorful. The Sriwijaya kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China during its era of powerful dynasties, and in 672, the Chinese scholar I Tsing recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen studying Sanskirt in what is now the regional capital of Palembang. However, few relics of this memorable era remain.
The Belide are not nomadic, but they tend to live in the same area their entire lives. The total Belide people group is comprised of about 20 villages. Traditional houses are made of wood with palm leaf roofs. The houses are built on wooden or brick columns above ground level. Their Belide language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.Approximately 60% of Belide men work as rubber tree tappers or laborers in pineapple plantations. Others work as traders or government employees. The Belide communities are typically lead by three men. A political leader is appointed and paid by the government, and a village chief is chosen by the people. The village chief is not paid, but does receive a 10% tax on land sales within the village. However, the third man, the religious leader, apparently has greater influence than the other two.Family conflicts are solved by the head of the family, and a spiritual leader may handle village level problems. Punishment for minor offenses is handled by the citizens of the village, but more serious crimes are referred to the police.Belide youth may choose their own mates with agreement from their family. If there is a member of the family that does not agree, the village chief is asked to decide. If he agrees, the family must allow the wedding to proceed. The groom must pay a bride’s price. The bride then uses this money to purchase their household essentials. Spiritual leaders are consulted to determine the best day for the wedding. It is common for Belide wedding feasts to last two to three days. Belide men may practice polygamy, but while it is permitted, it seldom occurs.
Customs and traditions have been passed down over many generations and have been harmonized with Islamic law. Although the Belide are Muslims, many of them still believe in superstition and evil spirits. For instance, some believe that whistling in a home at night calls forth evil spirits or that walking in circles on a person’s birthday brings bad luck to the person. Many write verses from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) on small pieces of paper and carry them as protection against evil. A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is often called to heal the sick and exorcise evil spirits.
Belitung Tribe 163.000
The Belitung live on the island of Belitung (sometimes called Bilton island) in the province of Bangka-Belitung. This island is located in the South China Sea on the east of Sumatera to the southwest of Bangka Island. The island is mostly lowlands with some hills, such as Tajam Laki and Tajam Bini. In some areas there are small rivers, and some small lakes can be found in old tin quarries on the island. The Belitung people’s term for themselves is Urang Belitong. The Belitung language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. A distinctive feature of their language is that it does not have the letter ‘h’ and they use ‘e’ at the end of the word rather than ‘a’. For example, jauh (far) becomes jao; hujan (rain) becomes ujan; putih (white) becomes pute; and apa becomes ape. Another distinctive feature is that they use terms that come from joining two or more words, such as hendak kemana (where are you going) becomes nakmane.
The islands are considered important for their tin mines. Many earn their livelihood from mining tin and kaolin (a fine white clay). Other occupations include trade, fishing, boat building, iron working, and general office work. Only a small part of the land is suitable for rice cultivation. Planting rice is usually done by cutting and burning an area of the forest. Besides dry rice crops, the people in this area also grow corn, cassava, sweet potato, and banana. Other crops include rubber, pepper, cloves, coconut, sweet potatoes, and bananas. Handicraft industries developed by the Belitung include porcelain ceramics and woven rattan. The traditional Belitung house is built on a raised platform with bark walls and roofs of sago palm leaves. They also have temporary villages used during harvest. These houses are built at the edge of the forest and are usually lived in during the time the people work in the field. After the harvest, the people move back to their main village.The ancestry of the Belitung can be traced through either the line of the father or the mother. A village is formed by a group of families, termed a keleka. The keleka, lead by a traditional chief along with his assistants, has its own rules and accepted boundaries. The religious leader is a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) whose duty is to lead the ceremonies of the community.
The Belitung adhere to Islam which came to the area around the 17th century. In spite of their dedication to Islam, many Belitung people are still influenced by animistic belief in spirits and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits. This can be seen in their ceremonies for working the rice fields (maras taun), fishing (buang jong), and weddings (gawai pengantin). They still believe in magical forces that inhabit sacred objects. Many things are forbidden by taboos.
Duano 19.000 Islam
19,000 (Seidlitz). Population total all countries: 15,500. West Riau archipelago and east coast of Riau, Daratan Province. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular). Alternate names: Duano’, Orang Kuala, Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Laut.
Malay 

sumatra, tribes, riau, suku,malay

Musi Sekayu Tribe 160.000 Islam
The Musi Sekayu people group generally build houses on the banks of the Musi River. Because of this, the Musi Sekayu are often called manusia sungai (river people). The literal meaning of sekayu is “one wood.” The phrase refers to a piece of long fabric that is spread out for people to sit on while eating together. The standard measurement of this long piece of cloth is designated as a musi sekayu. Unlike other people groups in Indonesia, such as the Bugis, Minangkabau or Jawa, the Musi Sekayu seldom move to a faraway place. Their desire to progress and search for their fortune is carried out only as far as the capital city of the province. This place can be reached by car in less than three hours. Their means of livelihood includes agriculture, forestry, labor, fishing, public transportation, construction, and government jobs such as teaching. The Musi Sekayu people living in the city of Palembang occupy a variety of work sectors, beginning with university professors, research specialists, land developers, shipyard workers, and pedicab drivers.
Most families of the Musi Sekayu wish for a male child. They perceive that sons are a guarantee for the country’s future power (bakal negeri) as well as guaranteeing the continuation of their hereditary line (negakke jurai).
Almost all of the Musi Sekayu people embrace the religion of Islam. Every Musi Sekayu village has a mesjid (mosque) or langgar (Muslim prayer house). Some villages have Islamic schools and musholla (small public buildings or rooms for performing religious duties) as teaching and education centers for the Islamic religion. In spite of this, the people also still consult a local dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) for treatment or to have their fortunes told.
Sakai and Talang Mamak Tribe 6.400
The indigenous Sakai people in Riau province, for example, who used to live in lush green jungles, now have to dwell in nearly barren areas in Bengkalis. Another tribe, the Talang Mamak in Indragiri Hilir, Indragiri Hulu and Jambi, are facing similar situations as their forested surroundings, too, have been cut down for oil palm plantations or have been turned into industrial forests. 

sumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam
Despite their nomadic life, to these people, the earth and forests are part of their lives and something they must care for. They know how to manage their lands and forests, a knowledge that is passed down from their ancestors, which has enabled them to coexist harmoniously with nature and maintain their environs for many generations.
The majority of the Talang Mamak tribe, which comprises only 6,400 or so people, are illiterate. Most of them live in the districts of Seberida, Kelayang and Rengat Barat in Indragiri Hilir, and a small number of them live in Surnai, Bangko Tebo and Bukit 30 National Park, bordering Jambi province.
The Talang Mamak are currently languishing: the presence of forest concessionaires has been detrimental to their way of life and rendered it barely sustainable.
The state schools located far from their villages still remain a luxury for the animist tribespeople and, to make matters worse, many of them refuse to go to school, arguing that conventional, modern education would mean a departure from their long-maintained customs and traditions. They fear modern education will change their beliefs. According to tradition, converts are no longer regarded as members of the tribe.
Quite a few have embraced Christianity, but they still practice their indigenous customs, such as worshiping the animist spirits at sacred places. Others have converted to Islam, after which they become known as “Malay people” among the Talang Mamak.

sumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam
The Sakai, Bonai, Talang Mamak and Duano tribes are socio-culturally and ethnically Malay, but have not been exposed to the Hindu, Islamic and European cultures. These people were segregated by the Malays for their “unhygienic” way of life.
Most Talang Mamak people are reluctant to become Muslims, because Islamic teachings, according to them, are contrary to their customs and traditions. For example, pork is traditional fare at wedding parties. They still use bark and leaves for clothing.
Being nomadic, they are able to prevent the government from annexing their ancestral lands and still lead a simple way of life, unaffected by external impurities. Their huts, usually measuring 3 meters by 4 meters, are built on stilts and have walls made of bark. It is in these homes that they cook, receive guests and chat. They cultivate the land around the huts — usually less than 1 square hectare, to grow cassava and sweet potatoes as their staple foods.
“We have planted cassava and sweet potatoes all our lives for many ages,” said Mohammad Supermi, 34, village chief of Durian Cacar.
Apart from farming, some of the tribespeople go to the forest to harvest rattan and honey from trees, which they call sialang. They sell the honey at the market or drink it with traditional herbal medicines.
Now, however, the ancestral forests, on which they depend their lives, are about to disappear, with the forests, the Talang Mamak way of life.

Jambi 5 Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

Jambi 5 Tribes

Jambi,  Tribes

Batin Tribe 76.000 Islam
The Batin people inhabit a portion of the interior of the Jambi province. Their rumah panggung (stilt-house), rural communities and small district towns of Bangko, Tabir, Jangkat, Sungai Manau, Muara Bungo, and Rantau Pandan are located in the Sarolangun Bangko and Bungo Tebo regencies. This area borders one of the most treacherous sections of the rugged Bukit Barisan (Marching Hills) mountain range. Temperatures are cool in the western hills, but in the valleys to the east,they are humid and hot. Three rivers provide inter-village concourse: Batang Merangin, Batang Bungo, and Batang Masumai. Besides the Batin, this area is inhabited by the the Kubu, Jambi, and Kerinci. According to their folklore, the ancestors of the Batin were Kerinci people that moved from the foot of Mount Kerinci. The Batin language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster, and it is very similar to the Jambi language.
The Batin like to move from place to place, and they value community cooperation (gotong royong). This cooperative attitude is often seen in relationships between two villages, as typically the relationship between the village heads is very good. The main sources of livelihood for the Batin include farming, plantation work, gathering forest products, panning for gold, and fishing. Their fields are called umo talang, and they plant rice, rubber, coffee, and other crops.The Batin culture is apparently a blend of elements from the Minangkabau and Jambi cultures. Like the Minangkabau, the kinship system of the Batin is from the mother’s side (matrilineal). But the men still have a role as the head of the household. In addition to the public school system, there are also special Islamic religious schools (madrasah). Each extended family (piak) is lead by an elder (ninik mamak). The various ninik mamak in a village (dusun) pick a leader who is titled Rio. In each family the preparation for building a new house begins at the birth of a girl. This house is usually built as a 9×12 meter structure complete with storage for the harvest and a place for family heirlooms. Houses are often adorned with carvings of plants and animals. Traditional houses like this are usually referred to by the term Kajang Lako.
Almost all of the Batin embrace Islam. Even though that is true, there is still belief in traditional animism, magical powers, and idols. The area of Negeri Serampas, for example, is known for having residents who possess magical powers. Here are found the sacred graves of two legendary figures named Si Mata Empat (Four Eyes) and Si Pahit Lidah (Bitter Tongue). It is believed these two legendary women passed on their magical or supernatural character to the Batin people.
Kerinci Tribe 383.000 Islam


Originally from the eastern coast of Sumatera, the Kerinci fled from local Muslim Sultanates in an ancient war and moved into their existing homeland high in the Bukit Barisan Mountains near Mount Kerinci in West Sumatera and Lake Kerinci in Jambi. Although the highlands present challenges for living, intensive agriculture coupled with fishing has been sufficient to sustain sizeable indigenous populations. The Kerinci have been able to resist assimilation with the stronger lowland peoples. They have managed to not only survive but to grow enriched by what they have borrowed from the coastal cultures, but in each case absorbing and reshaping according to their indigenous ethos without losing their own ethnic identity. Today, their isolation is being broken by government-sponsored mass relocations of Jawa, Sunda, and Bali people for plantation projects on their rich soil. In addition, a world-class national park is being developed by the World Wildlife Fund to preserve the rain forest, flora, and fauna. This will draw even more outsiders into this remote area.
Most of the Kerinci are farmers. Other than their main crop of rice (grown in both irrigated and unirrigated fields), they also grow potatoes, vegetables, and tobacco. Those who live around the base of the mountains are nomadic farmers. These nomadic farmers grow coffee, cinnamon, and cloves. The primary crops harvested from the jungle are resin and rattan. Most of the people living near Lake Kerinci and some other small lakes are fishermen. Their village homes are built very close together. A village is called a dusun and is inhabited by one clan that has descended from one common female ancestor. In a dusun there are always several long-houses, which are built side by side along the road. The nuclear family is called a tumbi. Once a man marries, he moves out of his family’s home and moves in with his new wife’s family. Normally, if a daughter is married, she is given a new small house attached to the house of her parents. In turn, her daughters will be given houses attached to her house. A mother’s clan is called the kelbu. This kelbu is considered the most important family unit among the Kerinci people. Even though the Kerinci people are matrilineal, the nuclear family is led by the husband, not the wife’s brother (as is common to other matrilineal groups, including the Minang). The mother’s brother avoids involvement in clan issues and only gets involved in problems with his sister’s immediate family. Inheritance is given to the daughters in the family.
Islam is the majority religion of the Kerinci, but they still hold to animism, especially as it is exhibited by their use of traditional healers and magic to bless their crops. Moreover, in their everyday life they often refer to tataman (meeting ghosts), tatampo (being hit by ghosts), and tapijek anaok antau (being stepped on by ghosts).
Kubu Tribe 13.000 Animism

sumatra, tribes, bengkulu, jambi, kubu, suku

Spread across Jambi, Riau and south Sumatra, eastern swamp region. Alternate names: Anak Dalam, Orang Rimba, Orang Hutan. Dialects: Lalang, Bajat, Ulu Lako, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Dawas, Supat, Jambi, Ridan, Nomadic Kubu. Related to Lubu [lcf].

 

The Kubu live on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. They are believed to be the descendants of a pygmy race of wandering Negrito people. The first Kubu settlement was located on the Lalan River. Today, they live primarily in the Jambi province.


Legend says that the coast of Sumatra was regularly visited by pirates and their families. It once happened that one of the pirates committed incest with his sister, causing her to become pregnant. Condemned by the pirates, the pair were abandoned in the coastal brush of Sumatra. The Kubu are the descendants of this couple.


The name “Kubu” comes from the word Ngumbu which means “elusive.” This belittling name was given to them to suggest that they are a primitive people because they eat unclean foods, do not live in houses, and do not like to bathe. The Kubu, however, prefer to call themselves the Orang Darat, which means “land dweller” or “river dweller.”
The Kubu are forest dwellers found primarily in swampy areas near various rivers. Most are involved in the farming of yams, maize, rice, and sugar cane. Since the Kubu are not hard workers, their fields are poorly kept. Jungle produce and small game provide much of the food. Their basic diet consists of wild pigs, fish, monkeys, bananas, and yams.
The Kubu are found most frequently in settled villages called sirups. Their houses are built on platforms without any walls, and are made with bamboo and leaves. Usually three to five houses form a village. An older person serves as chief, but has no real authority.
Every Kubu has a name; but this name is only known by members of the same sirup. People of other villages are simply referred to as “people of this or that little river.” The villagers of one settlement rarely come into contact with those of another, since there are no feasts, “coming of age” ceremonies, or other community gatherings.
The little contact they do have with their Malay neighbors has traditionally been through silent trade. The Kubu would take their goods to a place where Malay traders could look at them. The traders would then place the goods that they were willing to exchange nearby, then withdraw to a safe distance. If the deal was satisfactory, the Kubu would take what was offered and vanish back into the brush.
Along with the tradition and simplicity of their material culture, the Kubu are also lacking in social and religious development. Musical instruments of any kind and dancing are unknown to them.
Although the Kuba are considered to be Muslim, they still practice various animistic rituals, such as curing ceremonies. (Animism is the belief that inanimate objects have spirits.) Their witchdoctors, called shamans, make offerings to the spirits for them.

Melayu Jambi Tribe 976.000
Jambi Province. Alternate names: Djambi, Batin. Dialects: Downstream Jambi Malay, Upstream Jambi Malay.
The Jambi people (also known as the Melayu Jambi – i.e. Jambi Malay) primarily live in four of the six districts that comprise the Jambi Province of central Sumatera. These districts are Tanjungjabung, Batanghari, Bungo-Tebo, and the capital city of Jambi. The Jambi language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. Their culture is greatly influenced by the Minangkabau culture.Most of the area the Jambi inhabit is a lowland basin of dense jungles, peat bogs, swamps, and rivers–all drained by the mighty Batang Hari River (655 km. long) and its tributaries. The rivers are important to them not only as a means of transportation but as a source of fish. They are adept swimmers and fishermen. They use eight types of traditional fishing tackle, as well as the modern pukat (fishnet). They are great eaters of ikan (fish) and complain that a meal is incomplete without its distinctive flavor.
Most of the Jambi make their living by fishing. For catching fish they use different types of traps ranging from the traditional to the modern. Some of the types of fish they catch are: ringau, kelemak, toman, pati, baung, juaro, bujuk, seluang, gabus, betok, and serapil. In addition to fishing, farming and plantation work are important occupations for the Jambi people.The Jambi are proud of their status as descendants of an ancient Melayu kingdom that dates back to the 7th century. This pride, in fact, has threatened their economic development due to their unwillingness to accept modernization. This is evident as transmigrants from other parts of Indonesia are better off economically than most of the Jambi themselves. Travel between neighboring rural villages is more often done by river than by land. This is due to the Jambi mainly living in thick jungle areas with wide marshes, making land travel very difficult. The Jambi have many different kinds of ceremonies and rituals, which they celebrate at special occasions. These would include: birth of a child, naming a child, first hair cut, ear piercing for two-year old girls, and circumcision for sons between six and ten years old. When the children come of age, (15 year old girls and 17 year old boys), there is a ceremony to file their teeth as a symbol of their adulthood.
Almost all of the Jambi are Muslims. All villages have a mesjid (mosque) or langar (prayer house) with many having a madrasah (Islamic school). For the Jambi, all principles and guidelines governing human life have been passed down from their ancestors, who in turn received them from the official Islamic written sources of revealed truth, the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) and the Hadith (guidelines for faith and practice derived from the Prophet Muhammad’s life). They also believe that religious leaders, dwarfs, and dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) possess supernatural powers.
Penghulu Tribe 27.000 Islam
The Penghulu tribe is one of the ethnic groups, which is regarded as the “original inhabitants” of the Jambi province on the Indonesian island of Sumatera. They primarily live in the districts of Sungai Manau, Batang Asai, and Ulu Tabir in the regency of Sarolangun Bangko in the province of Jambi. Some also live in Bungo Tebo Regency. This group reportedly migrated from West Sumatera to Jambi in the 15th century to look for gold. Based on their physical characteristics, it is believed they are the descendants of the “Older Malay” race. They are usually shorter than the vast majority of the other people groups living in the area who are from the “Younger Malay” lineage. In accordance with the area of their origin, their language is a mixture of the Minangkabau and Jambi languages.
The main occupation of the Penghulu is cultivating irrigated and unirrigated rice fields. Besides planting rice, they also grow rubber, cinnamon, and coffee. Another means of livelihood is gathering forest products, such as wood and rattan.Some Penghulu people make their living by mining gold using their traditional methods. The main gold mining area is centered on the areas of Sungai Manau and Batang Asai. Handicrafts that are found in this area are mainly woven products, such as woven balls, mats, baskets, bowls, and winnowing baskets. Besides this, they also do metal work making knives, machetes, adzes, and pickaxes.An important custom for the Penghulu people is called, menyerayo (or parian), and refers to mutual assistance in planting, cultivating, and harvesting their fields. Usually, this kind of activity involves almost everyone in the village.The Penghulu usually build their villages with the homes closely grouped together and located along the road or the riverbank. Several villages form a community, which is called a marga. A marga is led by a pasirah. The nuclear family is called a kalbu. A number of kalbu form a family clan, which is led by a Tua Tengganai. A Tua Tengganai has the responsibility of supervising the members of his clan and is responsible for resolving problems that arise among them. Penghulu society is led by a council which is comprised of one respected leader (ninik mamak) from each extended family.
In general the Penghulu are Muslims. Despite this, traditional animistic beliefs are still strong in daily life. They still believe in the power of unseen spirits that inhabit sacred places. Some of the Penghulu still give offerings to improve relationships with the spirits. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are often sought for many purposes, including healing sicknesses and exorcising evil spirits.

 

Bengkulu – 8 Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

The info for the Tribes is collected from : http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

Thanks for this.

BENGKULU 8 Tribes :

Bengkulu,  Tribes

Bengkulu Tribe 65.000 Islam
The Bengkulu people live in the city of Bengkulu, the capital of the province of Bengkulu in the southwestern portion of the island of Sumatera. More of the Bengkulu people live in the city than in villages. The Bengkulu people are descended from the union of multiple peoples who have migrated to the area, including the Melayu (Malay), Minangkabau, Aceh, Bugis, Banten and Jawa (Java) peoples.

sumatra, tribes, bengkulu, , sukuThe Bengkulu language is a branch of the Melayu language cluster. Currently, newcomers from other Indonesian people groups live among them, such as the Minangkabau, Bugis and Jawa. Historically, they identified themselves as orang Bangkahulu since the term testifies to a great military victory in which they successfully expelled a superior military force of Aceh invaders.

The Bengkulu people’s income is based primarily on fishing. They also work as shopkeepers, ship builders, mechanics, building contractors, and government employees as well as nearly every other urban profession.The Bengkulu lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). The most important family unit is the extended family (rumah tangga sebubungan). This unit consists of the parents and all of their children’s families. Brothers are called meghanai and sisters are called kelewai. Members of the extended family are responsible for the activities of the family, which makes them sepangka (bound together). Those bound by marriage relationships are tiang garang.Society is led by a council which is comprised of one respected leader (ninik mamak) from each extended family. Another influential group is called the menengkalak, which is made up of the clan’s intellectuals, wealthy individuals and high-ranking government officials. If there is conflict, they try to resolve it by seeking consensus through discussion. Typically, they live in painted wooden houses raised on stilts that have distinctive Bengkulu ornamentation. The staircase is in the front, and the vacant space under the house is usually enclosed. Their arts also are very similar to those found among other Melayu. For instance, they perform various Melayu art forms, such as Dendang Melayu singing, Randai dance, Tari Payung (Umbrella Dance), Tari Lilin (Candle Dance), Tari Piring (Plate Dance), and Tari Saputangan (Handkerchief Dance).
The majority of the Bengkulu people are Muslims. However, they still hold certain traditional ceremonies according to their ancient beliefs. These animistic ceremonies are focused on seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling good and bad spirits. They have a traditional harvest festival called Tabot, which is held on the 1st through the 10th of Muharam (Islamic month) every year. This festival is held to honor the Sea Dragon so that their fisherman will not be harmed while at sea.

Col  145.000 Islam
Interior south Sumatra, Lubuklinggau area and east of Bengkulu; Muaraklingi area, south, east, and north. Alternate names: Cul, Sindang. Dialects: Lembak Delapan, Sindang Kelingi, Beliti; Lubuk Linggau.
Kaur Tribe 60.000 Islam
The Kaur people are one of the original peoples of Bengkulu Province. They originated in Bintu
han in the South Kaur District of South Bengkulu, but today, many live in the North Kaur District. Their district capital is the city of Bintuhan, through which the trans-Sumatera highway passes. They have a language of their own, classified as being part of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. Kaur villages are mostly grouped along the banks of small rivers found in this area. The Kaur territory lies adjacent to that of the Serawai and Pasemah peoples. Geographically, the Kaur can be differentiated as two subgroups. Those living in the South Kaur District are usually called Bintuhan, and their dialect is greatly influenced by the Lampung people cluster. Those residing in the North Kaur District are influenced by the Pasemah people.
The main Kaur livelihood is rice cultivation. This area is also known for cloves and pepper production. Some of their side enterprises include livestock raising, fishing, and trading. The men work the fields while the women manage the households. Other major crops include peanuts, coffee, coconut, resin, rubber, rattan, sweet potatoes, and various types of fruit-especially banana, mango, pineapple, and many people’s favorite, durian. The Kaur live in tin-roofed homes with electricity is available. One distinction is that all the houses are painted blue and white. Traditional kitchen fires are usually used for cooking, and wells are located in the backyards. Also, chickens, ducks, and cattle typically roam freely. Gotong royong is a strong societal custom of cooperation and mutual help practiced by most Kaur. These values are evident in the assistance they offer each other during harvests.The Kaur are not permitted to marry someone from their own clan but may marry a Kaur person from another village. Marriages can take place only after the Perayaan Panen Padi (Rice Harvest Celebration). Generally, ages at the time of marriage are 20 years for the men and 15 or 16 years for the women. If the groom wishes his bride to come live with his family, he must pay the bride’s family a dowry. If the groom has to live with his bride’s family, her family is obligated to give only a commemorative gift to the groom’s family.The older Kaur generation has an average of 13 children per family, but with a current government-sponsored family-planning program, younger families typically have only three children on average.
The Kaur people have been of Sunni Syafi’i Muslims since the 17th century. Like other Melayu, the key intersection of their social and spiritual life is the sedekah, a communal meal held as a religious ritual to celebrate a birth, give thanks for a crop, request rainfall, commemorate a death, and ward off evil spirits. In every village there are at least one or two mosques. Generally, the children attend Islamic schools (madrasah).
Lembak Tribe 174.000
The Lembak People live in the boundary area of the provinces of Bengkulu and South Sumatera. In Bengkulu they are located in the regencies of Rejang Lebong and North Bengkulu as well as in the city Bengkulu. In Bengkulu Province they call themselves “Sindang Kelingi” or “Lembak Sindang Merdeka” (meaning “Free”). The Lembak may have originated from the valley of the Musi-Rawas River in South Sumatera to the east of the city of Lubuklinggau. This area is currently occupied by the Lakitan people. The Lembak moved in the 16th century to secure freedom from their Palembang rulers. Outsiders often call them the Bulang (turban) people. The Lembak language is part of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. The Lembak people have an indigenous script, called Surat Ulu (Letter of Beginning), which is similar to Rejang and Serawai scripts.
The Lembak people’s main livelihood is cultivating rice in irrigated and unirrigated fields. Quite a few men work as rubber tappers on the many rubber plantations in the area. Others run small-scale brick-making factories in rural areas. The women help in the fields and manage the households.The Lembak family system is patriarchal and the lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). There are three post-marriage patterns for newlyweds. The first is to set up a new, separate household. The second is the bejojoh custom of living with the groom’s relatives. The third is the semendo custom of living with the bride’s relatives.Lembak homes are raised on stilts and have large rooms. Most homes have a stairway on the side. They typically have more furnishings than the homes of the neighboring Lintang and Rawas peoples. Electricity is available throughout the area, but their cooking fuel is kerosene or wood. The Lembak societal system resembles those of the Rejang and Serawai peoples. Villages join together to form a clan, which is lead by a pasirah (village chief). An official (mangku) and his deputy (penggawa) supervise kepemangkuan (clan districts). They are supported by religious experts, such as imam (Muslim prayer & ceremonial priest) and khatib (mosque preacher).Elements of the Lembak culture include: (among others) the Tari Piring (Plate Dance) and the Tari Pisau (Knife Dance). In addition, there is Dangdut music, which often combines a strong beat with Arabic rhythms and Islamic teachings. The young people are trained in singing, dancing, and Indonesian martial arts.
Most Lembak people today embrace Islam, although a large part of the community still adheres to animistic beliefs. Most believe in the power of unseen spirits inhabiting sacred places. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are often sought for many purposes, including healing the sick and exorcising evil spirits.
Muko muko Tribe 65.000
The Muko-Muko people (also known as Muke-Muke) originate from the districts of North and South Muko-Muko, in the regency of North Bengkulu in southern Sumatera. Their area is located close to the southern border of West Sumatera, just west of Jambi province with the Indian Ocean to the south. Parts of the area are swampland or a brackish mix of fresh and salt water. There are many rivers, the largest of which is the Muko-Muko River. Currently, the Muko-Muko are not as isolated because the government has built a road from Bengkulu to Muko-Muko Rejang. In everyday communication, the Muko-Muko use their own language, which is a mixture of Melayu (Malay) with the Minang and Rejang languages.
Most Muko-Muko people are farmers, fishermen, hunters, day laborers, traders and rattan handicraft makers. Their most distinctive handicraft is crafted flint. In addition, they have community farms, which produce rubber, cloves and coconut oil. Kinship is matrilineal, which means descent and property are passed down to the daughters in the family. This is due to the influence of the neighboring Minangkabau people. The Muko-Muko still use their traditional leadership system. Their villages are governed by a pasirah (village chief) and his assistants. The role of the pasirah is to safeguard stability and harmony according to their cultural customs, as well as to collect taxes and community fees. These community fees can be in the form of padi katulungan, which means working three days per year for the village chief or paying commensurate fees. Other fees are charged for marriage certificates, divorce certificates, peace treaties and paying for permission to court a young woman. The Muko-Muko use the term kaum for a group of families. The kaum is led by the chief (Kepala Kaum Agung) and his assistants (Kepala Kaum Kecil). There are five clans that are still growing: the Delapan clan from the center of their tribal area; the Berenam clan; the Empat Belas (“Seven Ancestors”) clan; the Lima Suku clan; and the Gersik Tunggul clan. The most famous aspect of the Muko-Muko culture is the Gandai Dance. This dance is a characteristic Melayu dance that has been influenced by Minangkabau dance styles. When they attend a cultural celebration, the men wear traditional clothes called teluk belanga, which is a black suit with a turban. The women wear a traditional blouse called betabur with a songket (gold-threaded cloth) sarong (wrap-around skirt).
Islam is the Muko-Muko’s majority religion, but there is a strong animistic influence in their faith and practice. These animistic beliefs are focused on seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling good and bad spirits. They are afraid of the evil spirits of mothers who die in childbirth. They also venerate large trees, stones, the sources of rivers, and ancestral tombs.
Pekal Tribe 43.000
The Pekal people live along the southwest-central shores and mountain slopes of the island of Sumatera, the fifth largest island in the world. They inhabit the Southern Muko-Muko District of the North Bengkulu region, specifically the Teramang River Basin. This region fringes the Indian Ocean on its southwest border while the Bukit Barisan Mountain range forms the northeastern border. The Pekal people are often called the Ketahun because some of them live in the district of Ketahun. The western link of the trans-Sumateran highway that connects Bengkulu to Padang now crosses the Pekal region in the area of Ipuh. The Pekal language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. It is the everyday language used by the Pekal people. The current form of the language has evolved from the original Melayu language with additional influence from the Minangkabau and Indonesian languages.
The majority of the Pekal work as farmers and plantation workers during the rainy season but shift to fishing in the dry season. They use traditional, home-made devices and tools in their work. They raise coffee, rice, chocolate, tobacco, tapioca, spices, peanuts and various vegetables. Others work as teachers, government officers, soldiers, construction workers, basket weavers, brick makers and traders. The women also work in the rice fields and/or process dried fish and shrimp in special traditional woven containers. The traditional market is a cultural event involving many people. Sellers from the outside only come to trade once a week.The traditional Pekal houses are long and narrow and built on stilts. They have arranged their village communities into several clans, which are found all over the South Muko-Muko District. If a newcomer arrives who wants to live among the Pekal people, he will first be asked to cook a meal for the clan among whom he lives as well as several others living nearby. He will then formally be considered a part of their family and will be treated like all other Pekal without distinction for ethnicity, religion, education, or economic status. In the Pekal culture no person has rights that are greater than anyone else. Of course, the newcomer must fulfill customary and traditional obligations by participating in his/her duties as a Pekal family member.
Almost all the Pekal profess Islam. However, they also use traditional incantations to bring rain, exorcise evil spirits and clean the village from immorality. They have a tradition of giving social and material help to each other in the community. They feel compelled to help others because of their own strong feeling of indebtedness. Even though their income is usually barely sufficient, they willingly give help to people in need, victims of natural disasters, and financial support for the building of mosques.
Rejang Tribe 737.000

sumatra, tribes, bengkulu, rejang, suku

The Rejang people primarily live in the province of Bengkulu, specifically in the Rejang Lebong Regency and a large portion of the North Bengkulu Regency. Most of the Rejang live on the cool mountain slopes of the Bukit Barisan mountain range. This area is still covered in thick jungle. The Rafflesia Flower (the world’s largest flower) as well as beautiful orchids grow wild throughout this area.The Rejang have their own language, Rejang, with four dialects: Kapahyang (Rejang Ho), Selupuh (Rejang Musai), Rejang Lebong and Rejang Pesisir.
The main source of income for the Rejang is farming. Other means of income include raising livestock, logging, fishing, and working on rubber plantations. Some work in food processing plants or other factories. Others use traditional methods for mining coal, gold, silver, tin, zinc, platinum and lava. They live in stilt houses about 1.5-2 meters off the ground which have intricately carved horizontal beams, and ornamental colored panels decorating the outside. Rejang homes are made of wood with zinc roofs and usually have 3-4 rooms including a kitchen in the back. According to their custom, children are not allowed to live at home after they are married, even if their homes have plenty of rooms. The father is the head of the home and is responsible for his wife and children. His wife and children must help provide for family needs. In principle, it is forbidden for Rejang men to have more than one wife (even though they are Muslims).The Rejang village is called a marga. Each village is considered an administrative area, which is controlled by a traditional chief (ginde) who is sometimes helped by an assistant (penggao).

sumatra, tribes, bengkulu, rejang, suku

According to Rejang custom, local government officials are also considered to be traditional leaders. In several areas, these leaders are called raja penghulu. However, another leader who is considered of even greater influence than these is the eldest man in the village. He is called the tua dusun or tuai kutai, and his role is defined as the mediator in village affairs as well as the oldest ceremonial leader.
The majority of the Rejang profess Islam. However, animism is an integral part of their daily life and beliefs. For example, a spirit called masumai is believed to be able to take the form of either tiger or a man and is the most frightening of all creatures for the Rejang.They believe strongly in the unseen world and a wide variety of different spirits with names such as semat, sebei sebeken, orang bunian, and roh padi (spirit of the rice). They use magic for a great range of purposes: to harm enemies who are far away, to make ritual oaths in secret places (including grave yards), and to practice divination at holy shrines.

Serawai Tribe 316.000
The Serawai people are a Melayu (Malay) people group that resides mainly in the following districts in the South Bengkulu Regency: Seluma, Pino, Talo, and Manna. Some Serawai people also live in the provincial capital, Bengkulu, and other cities in the province. They are among the poorest indigenous groups of interior Sumatera. To change their culture and adapt to modern life is difficult for them.Usually, Serawai people also call themselves Orang Selatan (People of the South), even though there are also Kaur and Pasemah people in this southern section of the province. The name Serawai comes from the word jawai meaning “fishing,” so that their name means “one who fishes” or “an angler.”The Serawai people live in separated villages and use the Serawai language, which consists of the Talo and Manna dialects.
The rural Serawai people live in “platform homes” raised on stilts. The space below the house is used for storage or for keeping domesticated animals. Homes are wooden, with roofs of palm thatch (with leaves or inner-bark). The villages are generally compact groups of homes situated along the roadside or riverbanks. On the upper front of the houses there are often sun-shaped drawings symbolizing the light of God. By custom, a Serawai home may not be directly across from the house of a sibling. The ancestral lines are drawn from both sides of the family. Determining a couple’s residence after marriage depends on the formal agreement (kulo) between the families of the couple. The majority of Serawai people live as rice farmers. To irrigate the rice fields, they depend on rainfall or a nearby river. Other crops grown include coffee, cloves, pepper, sugar palm, coconut, rattan, rubber trees, and gardens for fruits and vegetables. In recent times, many have migrated north to find larger fields with better irrigation. When crop failure occurs, they try farming in a different area of the province. Serawai villages that raise fish have recently experienced rapid growth. Many Serawai people also work as traders, civil servants, teachers, members of the military, construction workers, and day laborers.
Generally speaking, the Serawai people are Muslims, but their everyday life is influenced by old beliefs. They fear ma’sumai, a ferocious tiger that can assume human form, first attracting and then slaying its victims. They also perform ceremonies related to their agrarian lifestyle. Before planting, the seed is washed in the mendundang ceremony, and the newly harvested rice stalks are bound together during the nuruni ceremony. These are performed to show that the rice plants are properly respected, so that the roh (spirit) of the rice plants will not leave their fields, thus preventing future prosperous harvests. At times, the farmers offer a goat at the ancient grave sites/shrines.
 

 

 

North Sumatera 9Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

The info for the Tribes is collected from : http://www.indonesiatraveling.com

Thanks for this.

Sumatera Tribes – North Sumatera 9 Tribes

N-Sumatra, Tribes

Ulos Batak :


Batak Angkola 1.013.000  islam
North central, Sipirok area. Alternate names: Anakola, Angkola. Dialects: Similar to Mandailing Batak [btm], but distinct sociolinguistically.
Batak c1.667.000 Christian
Northern, southwest of Lake Toba around Sidikalang. Alternate names: Dairi, Pakpak, Pakpak Dairi.
Batak Karo  611.000 Christian 


Central and north, west and northwest of Lake Toba. Alternate names: Karo Batak. Dialects: Singkil. 

sumatra, tribes, North, batak, batak karo, suku

Batak Mandailing Tribe 477.000
The Mandailing and the Angkola are two closely related Batak people groups who live in the South Tapanuli Regency of North Sumatera Province. Although they sometimes seem to be one group, they are differentiated both regionally (since the Angkola live to the north of the Mandailing) and religiously, because the Mandailing are proud to have almost no Christians among their group while the Angkola group is 3-5% Christian. The Mandailing people consider themselves more polite than other Batak groups. Like most other Bataks, the Mandailing people group is very proud of their culture. One of the most significant characteristics of Batak culture is dalihan na tolu (3 Hearths), which is a carefully established stratified relationship system between three kinship groups.Ancestry and family names are important to the Batak peoples. The ability to trace their family ancestry has great meaning to the Mandailing people. Most of them are able to trace their ancestry back for 20 generations – some even further back. Because of this, if a Mandailing couple does not have any children, it is regarded as a disgrace by the community. 

sumatra, tribes, North, batak, batak mandailing, suku
Most Mandailing people live by working the rice fields. If one were to leave home, a Mandailing would tend to find land and a house to live in as is expressed in the proverb “halului anak halului tana” (look for a child and look for land). Children and land are viewed as a part of one’s self-worth (sahala hasangapon) that contributes to receiving status and respect. If someone succeeds in settling in a different area, he is thought of very highly.The Mandailing live in a village called a huta. Traditionally, the huta keeps control of the land and only gives permission to members of the village to work the land. Members are allowed to work the land as if it were their own, but they are not allowed to sell the land without the permission of the village. This permission can be obtained through a ceremonial discussion with the village residents.
Almost all of the Mandailing have been Muslims ever since Minang Muslims forcibly introduced Islam. Many of their traditional activities have been adapted to Islam. The Batak people have three key ideas about the body and soul. First, tondi is the soul of a person. Tondi can be separated from the body for a time if a stronger and greater being, called sombaon, takes it captive. If this happens, a special ceremony is performed to return the tondi to the body of its owner. Second, sahala is the quality and amount of spiritual power that a person owns. Third, begu is the soul belonging to the dead. They live in a “reverse” world; what people do during the day, the begu do at night.

Batak Simalungan 1.344.000   Christian
North, northeast of Lake Toba. Alternate names: Simelungan, Timur.
Batak Toba 2.035.000   Christian
Samosir Island and east, south, and west of Toba Lake. Alternate names: Batta, Toba Batak. Dialects: Similar to Angkola Batak [akb].

Batak alphabet
Origin
The Batak alphabet, or surat batak, is descended ultimately from the from Brahmi script of ancient India by way of the Pallava and Old Kawi scripts.

Notable features
Batak is a syllabic alphabet – each consonant (aksara) has an inherent vowel. Other vowels or the absence of vowels can be indicated using diacritics which appear above, below or after the consonant letter.
Batak is traditionally written from bottom to top in vertical columns running from left to right on strips of bamboo held together with string.
Used to write:
The Batak languages of northern Sumatra – Karo Batak, Toba Batak, Dairi Batak, Simalungun/Timur, Angkola and Mandailing Batak, and occasionally Malay. In most Batak communities, only the datu (priests) are able to read and write the Batak alphabet and they use it mainly for calendars and magical texts.

There are slight variations in the letters and vowel diacritics used to write each language.

Karo Batak syllabic alphabet
Karo Batak is an Austronesian language with about 600,000 speaks in the central and northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Vowel diacritics with ka

Toba Batak syllabic alphabet
Dairi Batak, which is also known as Batak Toba and Batta, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 2 million people in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Vowel diacritics with ka

Simalungun/Timur syllabic alphabet
Simalungun, which is also known as Timur and Simelungan, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 800,000 people in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Mandaling Batak syllabic alphabet
Mandaling Batak or Batta is an Austronesian language with about 400,000 speakers in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

Vowel diacritics with ka

__________________

 

 

Nias 740.000 Christian 65% 

sumatra, tribes, North, nias, suku

Nias Stone Jump

Off west coast of Sumatra, Nias and Batu Islands. Alternate names: Batu. Dialects: Northern Nias, Southern Nias, Batu.
Malay Deli Tribe 2.075.000 Islam
The Deli people (Deli Melayu) of North Sumatera live in the precincts of its capital city, Medan, as well as in the regencies of Asahan, Deli Serdang, Labuhan Ratu, and Langkat. Their heaviest concentrations are in twenty-four district towns and cities which have emerged on a line running from Pangkalansusu on the northwest to Labuhanbilik on the southeast, all facing eastward across the Malacca Straits toward Malaysia. Yet as many live along the rural streams and rivers as do in urban areas. 

sumatra, tribes, North, deli, suku
Deli literature has been affected by the teachings of Buddhism (as seen in their statues and Nagari and Kawi script) and Hinduism (as seen in their epics Sri Rama, Perang Pandawa Jaja, and Sang Boma). They also enjoy Melayu Pantun, a traditional Melayu singing dialogue. The Deli are often hesitant to speak directly for fear of offending someone and therefore, they employ signs, parables and allegories (pantun). Other aspects of the Deli culture are traditional theater (makyong) and dance (main lukah menari). Both of these employ magic through the use of puppets (lukah) and the chanting of a mantra. Deli art has been greatly influenced by elements of Islam and has similarities with the art of the Malay of Malaysia. The Deli’s means of livelihood are traditional farming, fishing, and trade. Some have become government employees. The government and foreign companies own the tobacco, tea, rubber, palm oil, and chocolate plantations in this area. These plantations utilize modern technology.The Deli consist of two primary groups: the aristocracy and the common people. The aristocracy can be divided into two levels: the upper level, which is the ruling level made up of the king and the king’s children, and the lower level, which is made up of descendents of the high-ranking officials from the area. The common people also have a variety of groupings, including village leaders, religious leaders, intellectuals, and so on.The traditional Deli house is on a raised platform about two meters off the ground. The number of poles holding up the house shows a person’s status. In family life men and women are equal. According to the Deli, this agrees with Islam. Therefore, both men and women are able to receive part of the inheritance from their parents.
The majority of the Deli have embraced the Sufi form of Islam. It is often said that all Melayu are Muslim. For that reason, it is said in the community that whenever a person becomes a Muslim they become a Melayu. Animistic beliefs that spirits are in all places and influence mankind are also strong. Thus, their traditional ceremonies are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits

Lubu Tribe 45.000 Animism
East Sumatra, central region. Dialects: Related to Kubu [kvb].
The Lubu are a people of mixed origin who live in central Sumatra. They mainly inhabit the mountainous regions of the various provinces of southern Batakland. The Lubu were formerly migratory peoples similar to the wild Kubu. Now, however, they are slowly being absorbed by the Batak.
In the early part of this century, the Lubu still roamed the mountains in a wild state, living mainly in tree houses. They shot game with blow guns and poisoned darts and existed on the products of the jungle. Their clothing was simple, they ate all types of meat, and they cooked in hollow bamboo.
Although they have made considerable progress since that time, the Lubu are still very tribal in their basic lifestyle. Like the Kubu, they are afraid of water and seldom wash, even though they live alongside rivers. They are generally despised and mistrusted by their Batak neighbors, who suspect them of partaking in all kinds of witchcraft.
No longer living in the trees, the Lubu now live in huts built on the ground. A group of houses forms a village (bandja), and a number of villages forms a district (kuria). The chief of the bandja is called na bodjo bodjo. All the older male members of the community (the family heads) have a voice in the village government. When a chief dies, he is succeeded by his son.
In every Lubu village there are special communal houses (tawatak) for boys and others for girls. After the age of twelve, both sexes are expected to sleep in these communal houses. Marriages usually take place when the girls turn fifteen. A small bride-price is required, but most Lubu men do not have the ability to pay it. As a result, most of them must work for up to two years for their future parents-in-law during the engagement period.
The Lubu grow rice as their staple crop. However, on the whole, they do not seem very particular in their choice of food. For special delicacies, they eat mice and bats, as well as monkeys killed with blowguns.
The musical instruments and songs of the Lubu have been adopted from the Batak. The Lubu often compose songs about their culture, and these are sung around the fires at night. Interestingly, the Lubu never dance.
Although 20% of the Lubu are nominally Muslim, the great majority (80%) are ethnic religionists, still practicing many of their pagan beliefs. Hosts of both good and evil spirits are honored, especially the spirit of the first tribal chief, Singa Tandang. The Lubu attribute sickness to the work of evil spirits, particularly ghosts who are said to work either externally or internally on a person. Many traditional rituals are performed at birth and puberty. Like the Alas-Kluet, Lubu girls have their teeth filed and permanently blackened before marriage.

ACEH – 7 Tribes

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 29, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

The info for the Tribes is collected from : http://www.indonesiatraveling.com (thanks for this)

ACEH 7 Tribes

Aceh. Tribes

Alas Tribe 154.000
The majority of the Alas people live in villages and make their living from farming and raising livestock. The Alas area is considered the lumbung padi (rice storehouse) of the Aceh area. Other agricultural products include rubber, coffee, and kemiri (a local spice) as well as other forest products such as wood, rattan, resin, and incense.

 

sumatra, tribes, alas, aceh

Neighborhoods or villages of the Alas are called kute. One kute usually consists of one or more clans that are called a merge. Extended families will live in one house and submit to the authority of the parents. They are a patrilineal society, which means they measure descent through the father’s family. Their culture emphasizes two types of law. The first type consists of religious laws that are given by God and cannot be changed. The second type consists of traditional laws, which include rules that have been made by the leaders of the community and can be changed according to the times.According to marriage customs, an engagement lasts from one to three years due to the necessity of the man acquiring the bride price, and the woman the groom price. When an Alas man and woman marry, they live near the husband’s family. After they have children, the young family will usually move and live separately (jawe) from the parents but stay in the same area and community of the merge. Polygamous marriages are permitted when the marriage has produced only boys, only girls, or no children at all (adak meu keu dueu).
Generally, the Alas people are followers of Islam, but they still seek the assistance of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist). They perform ceremonies so that their crops will prosper and be protected from plague. The dukun reads his mantra and uses magical potions of leaves and flowers that are considered powerful to ward off plagues.

 

Aneuk Jamee Tribe 16.000  

The Aneuk Jamee people are one of the people groups that live on the western coastline of the Indonesian province of Aceh. They tend to live around the small bays found along the coast. They are also spread out over the low plains hemmed in by the Bukit Barisan mountain range. The Aneuk Jamee are located primarily in West Aceh Regency in the five districts of Tapak Tuan, Samadua, Susoh, Manggeng, and Labuhan Haji. There are smaller concentrations of them in South Aceh Regency in the three districts of Johan Pahlawan, Kaway XVI, and Kuala.The name aneuk jamee in the Aceh language means, “visiting child” or “newcomer.” The name was used to describe Minang people from Lubuk Sikaping, Pariaman, Rao, and Pasaman who began migrating to the area in the 17th century. Gradually, they assimilated with Aceh people in the area, a process facilitated by a common Islamic faith. Eventually, they came to feel that they were neither Aceh nor Minangkabau but rather a new people group with their own distinct culture and language. The Aneuk Jamee language is called Jamee or Jamu. For the Aceh in southern Aceh, this Jamee language is understandable because the Minangkabau vocabulary mixed with Aceh is similar to the national Indonesian language. However, the Aneuk Jamee do not understand or use the Aceh language.
Many Aneuk Jamee are fishermen, while others work in irrigated rice farming (basawah), unirrigated agriculture (baladang), and growing fruits (bakabun). There are some Aneuk Jamee who are permanent traders (baniago), but others, known as penggaleh, sell goods from village to village.The Aneuk Jamee have three levels of society. The nobles (datuk) form the highest level. The middle level is formed by district chiefs (hulu baling) and religious leaders (ulama), such as the prayer leaders (tengku), priests (imam), and Islamic judges (kadi). The common people are the lowest level. Traditional leadership in a village contains a combination of Minangkabau and Aceh elements. These leaders are the village headman (kecik), prayer-house leader (tuangku manasah), and youth leader (tuangku surau). This is somewhat different from the district level leadership, which is the same as traditional Aceh leadership patterns. This pattern consists of an area headman (mukim), village headman (kecik), street leader (ketua jurong) and elder (tuha peut).
Islam is the religion followed by the Aneuk Jamee people. As among other Indonesian peoples, the Aneuk Jamee also exhibit some elements of previous beliefs that are not easily forgotten. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are still frequently used for various things. For example, a dukun is sometimes asked to put a love spell (sijundai) on a girl or to recover a girl who has been bewitched in this manner.

Gayo Tribe 230.000
The Gayo of Indonesia live in the remote central highlands of Aceh Province on the island of Sumatera. Their homeland lies across the Bukit Barisan Range (“Parade of Mountains”), which reaches heights of over 12,000 feet and runs for over a thousand miles. The Gayo mainly live in Central Aceh Regency and Southeast Aceh Regency. Their language is Gayo with two dialects, Gayo Lut and Gayo Luwes. The Gayo do not have a written language. Folk tales and oral stories are passed down in the form of poetry. 

sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, suku

The Gayo are close neighbors to the radical Islamic Aceh people, and in the past, the sultans of Aceh conquered the Gayo region and made the Gayo slaves. After an initial resistance (during which many Gayo were killed), the Dutch occupation from 1904-1942 resulted in the Gayo developing a thriving cash crop economy in vegetables and coffee. During the occupation and during the 50 years of Indonesian independence, the Gayo have gained access to higher levels of education, and participated to some degree in the Islamicization and modernization of their country.


The main source of income for the Gayo people is farming with the main crop being coffee. Other sources of income are fishing and gathering forest products. They also have developed skills in ceramics, weaving mats and weaving cloth. Another well known handicraft, called Kerawang Gayo, is embroidery with gold/colorful designs. In a traditional Gayo house (umah) uses palm thatch and wood. Several related families typically live together. There is also a meresah where older boys, bachelors, widowers, and male visitors sleep. This is also used for studying and religious activities. Gayo arts include saman and didong, which are mixtures of movement, literature, poetry, and singing. Apart from entertainment and recreation, these arts have ritual, educational, and informational functions, as well as being a means of maintaining balance in the social structure. The Gayo marriage pattern calls for marriage outside one’s own family. However, marriage between cousins is not forbidden. Most men marry women from the same area. This is done so that the man will already know the woman and the woman’s family can continue to look after her. A first marriage must be approved by both families (polygamy is rare, but allowed). Divorce and remarriage are quite common.
The Gayo people are mostly Muslim, but their understanding and conviction are lacking. Most Gayo still believe in good and bad spirits and holy men both dead and alive. They also continue to worship and make offerings to spirits, saints, and their ancestors.

sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, suku

 

Alas Kuet Tribe 20.000
The Kluet people are one of eight people groups that live in the Indonesian special province of Aceh. They are found in two districts of South Aceh Regency, namely North Kluet District and South Kluet District. These two districts are divided by the Krueng Kluet River, which has its source in the Leuser Mountains and empties into the Indian Ocean. The area where the Kluet people live is remote, about 20 kilometers from the main road, 50 kilometers from the city of Tapak Tuan and 500 kilometers from Banda Aceh, the provincial capital.The Kluet language is divided into 3 dialects, the Paya Dapur dialect, the Meunggamat dialect, and the Krueng Kluet dialect. Apparently the language has evolved from a combination of the Alas, Kuo, Aceh, and Minangkabau languages.
The Kluet area is very fertile, and most Kluet make their living from farming irrigated and unirrigated rice fields or growing crops such as coffee, patchouli (which produces fragrant oils), and all sorts of vegetables. Other means for livelihood include raising livestock and fishing. Fish are either eaten fresh or preserved for storage. One way of preserving the fish is by smoking it. This type of preserved or dried fish, called ikan saleh, is a specialty of the Kluet people.The Kluet people are famous for hunting, since they live at the edge of the jungle. During the time of Dutch colonialism, this people group was often noted for their skill on the battlefield. Their skill as hunters made them able fighters. They often employed guerrilla tactics to fight their enemies.The Kluet prefer to live in groups and only in certain areas. They have a strong sense of ethnic identity, and, therefore, they do not spread out very far from each other. They find it difficult to mix with other people groups, and as a result, their culture is rather closed to outsiders. Kluet villages are comprised of houses and a number of other buildings, including rice barns, a meeting center, women’s centers, religious schools, and mosques. The meeting center, called a meursah has a variety of purposes. It is used as a place to read the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book), say daily prayers, hold special Islamic celebrations, as well as a place to meet or for young men to sleep if there is no religious school in the village. The women’s center, or deyah, is a place where women may go to worship.
Most Kluet are followers of Islam. However, traditional animistic beliefs have not totally disappeared and often have significant impact. This can be seen in routines of daily life, especially in various special ceremonies. Many are afraid of supernatural ghosts (setan). They also believe one of the graves in their area has magic powers. According to the Kluet, this grave can be seen at certain times while at other times it disappears. Magic talismans are used so that evil spirits will not hurt them. The use of such talismans helps them feel calmer and more protected.
Sikule 27.000 Christian
Central Simeulue Island. Alternate names: Sichule, Sikhule, Wali Banuah. Dialects: Lekon, Tapah. Similar to Nias [nia].
Simeulue Tribe 107.000
The Simeulue people live on Simeulue Island located 200 kilometers off the western coast of Aceh Province. Their largest towns are named Sibigo, Sigulai, and Lamame. On Simeulue Island there is no land transport available and the only means of travel is walking.Simeulue people are known as being friendly and brave. Their physical appearance is sometimes described as being more similar to northern Asian peoples because they are often of lighter skin than other Indonesians. This is different from the general appearance of the Aceh people on the mainland. The Simeulue speak Ulau, which means “island,” and it has two dialects. Sigulai is used in western Simeulue and Salang, and Devayan is used in eastern Simeulue, central Simeulue, and southern Tepang. In general the Simeulue can speak the Aceh language because of the strong influence of Aceh culture on the Simeulue.
Generally, the Simeulue make a living from planting cloves and coconuts as well as fishing. Each village usually has one mesjid (mosque) or musholla (prayer-house). Beside using it for prayer, the mesjid is also used for discussing religious issues, holding social functions, providing information from the government, and encouraging the community to work together on community projects. The village head in Simeulue is called a kecik. Previously, the Simeulue were ruled by a king before they were conquered by the king of Aceh and became part of that kingdom. The Simeulue house is built on stilts. Typically, the parents live in a large house with their unmarried children and the families of their sons. This group is called walli or walli akrab. Heredity is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father).Living arrangements after marriage are of three types. In the first pattern, the couple lives near the husband’s family. The second pattern is called paladangan sataun duo in the Devayan dialect or beladang sataun duo in the Sigulai dialect. In this pattern, the couple lives for a few years with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. After this, they live with the husband’s family for the rest of their lives. In the third pattern, which is called mafanofano, the couple always lives with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. This usually happens because the wife is an only child.
Although most Simeulue embrace Islam, many are still influenced by animistic beliefs and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits 

 

Tamiang Tribe 6.800 

sumatra, tribes, tamiang, aceh, suku

The Tamiang live in the southeast part of East Aceh Regency, in the Aceh Province. Previously this area was the Tamiang administrative district with a very large area of 7,760 square kilometers. Now the district has been divided into six districts, Kuala Simpang, Bendahara, Karangbaru, Seuruway, Kejuruanmuda, and Tamiang Hulu. One legend states that the name Tamiang comes from the words itam and mieng. Itam means “black” and mieng means “cheek.” This appellation supposedly arose because a king of Tamiang named Raja Muda Sedia (1332-1362) had a black mark on his cheek. Another story says that the name Tamiang comes from the name of an island in the Riau Archipelago, which was the original dwelling place of the Tamiang people’s ancestors. The Tamiang people have their own language with an 87% vocabulary similarity to the Melayu (Malay) Riau language.
The main source of income for Tamiang people is planting rice in both irrigated and unirrigated fields. Other crops which they plant are corn, cassava, tomatoes, chili peppers, and eggplant. They also grow fruits such as oranges, mangoes, durian, and langsat. Those who live on the coast fish and make coal from mangrove trees. Some become plantation workers and traders. The Tamiang rarely leave their area because their agricultural land is extensive and fertile enough to support them. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this area received many migrants from other areas because of the opening of rubber and palm oil plantations and oil wells.The Tamiang people are controlled by the “Law of the Four Peoples.” This means that the highest traditional leader is the “Datuk of the Four Peoples.” The word datuk comes from the word ndatu, which signifies the first person to open a settlement (rebas tebang). Those who came later were placed below the existing Datuk. In the ensuing process, the four Datuks united their areas and chose a king (raje) as leader. This decision was established and sealed with an agreement called Kate Tetuhe. The four datuks were titled Datuk Imam Balai, Datuk Penghulu, Datuk Hakim, and Datuk Setia Maha Raja. For the king there was a proverb: “raje adil raje disembah, raje lalin raje disangah” (A fair king will be worshipped, a cruel king will be dethroned). In upholding that role, Tamiang leaders hold onto a vow that states “kasih papa setia mati” (a father’s love is faithful to death). Traditional law was effectively carried out with the philosophy “adat dipangku, syarat dijunjung, resam dijalin, kanun diatur” (traditional law is administered but religious law is respected customary ways are formed but canon law is organized).
Tamiang people are followers of Islam, which has penetrated various aspects of their lives. However, many still carry out the ceremonies of their old beliefs. They hold certain ceremonies connected with their everyday lives, such as ceremonies held for blessing the planting of the rice (kenduri blang), the harvesting of the rice, and ceremonies to protect them for disasters (tula bala)

The Korowai – Tree Dwellers

Posted in INDONESIAN TRIBES on October 28, 2010 by Yappy Kawitarka

Pictures: Tribe living in Indonesian forest recognised as ‘tree-dwellers’

A group of hunter gatherers living in a remote Indonesian forest are thought to have become the first tribe to be officially recognised as tree-dwellers. The Korowai, or Koroway, from Indonesia’s easternmost region of Papua, live in tree houses, speak their own tribal language, and live off forest animals and plants. Almost 3,000 members of the nomadic clan, whose people wear only banana leaves, were recorded for the first time in the country’s census this year.

Members of the tribe skilfully climb ladders to their wooden homes often as high as 164ft (50m) from the forest floor where they usually live in a family of up to eight. Homes are built at different heights depending on how well they get on with their fellow tribe members.

Until the late 1970s, when anthropologists embarked on a study of the tribe, the Korowai were unaware of the existence of any peoples other than themselves.  They have engaged in cannilbalism but anthropologists believe that exposure to the outside world has put an end to this practice in recent years. Korowai people mainly eat wild boar, deer, sago and bananas.

Only a handful of Korowai are thought to be able to read and write. A total of 2,868 of them were interviewed by census workers through missionary translators using sign language. Suntono, the head of Indonesia’s statistics agency for Papua, said: “It’s as if they’re still living in the Stone Age. They don’t wear any clothes and they live in trees in the jungles….

The grubs are larvae of the Capricorn beetle, and move like someone trying to wiggle out of a sleeping bag. Sago trees are felled four to six weeks before a feast, and left to rot in the swampy forest where they become infested with larvae. When the grubs are at the right stage of development (4-6 weeks later), the trees are opened up and pulled apart with a stone axe or pointed stick. The grubs are a favourite food, and are eaten both raw and cooked. They taste fatty, with a vague nutty taste, like soggy overcooked walnuts. In the protein-deficient world of the Koroway, Sago grubs are one of the few sources of fat.


Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 309 other followers